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Anatomy 5.

Male Reproduction Gross & Histology


OUTLINE
Embryologic Development
III. Spermatic Cord
I. Development of male gonads
IV. Scrotum/Spermatic Cord
II. Gonadal differentiation
Layers
III. Descent of the Testis
V. Testis
IV. Gonadal Development
VI. Seminiferous Tubules
V. Genital Duct System
VII. Spermatogenesis
VI. External Genitalia Development
VIII. Spermiogenesis
IX. Intratesticular Genital Ducts
Male Reproductive System
X. Excretory Genital Ducts
I. Component Parts
XI. Accessory Genital Glands
II. Scrotum
XII. Pathway of Sperm
XIII. Penis

Objectives:
Gross:
Name component parts
Review development & descent of testes
ID testis, epididymis & vas deferens
Understand course & components of spermatic cord
Describe prostate & relations (diseases)
Name & describe accessory glands
Describe penis & component parts
Trace pathway of sperm
Name layers of scrotum & counterparts
Describe vascularity, innervation & lymphatics
Histology:
Describe histologic organization of testes
Describe spermatogenesis (ploidy)
ID & describe Leydig cells
Describe histology of excretory ducts & accessory
glands
ID parts of the penis

EMBRYOLOGIC DEVELOPMENT
I. DEVELOPMENT OF MALE GONADS
UNDIFFERENTIATED GONADS
o found at the beginning of embryo life
o blind end of the hind gut expands to form the
cloaca
o At the 4mm stage, the cloaca expands and
divides into 2 compartments:
1.Ventral portion (urogenital sinus)
2.Dorsal portion (rectum)
o Urorectal Fold- - divides the cloacal into an anal
and urogenital orifice
o the division is completed by the seventh week
o Genital Tubercle
the mesoderm that passes around the cloacal
membrane proliferates and grows forming a
surface elevation
where the development of the gonads and
ductal system starts

January 12,2012
Dr.Bautista

Urogenital Sinus can be divided into 2 segments:


1. Ventral/Pelvic portion
o derivatives:
urinary bladder
part of the urethra in males
whole urethra in females
2. Urethral /Phallic portion
o receives the mesonephric and the fused
mullerian ducts
o derivatives:
part of the urethra in males
forms the lower fifth of the vagina and
vaginal vestibule in females
II. GONADAL DIFFERENTIATION
genetically determined
at around 8th week, gonadal differentiation occurs
Sex-Determining Region on Y (SRY) (short arm)
o aka Testis-Determining Factor
o the Y chromosome contains the SRY
o presence of SRY = gonads become testes
o absence of SRY= gonads become ovaries
III. DESCENT OF THE TESTIS

*the part where Dr. Zorb started to draw on the


whiteboard.
initially in males, testes are not found in the scrotal
area
they are retroperitoneal and intra abdominally,
slightly below the kidneys
just before birth, the testes migrate down and enter
the deep inguinal ring, then traverse the inguinal
canal & exit the superficial inguinal ring down to the
scrotal sac

Group 12 Chiu, Chua, Chuahiong, Cimagala, Cinco, Co, I., Co, K., Cocos

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the structures attached to the testes will be pulled


down with the peritoneum (2 layers) and become the
spermatic cord
the testes should descend after birth or few days
after birth to decrease the risk of testicular cancer
IV. GONADAL DEVELOPMENT
Embryo is at first morphologically bisexual
The development of one set of sex primordial and the
gradual involution of the other are determined by the
sex of the gonad
5th and 6th weeks
o urogenital ridge
6th week
o the gonad consists of superficial germinal
epithelium and internal blastema
7th week
o begins to assume the characteristics of a testis
or ovary
V. GENITAL DUCT SYSTEM
1. Mesonephric Duct / Wolffian Duct
gives rise to the ureteral bud that will join the
urogenital sinus
ureteral bud grows cranially and meet the
metanephrogenic tissue
Sertoli Cells
o will produce Mullerian Inhibiting Factor
(MIF) which will supress the development of
the female genitalia
Leydig Cells
o will produce testosterone and will bring
about the development of the mesonephric
duct as well as the penis and the scrotum
2. Paramesonephric / Mullerian Duct
reach the urogenital sinus relatively late
fuses distally before reaching the urogenital sinus
Estrogen from the fetus, placenta and the mother
will stimulate the development of the Mullerian
Duct
at 7th week, if gonad starts to develop into a testis:
o Wolffian duct develops into the male duct
system
o Mullerian duct will starts to degenerate
if gonad starts to develop into an ovary:
o Mullerian duct will develop to fallopian tube,
uterus
and
most of
the
vagina

