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Title: “Study the immediate

impact of different types of


trainings conducted under
ATMA programme in 3 block
of namely Sailana, Baajna and
Piploda’’
Madhya Pradesh
2/23/2010
Student- Sumit Chandra
Research supervisor- Dr. V. Singh (Grameen Vikas Trust)
Feb 23 , 2010 Report on Action Research

Index
Acknowledgement

Abstract

Synopsis of action research- objective, methodology, work plan

Brief profiles of district-Ratlam and blocks-Sailana, Baajna, and piploda

Important crops

List of villages and beneficiary-non beneficiary farmers

Brief about training & its topics

Benefits of training

Women participation

Examples of adoption

Structure of ATMA

Changes observed in beneficiaries

Lacuna

New initiatives

Recommendations

Way forward

Learning from research

Annexure –tables and photos

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Acknowledgement
This action research study report is result of intense field visits and discussion with the
stakeholders of ATMA programme. I wish to express my deep gratitude to Mr. Arun Joshi,
Head NLRI, Mr. Yash Kanongo, HRM, Dr. Varan Singh under whose guidance I completed
research. I am also greatful to Dr. Praveen Ghotkar, Mr. Ajay Pal Singh and whole faculty for
their guidance.

I am highly grateful to villagers of Sailana, Baajna and Piploda block for their praising
cooperation during discussions and field visits. I am also thankful to extension-trainees,
para-jankaars, members of block technology team of Sailana sub-divison, Panchayat
Inspector of Bajna block, Panch and Gram sachiv of different villages for providing useful
documents and information about ATMA.

Finally I would like to thank all those who provided information about guidelines and
functioning of ATMA.

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Feb 23 , 2010 Report on Action Research

Abstract-
In this paper we are describing impact assessment study of ATMA project in three
block of Ratlam district (Madhya Pradesh) –Sailana, Baajna and Piploda. Extension
Reforms (ATMA) Programme introduced during 2005-06 by the Ministry of
Agriculture, and Government of India was a major intervention in addressing the
constraints as observed in T &V and post T & V system by making the extension
system farmer driven and farmer accountable through process and institutional
reforms mechanism. So the prime aim of the study is to observe the topics of training
and their adoption by the farmer. The study involved visits of farm field school, field
observations, interaction with farmers and analysis of results of focused group
discussion. During the study though the Rabi season yield results are still awaited
but farmers have reason to smile due to good crop despite of low rainfall.

Farmers of many villages come for training in FFS conducted at different location but
the real success can be assess by the change in attitude and reaction of farmer
towards topics discussed in different levels of training. This change will be reflected
in their field practices which can be observed by observer. Sometime such changes
can lead to change of cropping pattern in that region.

In new guidelines Government suggested to modify farmers in Agri-entrepreneurs


through motivating them to grow certain crops at large scale. Even such initiatives
also need proper knowledge of cultivation practice of those crops. So it seems
learning of farmers under ATMA can prove as a foundation stone for future benefits.

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Synopsis for Action research project under field attachment


segment for MBA students of Center for Post Graduate Studies,
National Institute of Rural Development
In collaboration with Faculty, Agribusiness and Agriculture
Technology Management, National Livelihood Resources Institute,
Gramin Vikas Trust
Name of the Student: Goswami
Name of the Research Supervisor: GVT
Name of the Project: ATMA Project, Ratlam (MP)
Location of the Field Research: Sailana, Bajana and Piploda Blocks of Ratlam
district

Title:

Study the immediate impact of different types of trainings conducted under ATMA program in 3
block of namely Sailana , Bajana and Piploda Blocks of Ratlam district in M.P.

Introduction:

Department of Farmers Welfare and Agriculture Development, Government of Madhya Pradesh


has initiated reform process to improve the agriculture extension services in the state. Under the
new initiative, it has involved the NGOs and other private companies interested in the reform
process and have interest in agriculture extension. The department has given the responsibility to
the interested institutions under Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode. Gramin Vikas Trust,
Bhopal is one of the partners implementing Agriculture technology Management Agency
(ATMA) under the agriculture extension reform program.
The Gramin Vikas Trust is implementing ATMA activities in the 12 block of the six
district namely Ratlam, Ujjain, Neemuch, Mandsour, Dewas and Dhar districts of Madhya
Pradesh.