o Wolffian duct will degenerate and remain


rudimentary

VI. EXTERNAL GENITALIA DEVELOPMENT


7th week
paired mesenchymal columns within the shaft of
the penis
Corpora Cavernosa
10th week
Urethral folds start to fuse from the urogenital
sinus orifice toward the tip of the phallus
14th week
Fusion is complete and results in the formation of
the penile urethra
Corpus Spongiosum results from the
differentiation of the mesenchymal masses
around the formed penile uretra
The glans penis becomes defined by the
development of a circular coronary sulcus around the
distal part of the phallus

1.
2.

3.
4.

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


I. COMPONENT PARTS
Testes
house the seminiferous tubules which produce
the sperm cells
Excretory/Genital Ducts
a.Rete testes
b.efferent ducts
c. epididymis
d.vas deferens
e.ejaculatory duct
f. urethra
Penis
Accessory glands
a.Prostate
b.seminal vesicle
c. Cowpers/ Bulbourethral Glands

Male Reproductive
Structure
Testis
Seminal Vesicle
Penis
Prostate Gland
Bulbourethral Gland
Scrotum

Group 12 Chiu, Chua, Chuahiong, Cimagala, Cinco, Co, I., Co, K., Cocos

Female Reproductive
Homologue
Ovary
Fallopian Tube
Clitoris
Paraurethral Gland
Bartholins Gland
Labia Majora

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II. SCROTUM
Houses the mature testes
Outpouching of the lower part of the ant abd wall
Develop from Labioscrotal swellings
Saccular appendages which house paired post-natal
testes
Female homologue= labia majora
Functions
1.Protection
2.Thermoregulation

Layers
1. Skin
Wrinkled in adults due to the contraction of
dartos muscle
Pigmented in gross appearance
Smooth in newborn
A slightly raised ridge in the midline indicating
fusion of the two lateral labioscrotal swellings
2. Superficial fascia
continuous with fatty & membranous layer of ant
abdominal wall
Campers/Fat
o becomes dartos muscle and fascia
sparse layer of smooth muscle tissue
important in the contraction of the
scrotum
during cold weather, the scrotum moves
close to the body
during warm weather, the scrotum
relaxes & descend farther away from the
body
Scarpas/Membranous
o becomes colles fascia
3. External Spermatic Fascia
derived from external oblique fascia/aponeurosis
4. Cremasteric Fascia
derived from internal oblique muscle
involves in contraction and relaxation of the
scrotal area
plays a role in thermoregulation
5. Internal Spermatic Fascia
derived from fascia transversalis fascia
6. Tunica Vaginalis
reflections of peritoneum
covers and almost adherent to the testis
tunica albuginea is the covering that is in
direct contact with the testis

Arterial Supply:
o Posterior scrotal branches of Perineal Artery
from Internal Pudendal Artery
o Anterior branches of Deep External Pudendal
Artery
from Femoral Artery
o Cremasteric Artery
from Inferior Epigastric Artery
Venous Drainage:
o Veins accompany arteries
Lymphatic Drainage:
o Superficial Inguinal Nodes
Nerve Supply:
o Anterolateral
Genital branch of Genitofemoral Nerve (L1L2)
o Anterior
Anterior Scrotal Nerves from Ilio-Inguinal N
(L1)
o Posterior
Posterior scrotal Nerves from Perineal branch
of Pudendal Nerve (S2-S4)
o Posteroinferior
Perineal branches from Posterior Cutaneous
Nerve to the Thigh
III. SPERMATIC CORD
Attached to the testes and come down with it during
descend
Suspends testes in scrotum