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Feb 23 , 2010 Report on Action Research

The main activities taken under ATMA program are given below:

 Establishment of Farm field school;


 Demonstration on agriculture and allied activities;
 Farmers training at National, State and District level;
 Exposure visit at National, State and District level;
 Capacity building of Farmer Interest Group ;
 Kisan Goshthi and Kisan Mela;
 Farmers Scientist interaction and
 Development of Technical literature on electronic media.

Objective:
 Assess the level of awareness of the farmers post training;
 Understand and assess the adaptation behaviors of farmers for new agriculture
technologies;
 Draw a comparison between farmers attended trainings and non participating
farmers.
 Assess the farmers’ perception about the training pedagogy, issues, timeliness and
effectiveness of the trainers;

Methodology:

Sample size: 30 farmers participated more than once in the trainings organized under ATMA
program by GVT – NLRI and 30 non participating farmers of six villages of Sailava, Bajana and
Piploda Blocks of Ratlam. Each block would be represented by 2 sample village;

Sample type: 5 Trained Farmers and 5 Untrained Farmers of each village’s

Tool to be used:

 Individual interview.
 Visits to farmer’s field in each selected sample village;
 Focused group discussion – in 6 villages of three Blocks.

Research methodology:

The present study will be conducted with the help of the individual farmer’s discussion (survey),
issue focus group discussion.

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Individual Interview:

The individual farmer’s interview will be conducted in the 6 selected villages. In each village 5
trained & 5 untrained farmers will be interviewed. A checklist and or sample schedule will be
developed to capture the farmer’s perception using different parameters. The information to be
covered in the survey could be for example - farmer name, area under cultivation, yield of the
crops before training, and after the attending different training, topic of the training, frequency of
the training imparted, content and methodology of the training.
Field Visit: Minimum two farm visits at the farmers’ field (participating and non participating
farmers).

Focused Group Discussion- In this exercise the farmers will be asked about the number of
training, topic of training, quality of training and frequency of training. The FGD will be
separately conducted with the trained and un trained group of farmers from the study area i.e.
three block namely Sailana, Bajana and Piploda Block of the Ratlam district.

Meeting with the concern official: during the field study the student will meet to the concerned
block officer to see the impact of the program its effectiveness.

Analysis of study: The analysis will be done using suitable statistical tools.

Expected output:

 Effect of the training methodology and change in agriculture practices.


 Yield increase over the present production.
 Adoption rate of technologies suggested during the training sessions.
 Impact of the new agriculture technology in terms of increased production;

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Work plan:

Activity Last week of 1st week of 2nd week of 3rd week of


January 2010 February February 2010 February 2010
2010
Introductory
meeting
Review and
collection of
reference
Field visit and
meeting with the
farmers
Preparation of
field survey format
Review of
progress at NLRI
Focused Group
Discussion
Field survey
Report writing and
presentation and
valedictory

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AREA AND ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS of District:-

Total Area of Ratlam District is s 4861 Sq.km. which is 1.11% of


Total Area of Madhya Pradesh. For the Administrative convenience,
Ratlam is divided in Six Tehsils and 6 Blocks as below:-
District Ratlam -Area of Tehsils and Their Populations

Name of Tehsil Total Area Block Population

Total Population Rural Population Town Population

Alot 945 151618 123648 27970

Jaora 763 170155 108215 61940

Piploda 604 98114 91856 6258

Ratlam 1331 385948 183475 202473

Sailana 536 77357 66261 11096

Bajna 682 88696 88696 -

Total District Area :-4861 Sq.Km. Population as per 1991 census 9,71,888

The total cultivated area of the region is rainfed to dryland. Some area is receiving
irrigation water from Dhaulawar dam or Malini and Mahi river after rainy season but other
regions are depended upon ground water totally. Land of these areas is shallow, undulated
and full of gravels. Whole area is denuded by people for firewood and fodder.

IMPORTANT CROPS :-

Main crop of Ratlam is Soyaben, Wheat, Gram, soyabean, Urad,


cotton, Jowar, Gram, Groundnut and Maize. It is also well known for
Strawberry and Grapes.
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Block- Sailana

Brief profile of block*-

Geographical area-536 sq km

Forest land-9100ha

Total cropped area-30000ha

Net sown area-26000ha

Total farmer-18000(approx)

*according 1989-90 data


Sailana has got the status of sub-division of Ratlam district from 1 April 1982. It is a developed
town with good infrastructure and act as epicenter for economic and administrative activities.
This block has advanced in terms of commercialization of agriculture. Many areas of this sub-
division are famous for production of different crops. But unavailability of sufficient electricity
has diminished the any possibility of agriculture based industry.