Collection of structures that begins at Deep Inguinal


Ring lateral to the inferior epigastric vessels, passes
through the Inguinal Canal & out the External Ring
and ends in Testes

Group 12 Chiu, Chua, Chuahiong, Cimagala, Cinco, Co, I., Co, K., Cocos

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Female Homologue= round ligament of the uterus


Structures of the spermatic cord:
1. Vas Deferens/Ductus Deferens
o Thick muscular duct which transports
spermatozoa from the testes to the
epididymis to the urethra
o Can be palpated between the finger and
thumb in the upper portion of the scrotum
2. Testicular Artery
o Branch of the abdominal artery at the level of
L2
3. Testicular Veins (Pampiniform Plexus)
o 8-12 venous structures arising from the
testicular area which drains into the left renal
vein (left testicular vein) and to the inferior
vena cava (right testicular vein)
o also aids in thermoregulation to maintain the
temperature in the testes which is 3C lower
than the core temperature of the body
o Cold temperature: engorged/dilate to keep
the heat in the scrotal area
o Warm temperature: contracted
o The pampiniform plexus is the content of the
spermatic cord and not the testicular vein
itself
o The plexus is prone to dilatation causing
sterility in men
4. Cremasteric artery
o Branch of the inferior epigastric artery which
supplies cremasteric fascia
5. Artery of vas deferens
o Branch of the inferior vesical artery which
supplies the vas deferens
6. Genital branch of genitofemoral nerve
o Supplies the cremaster muscle (the efferent
arm of the cremaster reflex, the femoral
branch being the afferent arm)
7. Autonomic nerves
8. Lymphatic Vessels
o Drain into the para-aortic lymph nodes at the
level of L1
9. Remains of the processus vaginali
Cremasteric reflex
o Stroke inner thigh of the male to stimulate
femoral branch inside spermatic cord, thus
elevation of the scrotum of the same side
IV. SCROTUM/SPERMATIC CORD LAYERS
Abdominal Wall
Skin
Subcutaneous
Tissue
External
Oblique Ms
Internal
Oblique Ms.
Fascia of
Internal
Oblique
Transversus
Abdominis

Spermatic Cord
Skin
--------------------------External
Spermatic Fascia
Cremaster Ms.

Scrotum
Skin
Dartos Ms. And
Fascia
External Spermatic
Fascia
Cremaster Ms.

Cremasteric
Fascia

Cremasteric Fascia

---------------------------

----------------------------

Transversalis
Fascia
Peritoneum

Internal Spermatic
Fascia
Vestige of
Procesus Vaginalis
Testis

Internal Spermatic
Fascia
Tunica Vaginalis
Testis (2 layers)

V. TESTIS
houses the seminiferous tubules
firm, mobile structure inside the scrotum
the left testis is lower that the right because the left
spermatic cord is longer
Female Homologue= Ovaries
Tunica Vaginalis
a serous sac carried by each testis when it
migrated from the abdominal cavity
derived from the peritoneum
consists of an outer parietal layer lining the
scrotum and an inner visceral layer covering the
tunica albuginea on the anterior and lateral sides
of the testis
Tunica Albuginea
o A capsule of dense connective tissue surrounding
each testes
o thickened on the posterior side of the testis to
form the mediastinum testis
from which fibrous septa penetrate the organ
and divide it into about 250 pyramidal
compartments or testicular lobules
Each lobule is occupied by 1-4 seminiferous
tubules

Functions
o Produce the male gametes or spermatozoa
o Produce testosterone which stimulates the
accessory male sexual organs and causes
development of the masculine extragenital sex
characteristics
Arterial Supply
o Testicular artery
Venous Drainage
o Testicular Vein (Pampiniform Plxus)
Right: Inferior Vena Cava
Left: Left Renal Vein
Lymphatic Drainage
o Lumba and para-aortic nodes at L1