Block-Baajna

Brief profile of block-


Establishment of block-1962

Geographical area-682 sq km

Average rainfall-1017 mm

Total Gram panchayat-65

Total village-221

Bajna block is one of the poorest regions of Ratlam district. Use of natural resources in
unlimitted scale can cause how much harm to a fragile ecological region, this block is the best
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Feb 23 , 2010 Report on Action Research

example. Continuous deforestation of forest for needs and careless attitude about its
conservation has brought the Baajna block at the verge of desertification. Ratlam has played a
great role for unsaturated demand of fire-wood and timber. Unaware of the harms of
deforestation, poor villagers sold their precious resource for fulfilling the demand of irrational
users. Today scarcity of resources like drinking and irrigation water, fertile top soil, water
bodies etc can be attributed to this evil.

Except the months of summer when most of the population of region moves for livelihood to
nearby cities and states, cultivation of cereal and food grains is done at extensive scale.
Requirement of irrigation is fulfilled by ponds, kuchha canals, wells and tube-wells. Due to
shallow soil water not penetrates to deeper layers and either evaporates or run away to rivers.

Transportation facilities have improved under PMGSY scheme but failure of NREGS raises a lot
of question. Malpractices are rampant at Panchayati Raj Institutes which has weakened the
possibilities of reduction in migration. The availability of electricity is restricted to 6-7 hrs a day
which is affecting any scope of further improvement of condition of villages.

Block- Piploda

Piploda is also an underdeveloped block of Ratlam district. Piploda is a historical place also
where Jat and Dodiya king ruled for many years. Piploda block is developed as compare to both
Sailana and Baajna block.

Area of block-604sq km
Population of village-98114
Total town population -6258

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General information about agriculture in blocks-


 Crops grown in these regions
Season Crops

Winter Wheat, gram, onion, garlic, spices


(Ajwain, Cumin,coriander)

Summer Soyabean, gourd crops (both in


irrigated land only), Urd

Kharif Soya bean, Cotton, maize, rice,


vegetables-tomato, brinjil, chillies

Problems in agriculture in this region-

In recent years farmers had not suffered so much loss from any particular disease or insect but
they are aware of decreasing productivity of land. According their view the cost of cultivation is
going high due to-

 Increasing labour cost

 Costly agro-chemicals

 Cost of irrigation through tube wells and far places through pipes

 Low price of agriculture produce due to unorganized producers

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Core study
Villages chosen

Block Bajna* -Biladi, Herthal, Adhapath

List of farmers

S.No. Name of village Beneficiary farmer Non-beneficiary farmer

1 Village Biladi Suresh Bhuria, Sandeep Gamadh, Ranga Bhuria


Praveen ji, Shambhu,
Dalaji

2 Village Herthal Mahendra ji, Kalu ji, Karu Dula, Ram Chandra Babar, Lal
Kaalu Mangla, Geeta Chandra
ji, Pesudi Bai

3 Village Adapath Saplibai, Jeewanibai, Bagu Dula, Mangu, Iradi,Dhanna


Suraj Galia, Sambhu,
Nandu

*In block Baajna ATMA was running in kharif 2009. Presently only Waadi project is running here.

Block Sailana- Adwania, Bhallakamal, Karia

List of farmers

S.No. Name of Beneficiary farmer Non-beneficiary farmer


village

1 Village – Choga Lal Patidar, Bhanvar lal Onkar Lal Ji, Prakash Lal, Prem
Adwania Patidar, Samrath Patidar,Mangi Shankar, Chunni Lal, Bala Ram
Lal Patidar, Mukesh , Luxman ,
Kishor

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2 Village- Mukesh Patidar, Moti Lal, Shyam Bhanvar Lal ji, Nand Lal ,Nand
Karia Das, Bairagi ji, Sukhi Lal , Anokhe Lal Dhandad, Dashrath ji, Gopal
Lal, Vishnu ji Gunwara, Gopal choudhary,
Prem Chand Kasaut ,Amba Ram