Group 12 Chiu, Chua, Chuahiong, Cimagala, Cinco, Co, I., Co, K., Cocos

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VI. SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES


surrounded by interstitial loose connective tissue rich
in blood and lymphatic vessels, nerves and endocrine
interstitial cells/leydig cells
where spermatogenesis occurs
each testicles has 250-1000 seminiferous tubules in
its lobules
each tubule is a convoluted loop linked via a short,
narrower segment, the straight tubule, to the rete
testis.
Lining : complex, specialized stratified epithelium
called germinal or seminiferous epithelium (stratified
cuboidal epithelium)
Basement membrane of the epithelium is covered by
fibrous connective tissue with an innermost layer
containing flattened, smooth muscle like myoid cells
Myoid cells allow weak contractions of the tubule
Has two types of cells
o non dividing supporting or sustentacular
cells/sertoli cell
o proliferative cells of the spermatogenic
lineage(4-8 concentric layers)

Triangular in outline, the elongated nucleus has


infoldings,
prominent nucleolus, very little
heterochromatin
BLOOD TESTIS BARRIER: elaborate tight occluding
junctions between basolateral membranes of the
adjacent Sertoli cells in the seminiferous epithelium.
Tightest blood barrier in mammals
o Prevents autoimmune attacks against the
unique spermatogenic cells which appear first
long after the immune system is mature and
self-tolerance is established.
o Early in meiosis, newly formed spermatocytes
temporarily disrupt the cell adhesion molecules
of the most basal junctions, transiently
establishing new junctions between adhesion
factors in their own membranes and those of
Sertoli cells and move into the adluminal
compartment without compromising the bloodtestis barrier.
o Spermatocytes and spermatids adhere closely
to the Sertoli cells, lying within deep
invaginations of these cells lateral and apical
membranes above the barrier
o As the flagellar tails of the spermatids develop,
they appear as tufts extending from the apical
ends of the Sertoli cells.
B. MYOID CELLS

A.
SERTOLI CELLS
Aka Sustentacular cells
Columnar or pyramidal cells that largely envelop
cells of the spermatogenic lineage
Function as:
o support, protection and nutritional regulation of
the developing spermatozoa
o Phagocytosis of cell membrane
o Secretion (fluid, androgen binding protein,
inhibin)
o Production of anti-mullerian hormone
Active sertoli cells : pyramidal in shape, with apex
directed towards the lumen and whose nucleus is
perpendicular to the base of the cell
Inactive sertoli cells: polygonal in shape, the
nucleus is directed parallel to the base of the cell
Bases of these cells adhere to the basal lamina
comes from basement membrane but extends to the
lumen for the maturing sperm cell
Apical ends frequently extend into the lumen of
seminiferous tubule
Contain abundant SER, RER, well-developed Golgi
complexes, numerous mitochondria and lysosomes.

Act like smooth muscle


contract intermittently to push out the mature to give
space for new ones
found close to the periphery of tubules
flattened nuclei
C. INTERSTITIAL CELLS OF LEYDIG
rounded /polygonal cells
Central nucleus and eosinophilic cytoplasm rich in
small lipid droplets
Site of androgen production
Spaces between the seminiferous tubules are filled
with connective tissue that contains mast cells,
macrophages, nerves, lymphatics and blood vessels
including fenestrated capillaries.
produce testosterone under the influence of LH
Endocrine part of testis

VII. SPERMATOGENESIS
begins at puberty

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spermatogonium : small round cell, located basally