3 Village – Fatah Singh, Chagan Lal, Prithvi


Bhallakamal Raj,

Block Piploda-

List of farmers

S.No. Name of Beneficiary Non-beneficiary farmer


village farmer

1 Village- Hatnara Bhuwan Lal Dhakad, Iswar Lal ji, Rakesh Nagar, Rameshwar
Bakat Lal Dhakad, Nagar, kalu lal Ninaam, Khemraj Patidar
Madan Lal,
Bhageerath Ji, Radhe
Shyam, Kailash ji

2 Village- Mangi Lal, Ratan Lal Ratan Das, Nar Singh Choudhary, Nagu
Aakhatwasa Malawi, Deepak , Choudhary, Goverdhan Das, Rajesh Da
Prakash Joshi, Karu
Lal

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Feb 23 , 2010 Report on Action Research

FFS conducted in Ratlam district-

Block name Season

Kharif Rabi

Baajna 2 0

Piploda 1 2

Sailana 1 2

Levels of training-

Field level training- Scientist regularly visits the farmer’s field at intervals during
different growth stages. For better observations demonstration are laid on an
achiever farmers field (first line demonstration) and later some selected farmers
are provided with improved seeds for wider demonstration.

Block level training- At block level trainings were conducted where selected
farmers from different villages invited. Farmers trained here act as resource
person at village level.

Farmers also take participation in District level training and State level training at
regular intervals. At this level only those farmers are chosen who show regular
presence in training session and have better adoption rate for new technology.
These training mostly focused on popularization of farm mechanization and
vegetable production.

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Method of selection of farmers for appraisal-

IN due course of study only those villages were selected where trainings under
ATMA were conducted earlier. Besides them due to little bit similarity of Organic-
Waadi project to ATMA its impact study was also taken up. Farmers were selected
randomly while transect walk through village and sometime intentionally from
farmers meetings at different places.

Main occupation of beneficiaries-

In all these blocks the population of tribal people is very high. The main source of
livelihood is agriculture and allied activities only. Due to lack of education they are
unable to get Govt job. Many people of these blocks also migrate to Rajasthan
and Gujrat in summer season for work.

In case of large farmers like Patidar community of Sailana and Piploda block
migration is also a good option but the case is different totally from tribals. They
have leased in hectares of land for cultivation from the farmers where they are
migrating. Many farmers have already commercialized their farm but still most of
the farmers need institutional help to stabilize their farm income.

Inputs provided as seeds

Adwania village Wheat, onion

Karia village Wheat, Gram

Hatnara Wheat, Gram, Onion

Aakhatwasa Wheat, Gram, Onion

Baajna block Sweet corn

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Topics of training -
 Improved methods of sowing- it is observed that farmers are making
regular losses due to faulty practice of broadcasting. FFS popularized line
sowing among farmers through demonstration.

 Seed treatment –Farmers become aware about biological methods of seed


treatment against disease and insect like use of Trichoderma viridi

 Optimum use of fertilizer dose- the misconception among farmer about


excess use of Urea many time results in more disease and insect attack. For
maintaining soil health, balance use of fertilizer is necessary. In different
session of FFS emphasis on soil testing was given.

 Right time of weeding, irrigation- Being a drought prone area it is very


necessary to improve water use efficiency in field. To resolve this issue
farmers were provided detailed information about weed and water
management. But the loss and unequal distribution of water under flood
system of irrigation is still an area of concern. For which proper land
leveling and drip irrigation is promoted as possible solution.

 Disease and pest management- Farmer’s knowledge about pest controlling


chemicals was worth appreciating during FFS observation. Trap crop
phenomenon was felt a nice approach by farmers.

 Optimum seed rate- Due to broadcasting not only maintenance of standing


crop is difficult but overpopulation reduces yield also.

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 Intercropping- With a view to change conventional agriculture into


profitable practice under new guidelines intercropping in cotton is
promoted with chili and lady’s finger. Papaya and grapevine orchard also
provided wider scope for crops of short height (onion, garlic etc).

 Organic cultivation- Organic-waadi project in Bildi and Aadhpath facing


problem due to shortage of water and subsistence farming. Through FFS
farmers learnt how to utilize resources in minimum cost. Neemol, Power
plant bloom, PSB and Azotobactor use is gaining ground among farmers.

 Seed production- As a base work of formation of “Farmers Seed Grower


Society” farmers were sensitized towards different criteria to keep in mind
for producing best quality of seeds.