in the epithelium next to the basement membrane
more immature sperms are found near the basement
membrane while more mature ones are found near
the lumen
spermatogonia : dark, ovoid nulcei, acts as stem
cells
o type A spermatogonia :
each undergo several unique clonal divisions,
remaining interconnected as a syncytium
Precursor cell of all the spermatogenic
lineage
Nucleus and chromatin particles are fine and
are evenly dispersed
Eccentrically located nucleus
Near basement membrane
o type B spermatogonia :
have more spherical pale nuclei.
Undergoes a final mitotic division to produce
two cells that grow in size and become
primary spermatocytes
Chromatin is coarse and heavily stained
o Intermediate (from trans 2014B)
Chromophilic chromatic
Prominent nucleolus
Centrally located nucleus
o Primary spermatocye
Spherical cells with euchromatic nuclei
Replicate their DNA so each chromosome
consists of duplicate chromatids and enter
meiosis,
during
which
homologous
chromosome come together in synapsis.
Has 46 chormosomes (diploid), DNA is 4N
Largest cells of the lineage
Characterized by the presence of partially
condensed chromosomes in various stages of
synapsis and recombination
o Secondary spermatocyte
Smaller in size compared with the primary
spermatocyte
Has 23 chromosomes
Still 2 chromatids
Haploid
Rare because they are short lived cells
Remain in interphase only very briefly and
quickly undergo the second meiotic division
o Spermatids
From division of secondary spermatocytes
These are haploid cells
Has 23 chromosomes
Near luminal side
Small size in diameter 7-8um
Highly condensed chromatin
o Spermatozoa
The head is buried in the sertoli cells whie
the tail can be seen protruding into the
lumen

secondary spermatocyte (haploid)


division spermatids spermatozoa

2nd

meiotic

VIII. SPERMIOGENESIS
The final stage in sperm production and is the
process by which spermatids transform into
spermatozoa
Includes formation of acrosome
Condensation and elongation of the nucleus
Development of the flagellum
Loss of much of the cytoplasm
End result : mature spermatozoon
Has 3 phases:
o Early Golgi phase
Cytoplasm
of
spermatids
contains
a
prominent Golgi apparatus near the nucleus,
mitochondria,
a pair of centriole, free
ribosomes and tubules of SER
Small proacrosomal vesicles accumulate in
the Golgi apparatus and subsequently
coalesce to from a single membrane limited
acrosomal cap close to one end of the
nucleus
Centrioles migrate to a position near the the
cell surface and opposite the forming
acrosome.
One centriole acts as a basal body, serving to
organize the axoneme of the flagellum
o Acrosome phase
Acrosome cap or acrosome spreads to cover
about half of the condensing nucleus
Acrosome is a specialized type of lysosome
containing
several
hydrolytic
enzymes
including hyaluronidase, neuraminidase, acid
phosphatase and trypsin like protease called
acrosin.
Spermatids become oriented toward the base
of the sertoli cells and the axonemes project
toward the lumen of the tubule
Nuclei become more elongated
The chromatin very highly condensed
The histones nucleosomes replaced by small
basic peptides called protamines.
Flagella growth continues
Mitochondria aggregate around the proximal
part of each flagellum forming the middle
piece ( source of ATP)
o Maturation phase
Unneeded cytoplasm is shed as a residual
body from each spermatozoon and is
phagocytosed by sertoli cells

spermatogonia (diploid) mitotic division primary


spermatocytes (diploid) 1st meiotic division

Group 12 Chiu, Chua, Chuahiong, Cimagala, Cinco, Co, I., Co, K., Cocos

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A.
TUBULI
RECTI__________________________________________
Straight Tubules
Gradual loss of spermatogenic cells
Initial segment sertoli cells only
Main segment simple cuboidal epithelium
supported by a dense connective tissue
Empty into rete testis
B.
RETE
TESTIS____________________________________________
Interconnected network of channels
Net like structure
rete, means branching
Lining: simple cuboidal epithelium with microvilli and
a single cilium
o aid in progress of sperms that become motile
until after maturation at the epididymis
Surrounded by collagenous tissue with myoid cells
o contraction helps mix sperm and move them to
the epididymis
the channels of the rete testis are embedded within
the connective tissue of the mediastinum
Drains into about 20 efferent ductules

IX. INTRATESTICULAR GENITAL DUCTS


Ducts within the testis
Carry spermatozoa and liquid from seminiferous
tubule to duct of epididymis
A.Tubuli Recti
B.
Rete Testis
C.
Ductuli Efferentes