Participation level of farmers -


Observation has shown that during meetings all farmers were not actively
participating during whole meeting. Farmers complained that sometimes the
techniques and varieties suggested by scientists were old and low yielder.
According to them timing of meeting should be convenient to their time as they
are busy in daytime in farm activities. However people who attended the meeting
in Karia village had shown interest in new initiatives. Formation of four youth
farmers groups in first meeting was a positive sign and these groups members
deciding to start soyabean seed production.

Exposure visits- Ujjain, Jhabua, Indore, Bhadrawasa, Bhopal

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Benefits of training -
Knowledge level-
Under ATMA farmers got opportunity of better interaction with scientists. If
this opportunity of interaction is utilized properly it will strengthen farmer’s
faith in recent development of agricultural science and technology.
Interaction with the farmers in training sessions had shown that they learnt
efficient and cost-effective methods of input management. These methods
are used by farmers in achieving maximum productivity potential of land
and plant.

Economic benefits-
Inefficient use of inputs unnecessarily increases the cost of cultivation. The
knowledge of critical growth stages of crops for fertilizer application and
irrigation can save its wastage. Farmers shared their experiences of
increasing awareness about these issues. By proper application of this
learning they are getting higher production from the same resources.

Communication –
Para- extension workers/jankars, Kisan-Mitra/contact farmer have been
recruited to strengthen the flow of information in both sides. But their
approachability and experience is still an area to improve. Their
approachability can firm the faith in extension process.

Benefits of new verities-


Farmers are provided improved seeds for different crops like soyabean, wheat,
onion, garlic and gram. Farmers in some areas are also provided with Mini-kits of
staple crops and vegetables. Farmers are impressed with the performance of new

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Feb 23 , 2010 Report on Action Research

verities and have shown interest in replacing old verities with improved ones. But
the question is why only few farmers regularly get attention of facilitators?

Women participation –
One of the biggest challenge before the ATMA is to assure women participation in
any activity. ATMA has partial success in this front. Jankaar have contacts with
women SHG’s to ensure their presence in meetings. But if we compare the spare
time of women to men then it is really a hard task for them to join meeting
regularly. Still we can say that ATMA has addressed complaints of women about
training at distant places. ATMA is strengthening poor families it is proved by
example of Suppli Bai and Jeevani Devi in Adhapath village which are now going
to start a small industry of cloth printing in Baajna block.

The low participation of women may be attributed to following reasons-

 Handling house and farm work simultaneously


 Poor health condition
 Restriction to meet outsiders by family
 Language and education gap
 Tribal women are mostly illiterate so feel shyness in expert’s present
methodology of training like teacher

Examples of adoption of new technology-

The main benefit of ATMA project is that it promotes farmer-farmer interaction.


Successful farmer sets an example before the new farmers in this way. For
example-

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 Chagan Lal Patidar of Advania village has motivated many farmers to adopt
line sowing and onion cultivation in grapevine orchard for initial years of
production.
 Enthusiastic group of youths in Karia village is working to involve more
progressive farmers in seed production societies.

Suppli Bai- Baajna Print Plot under Waadi project

 Suppli Bai of Adhapath village has diversified her source of income


 Ratan Lal ji of Akhatwasa willing to develop an Citrus orchard at his farm
 Deepak ji from Aakhatwasa village is helping to aware farmers about
benefits of group approach and also setting example by establishing a
papaya orchard
 Bhuwan Lal Ji has planned to apply drip irrigation in cotton crop

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Intercropping of onion in grapevine Healthy nursery of improved onion


orchard variety

Components of ATMA

Farmers organization-

.no. Attributes Description

1 Structure Farmers were grouped , according to the convenience of group,


usually 15 to 20 members, one president and one secretary

2 Role To get financial assistance from government and utilize it in


collective way

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3 Activity To participate in trainings and utilize funds and inputs provided by


agency in best way

4 Meeting Group meetings at regular intervals and participation in trainings

5 Benefits Farmer become a part of channel to get financial and technical


help at every stage

Contact farmers

s.no. Attributes Description

1 Selection Progressive farmer of groups which plays active role in every activity

2 Role Act as a channel between scientist and FO

3 Activity To disseminate information and knowledge learnt in training

4 Meeting In meetings of FO’s act as leader and guides fallow farmers

5 Benefits Contact farmer enjoys greater credibility due to familiarity to farmer

Documentation- In any FO, group secretary maintains all records.