C. DUCTULI
EFFERENTES____________________________________
10-20 convoluted tubules
Lining: nonciliated cuboidal cells alternating with
cilated cells that beat in the direction of the
epididymis
o alternating tall & short columnar ciliated
epithelium
o scalloped appernace
Absorb most of the fluid secreted by the
seminiferous tubules
This absorption and the ciliary activity create
a fluid flow that sweeps sperm toward the
epididymis
Thin smooth muscle layer (SM) surrounds each
ductuli efferentes
Gradually fuse to form the head of ductus epididymis
or globus major
X. EXCRETORY GENITAL DUCTS
Responsible for transport of sperm from epididymis
to the penis during ejaculation
A.Ductus epididymidis
B.
Vas deferens
C.
Urethra
A. DUCTUS
EPIDIDYMIS____________________________________
Single highly coiled tube lying superior and posterior
to testis
Formed by minute convolutions of the duct if the
epididymis

Group 12 Chiu, Chua, Chuahiong, Cimagala, Cinco, Co, I., Co, K., Cocos

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Lining: pseudostratified columnar epithelium with


stereocilia
firm structure lying posterior to testes
Coiled tube = 1-1.5 inches long
Uncoiled= nearly 20 ft.
consists of:
1.head globus major
2.body
3.tail globus minor
Functions
o digestion of residual bodies
o storage & maturation (motile) of sperms
o absorption of fluid
o addition of substances to the seminal fluid
Arterial supply
o testicular artery
Venous drainage
o testicular veins (pampiniform plexus)
Right: inferior vena cava
Left: left renal vein
Lymphatic drainage
o lumbar & para-aortic nodes at L1 level

Conveys sperm from the epididymis to ejaculatory


duct & urethra
Ampulla: dilated terminal part
Forms the ejaculatory duct with the duct of the
seminal vesicle
Thick straight muscular tube:
o Inner: longitudinal
o Middle: circular
o Outer: longitudinal
mucosa thrown into folds, allowing expansion during
ejaculation
forms part of spermatic cord, including the testicular
artery, pampiniform plexus and nerves
Blood Supply
o Deferential artery from the inferior vesical artery
Venous Drainage
o Deferential veins
Lymphatic drainage
o External iliac lymph nodes
Nerve Supply
o Inferior hypogastric plexus

Cross

XI. ACCESSORY GENITAL GLANDS


Produce secretions that are added to sperm during
ejaculation to produce semen

sectional view of Ductus Epididymis

A.Seminal vesicles
B.
Prostate
C.
Bulbourethral glands

CLINICAL CORRELATION
EPIDIDYMO-ORCHITIS
Inflammation
May occur singly or in combo
Most commonly viral but may
bacterial (STD)
Tx: Ice bag to affected testis
cool down the testes,
preventing sterility)
analgesic; antibiotics as
necessary
Ceftriaxone 1g/IM

be
(to

B.
VAS
DEFERENS_________________________________________
a narrow lumen and a thick layer of smooth muscle
o Produce strong peristaltic contraction during
ejaculation which rapidly move sperm along this
duct from epididymis
Lining: pseudostratified columnar epithelium with
sparse stereocilia
45 cm long

Group 12 Chiu, Chua, Chuahiong, Cimagala, Cinco,

A.
SEMINAL
VESICLES______________________________________
Page 8 of
Co, I., Co, K., Cocos
12

2 lobulated or highly tortuous organs about 2 inches


long
Upper ends widely separated, lower ends close
together
Produce most of the seminal fluid, about 70%
Lining:
Folded
mucosa
with
pseudostratified
columnar epithelium with secretory granules
Lamina propria contains elastic fibers and smooth
muscles
o inner circular & outer longitudinal
Viscid, yellowish secretion:
o Fructose
for sperm nourishment
o Citrate
o Inositol
o Prostaglandins
causes uterine contraction during labor
o Fibrinogen
provide nutrient energy sources for the
sperm
coagulate semen after ejaculation
affect activity of the female reproductive
tract
o proteins
Functions:
o produce secretion added to seminal fluid
o contracts during ejaculation
Blood supply:
o inferior vesical & middle rectal arteries
Venous drainage:
o inferior vesical and middle rectal veins
Lymphatic drainage:
o internal iliac nodes
Nerve Supply:
o inferior hypogastric plexus
B.