Types of facilities provided to FO’s-

 Written material – Pamphlets on different methods and technological


issues like improved cultivation practice of different crops, information
about diverse scheme of MP Government etc

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 Information about Credit and machinery – For purchasing new machinery,


inputs they can apply in bank through group. Subsidy is also provided by
Government under NHM for orchard development, micro irrigation
arrangement etc.
 Improved seeds- Improved seeds of soyabean, onion, gram and wheat are
provided to farmers for demonstration.
 Fertilizers, Manures – Some farmers which are members of farmer group
are provided with Urea, DAP and pesticides. Proper knowledge of
application of optimum dose and time of application
 Use of audio-video tools in training- PPT, videos and pictures on different
topics present before farmers regularly during training in NLRI.

Changes observed in beneficiaries-

Attitude – New approach has passed a good message among farmers that
Government approach is to take whole community together. It shows shift in
approach of extension department from client farmer to group focused
approach.

Reaction –With the government support beneficiaries are ready to keep aside
short term goals for safeguarding their long term interest. The popularization
of sustainable cultivation techniques is one of the major achievements of
ATMA programme in these blocks.

Adoption of new methods and techniques- A lot of successes stories are


present in these villages which show turnaround of time by replication of
experiments.

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Technological advancement

In these blocks a lot of efforts were done to develop agriculture as industry.


Due to these efforts Ratlam district has improved its image as major producer of
many crops. Now increased awareness about efficient use of water has lead to
adoption of micro-irrigation techniques. This drip system is proving to be
backbone of nascent grapevine industry. Organic- waadi projects running under
GVT will soon prepare a launch pad for the farmers of Madhya Pradesh to
capture this billions dollar market.

Lacuna

Despite so many efforts to avoid past stigmas of other extension programmes


ATMA also seems to underperform from its own capacity. The main problems are
discussed below-

S.no. Problems Reasons Solution

1 Farmers reluctant to follow All farmers don’t have More exposure to


before a real example of sufficient resources successful examples
success

2 Demonstration plot was not Small and marginal farmers Such farmers need
taken care of by some prone to negligence due to more support
farmers shortage of inputs

3 Lack of bio-pesticides at Low supply in market More supply of bio-

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market pesticide in market

4 Non-beneficiary farmers in Even minimum water Development of


water scarce areas were requirement of crop can’t be water resource
suspicious about significant fulfilled by existing water
results resources

5 Irregularity of farmers in Busy in their farm activities Awareness about


attending sessions and other works benefits need to
increase

6 Farmers need support more Completion of one season Change in policy of


than one season already under ATMA only one season
support in ATMA

New initiatives

Farmers seed
grower’s societies

This is a nice initiative of organizing farmers in groups so that benefits of


economies of scale in seed production can be realized and farmers get all
technical help from support agency. In true sense this model can be built against
seed producing MNCs who are trying to capture seed market all over country. It
gives sense of restoration of farmer’s right to bright future.

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Approach
To produce foundation seed of soyabean, the farmers need to form a group (not
less than 13 persons) which will be registered for certification under scientist.
Scientist will provide them breeder seed and necessary training for maintaining
genetic-physical purity. After harvest of crop it will be available for selling in
market as foundation seed. For encouragement Government will provide better
price and bonus in farmer’s bank account.

GVT is implementing agency in Neemuch, Mansaur, Dhar, Devas, Ujjain and


Ratlam districts for this scheme.

Achievements -

Till now within one month farmers of Adwania and Karia have formed one society
each. Aakhtwasa farmers are also working to form many groups in the hope of
expected benefits.

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Organic waadi/Javick waadi

With the support of NABARD MP govt is introducing a plan with the help of GVT to
make organic cultivation popular among farmers of selected blocks.
Aim

 To provide higher price for their products


 To reduce their risks through diversification
 Maintaining soil health

Approach

Selected farmers of a village are helped who have sufficient land and assured
source of irrigation for better management of available resources. A contract is
signed between GVT and farmers that upto7 year they will follow all practices
according to the necessary guidelines. For convenience to local people it has
made some innovative adaptation also e.g. porous pitcher use instead of drips for
controlling release of water.

Main components

Under organic- waadi people are encouraged to grow short duration vegetable
crops between rows of trees. Even border of plot is used to grow medium height
crops as hedge.
Horticulture crops- Mango, Guava, Orange, Papaya, Jackfruit
One acre =42 tree when (Mango + guava) are cultivted
Vegetables-Tomato, Brinjal, Gilki, Onion, coriander, garlic
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Hedge plants- bhindi, jetropha,

ATMA support to project-


Though ATMA is not part of NABARD project but the information and trainings
given on Bio-farming proved to be very successful in crop management under
Waadi project. Farmers can themselves prepare manures and some bio-pesticides
like Neem-oil for crop health. Trap crops and legume crops should also become an
unavoidable part of cropping system.

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Recommendations

Though ATMA programme is running successfully in district but to increase its


effectiveness following points can be considered important-

 Increase in the duration of activity in village once selected for at least two
years to assess real adoption behavior

 Number of visits and participants (farmers) can also be increased

 Experts also need to realize that it is not every time that farmers are at
receiver’s end but sometimes they also need to learn from innovative
farmers

 Number of demonstration can also be increased

 To motivate farmers to adopt mixed farming approach

 More community involvement in identification of beneficiary for


programme

 Para-jaankars who are actually grass-root workers should be motivated


with proper rewards

Way forward

From a long time experimenting with so many approaches to reach to the


farmers, it seems government has found a dependable approach to succeed. This
approach has vast scope to answer farmers need not just in form of providing
new technology but also having better communication with other farmers. It is an
important initiative to turn agriculture into an industry through organizing
farmers first into an organized form and then setting a common livelihood option.
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Feb 23 , 2010 Report on Action Research

In my view every ecological zone should come up with its own plan to cope with
local constraints to achieve highest production. The decentralization of extension
process done under ATMA will reach its summit when each geographical and
climatic unit of cultivable area has its own action plan to optimize production in
local condition.

Learning from action research-

This study has provided me an insight about the problems of farmers and
extension workers to develop agriculture as a lucrative livelihood option. My key
learning from the research is as follows-

 ATMA’s main objective is to provide all form of assistance to farmers at


door steps through minimizing the gap between farmer and research. But it
should also be taken as livelihood enhancement activity because increased
production ultimately increases the income of farmer.
 Under MP government initiative development agencies are trying to focus
on Agriculture Economic Zone development action plan. Farmers living in
particular region will be supported to grow crop suitable to that region. I
believe this approach is revolutionary in uplifting the living standard of farm
based population.
 Farmers are facing a lot of challenges due to spiraling increase in cost of
cultivation and needs support from credit, marketing and research
institution.
 The psychology and economic condition of farmers also affects their
adoption behavior. Dependence of agriculture on environmental
conditions makes them think seriously about its consequences. So it is
necessary to convince them about significant results from new techniques
and training.
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Feb 23 , 2010 Report on Action Research

 Proper strategies to tackle any inverse effect of environment should be


core of institutional research. Bio-fertilizers, Bio-pesticides and legume
crops have got focus of recommendation in these areas which is a sign of
positive policy of Government.
 Increase in the production of major field crops through seed replacement
by seed grower society is an ambitious project. In my view the success of
programme depends on seriousness of farmer to follow recommended
guidelines.

The relationship of all stakeholders can be seen according their importance


in policy making as follows-

Producer Market
use of best inputs processing
credit benefits packaging
marketing support pricing
technological help promotion

Government
and credit
institution
Research
selection of improved variety Consumer
knowledge support to producer purchasing
market orientation satisfaction
environment protection demand

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Feb 23 , 2010 Report on Action Research

Annexure

Satisfaction level of farmers


Sample size-60 farmers

Farmers of villages selected under study were asked how much they were benefited from
attending FFS. The farmers response are shown in the table given below-

Chart Title
Extremely satisfieded Satisfied Neutral Not satisfied

5%

17%

56%
22%

Adoption of technology by farmers


Among many of the technology introduced among farmer following were selected to show in
form of table. For observations farmer’s fields were visited and asked about how this change
has benefited in maintenance and yield –

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Feb 23 , 2010 Report on Action Research

Information/Technique disseminated

Line sowing in wheat Intercropping Manure application


Fields visited

Fields visited

Fields visited
Not adopted

Not adopted

Not adopted
Technique

Technique

Technique
adopted

adopted

adopted
12 9 3 9 6 3 10 9 1

Benefits in crop yield


No. of Farmers whose response taken- 10

S.No. Crop Yield before training Yield expected


(qt/bheega) /achieved after training
(qt/bheega)