EJACULATORY DUCT
Slender tubes
Duct of vas deferens + duct of seminal vesicle
opens into Prostatic Urethra
Lining: Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with
stereocilia
Arises near the neck of the bladder, run close
together as they pass anteroinferiorly through
posterior part of the prostate and along the sides of
the prostatic utricle.
Blood Supply
arteries to the ductus deferens (usually branch of
superior(but frequently inferior) vesical arteries.
Venous drainage
o Veins join the prostatic and vesical venous
plexuxes

C. PROSTATE
GLAND_______________________________________
dense, fibromuscular organ surrounding the urethra
below the bladder
About 3 cms long
Lies between the neck of bladder and urogenital
diaphragm
Has a base and apex
collection of 30-50 branched tubuloalveolar gland
that empty into prostatic urethra
produces prostatic fluid containing glycoproteins and
stores it in the interior
With Corpora Amylacea
o prostatic concretions
o increases with age
o contains deposited glycoproteins and sulfated
glycosaminoglycans
(GAGs),
particularly
Keratan sulfate
Lining:
simple
to
psuedostratified
columnar
epithelium
Female Homologue = Paraurethral Gland/Skenes
Gland
Surrounded by fibroelastic capsule rich in smooth
muscle
glands are arranged in concentric layers around
urethra:
1.mucosal glands: inner layer
2.submucosal glands: intermediate layer
3.main glands: peripheral layer
Incompletely divided into 5 lobes
1.Anterior: devoid of glands
2.Middle/median: rich in glands
3.Posterior
4.Right lateral lobe
5.Left lateral lobe
Zones:
o Anterior
non-glandular
o Transition
5%
of
prostates
volume
surrounds
prostatic
urethra (BPH)
contains
mucosal glands emptying directly into the
urethra
o Central
25% of prostates volume
surrounds ejaculatory duct
contains submucosal glands with longer
ducts
o Peripheral
bulk (70%) of gland (prostatic CA)
contains main glands

Group 12 Chiu, Chua, Chuahiong, Cimagala, Cinco, Co, I., Co, K., Cocos

Page 9 of
12

glands of this area are the most common


location of both inflammation and cancer
o Preprostatic sphincteric zone
Acid phosphatase & PSA
Functions:
o production of thin, milky fluid
o aids in delivery of sperm
o provides nutrition
o for lubrication
Arterial supply:
o inferior vesical artery
o internal pudendal artery
o middle rectal artery
o All blood supply came from internal iliac artery
Venous drainage:
o Prostatic venous plexus
Lymphatic drainage:
o Internal iliac nodes
Nerve supply:
o Inferior hypogastric plexus
CLNICAL CORRELATION

BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA

Obstruction in the Transition zone

common in elderly males

diff in urination

surgically treated

o Navicular fossa widening within Glans Penis


Vascular and Nerve Supply:
o Intramural & Prostatic
prostatic branches of interior vesical &
middle rectal arteries from internal iliac
(prostatic venous plexus)
o Intermediate & Spongy
Branches from dorsal artery of penis [Penile
veins]
FLOOR OF PROSTATIC URETHRA
1.openings of prostatic acini
2.verumontanum, colliculus seminalis or prostatic
utricle
utricle (fused ends of Mullerian ducts)
3.Ejaculatory ducts
Histology:
o Mucosa with large longitudinal folds
o Intramural & Prostatic
Urothelium
o Intermediate
Stratified & pseudostratified columnar
epithelium
o Spongy
Same with intermediate but stratified
squamous at tip

Obstruction to ejaculatory duct

obstruction in the central zone

No flow of seminal fluid- dry

D.
URETHRA
____________________________________________
Intramural
Prostatic
Intermediate
Spongy
INTRAMURAL
o Inside the wall of the bladder
o Pre-prostatic/ Bladder neck
o Size depends on bladder distension
PROSTATIC
o Urethral Crest
o Prostatic sinuses(openings of prostatic ducts)
o Prostatic
Utricle

remnant
of
female
counterparts
o Ejaculatory ducts
INTERMEDIATE
o From apex of prostate, thru external urethral
sphincter (narrowest portion) to bulb of penis
SPONGY
o Bulb to tip
o 5mm diameter
o Dilates at bulb where ducts of bulbourethral
glands open Interbulbar Fossa

E.

BULBOURETHAL
GLAND__________________________________
Cowpers Gland
3-5 mm in diameter
Lining: simple columnar epithelium
located in the urogenital diaphragm
adjacent to intermediate urethra
Located proximal to membranous urethra
Tubulo-alveolar glands
o Secretes clear mucus clear containing various
small carbohydrates which acts as lubricant
Together with urethral glands
o secrete mucus to coat & lubricate urethra for
sperm during erection
Female Homologue= Great Vestibular/Bartholins
Gland
Ducts open into the proximal part of the spongy
urethra through minute apertures

Group 12 Chiu, Chua, Chuahiong, Cimagala, Cinco, Co, I., Co, K., Cocos

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NOTE: Withdrawal method may not be effective due


to pre-ejaculate formed by this gland

the outer fibrous capsule of each cavernous


body

XII. PATHWAY OF SPERM


Semen
product of ejaculation = spermatozoa + seminal
fluids
o secreted by the accessory glands
Each ejaculate can have an average amount of 3.5
ml and may contain up to 50-150 M spermatozoa
all of which are already mature but still is incapable
of fertilization until after undergoing capacitation
within the female genital tract
If there are 25% or more spermatozoa which are
abnormal (no tail, or the cilia is immotile) there is a
probability that there may be problems with fertility
XIII. PENIS
Consists of body & root
female homologue- clitoris
Most of the penile urethra is lined with
psuedostratified columnar epithelium
In the glans, it becomes stratified squamous
epithelium
Urethra glands (glands of Littre) found along the
length of the penile urethra
glans is covered by prepuce or foreskin in
uncircumcised men.
Suspensory ligament of penis
o arises from the linea alba and pubic symphysis
and inserts into the fascial covering of the
corpora cavernosa
Layers
1. Skin
2. Superficial/Dartos fascia
Colles fascia of penis & scrotum
3. Deep/Bucks Fascia
forms a strong membranous covering for the
3 erectile tissues, and binds them together
form a transverse septum w/c divides penis
into 2 compartments (with 3 erectile tissues):
1. 2 Corpora cavernosa
Dorsal portion
surrounded by tunica albuginea
separated by septum of penis
2. Corpus spongiosum
ventral portion
traversed by urethra
capped distally by glans penis
4. Tunica Albuginea

Arterial Supply
o Internal pudendal arteries
deep artery of the penis
dorsal artery of the penis
bulbourethral artery
Venous Drainage
o superficial dorsal vein (external to bucks)
o deep dorsal vein (within bucks)
Both connect with pudendal plexus which drains
into the internal pudendal vein
Lymphatic Drainage
o Skin of penis
superficial inguinal and subinguinal LN
o Glans penis

subinguinal and external iliac nodes


o Deep urethra
internal ( hypogastric) and common iliac
nodes
Nerve Supply:
o S2-S4 spinal nerve segments
o Sensory & Sympathetic
Dorsal nerve of the Penis from Pudendal
Nerve
o Ilio-inguinal Nerve supplies the skin on root
o Cavernous nerves parasympathetic supply
erectile tissue
Erection- parasympathetic
Ejaculation- sympathetic

Group 12 Chiu, Chua, Chuahiong, Cimagala, Cinco, Co, I., Co, K., Cocos

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Group 12 Chiu, Chua, Chuahiong, Cimagala, Cinco, Co, I., Co, K., Cocos

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