1 Wheat 2 2.6

2 Gram 7-8 8-9

3 Onion 45 50

4 Soyabean 7-8 9-10

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Jankaar from Aakhatwasa village Stagnation of water causing damage

FFS in Adwania village Meeting with village panchayat members

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Strategy of improving crop productivity**

No. Name of activities Contribution in %

1. Soil & water management 15 – 20


2. Seed replacement 15-20
3. Seed treatment 2-3
4. Culture treatment (Bio-fertilizer) 2-3

5. Nutrient management 15 – 20
6. Inter cultural operations (weed control in Kharif) 5-10

7. Use of improved agricultural implements (Power, 3-4


Bullock)
8. Irrigation Management 15-20
9. Timely operation and management of every activity 3-5

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Feb 23 , 2010 Report on Action Research

A case which needs to be understand in relation to migration pattern


in Madhya Pradesh:

i. Migration Pattern: The Ratlam District consists of six blocks out of which
Bajna and Sailana are blocks heavily migration affected. The intensity of
migration on an average is 65% where as it reaches to 70% in summer
season particularly in June. Reason behind the migration is highly
undulating terrain with degraded land and high runoff of monsoon
water. The area is rainfed and only Kharif crop is manageable to grow in
these blocks. Small land holding and low productivity of crops does not
satisfy the needs of the families which in turn promotes the migration.
The migration in other block is very little and entirely different in nature
in comparison to those Sailana and Bajna Block.

ii. Seasons of Migration: It has been observed that the migration started
with the crop harvesting season which starts from September – October
month for Kharif crop and March- April month for Rabi crop. After the
agricultural work these people stay in towns for construction activity and
other works. The migration intensified after April in want of job for
earning. They also moved to other places with their cattle for grass and
fodder. These people generally do not come back to their home till
month of June. They generally come back before the monsoon for
preparation of their agriculture land.

iii. Rural to Urban Migration: The general trend of migration here is from
rural areas to urban areas though it starts from nearby rural areas to big city.
These labour moves from their area to Ratlam, Ujjain and Indore in Madhya
Pradesh. They also move to Banswara, Chitorgarh, Kota in Rajasthan and Baroda,
Dahod in Gujrat.

iv. Migration within district: Migration within the district by the village
people is normal practice but it is found to be comparatively lesser than the
migration outside the district.

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Feb 23 , 2010 Report on Action Research

v. Migration outside district: It is a general trend and mentioned in above


paragraphs. Migration outside the district is almost 90%. During the migration
period only old members of the family and children left to their home places to
keep care of each other and to their cattle.
Migration start from month of September every year and reaches to its peak
during the month of May - June.

Limitation of study-
ATMA is a very ambitious project of government which involves a number of
stakeholders from farmers to project implementation agency. To cover all aspects
of the research, challenges found to be visible are as follows-

 Some areas are difficult to reach due to less transportation facilities


 Farmers were busy due to harvesting season of Rabi crops
 Government officials and PRI representatives have busy schedule due to
recent elections in Panchayat
 All village jankars (community coordinators) were not proactive on their part
 Due to low literacy and rude behavior of some officials villagers were
reluctant to express their views freely

Group dynamics-
Under this project two types of groups were contacted-farmers
organization and self help group. The farmers group consists of people from
the village who are part of ATMA programme. Once these groups are
registered with the agency they provide facilities to group in terms of
inputs and training. But it has come into knowledge that all group members
not attend meetings properly and their main intention is to know about
agency before active participation. The agency also has some limitations

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Feb 23 , 2010 Report on Action Research

about the no of beneficiary it can select for one season, so it selects usually
those farmers as beneficiary who are regular during meetings.
 Though in all farm activities participation of women is equal but these groups
have no arrangement to ensure women participation.
 Farmers of these villages are also organized as SHG for promoting savings
among them. Women self help groups prepares MDM scheme food in school,
either preparing in school premises or bringing prepared food from their
homes. But in many cases villagers complained about the quality of food
prepared by these groups. That is reason in some villages children are not
taking food in school. Even due to caste issue Patidar community not allow
their children to take food in school.

Formal and non-formal institution; interface between institution and


individual, group, and institution-
In poor areas of these blocks Bheel tribe is in majority. This
community shows some characteristics like little belief in group activities
and low savings for future. Formal institutions like PRI, Anganwaadi, schools
and SHGs are performing far below their own potential. PDS are far away
from many villages but their supply is also questionable. Sarpanch of these
villages are uncooperative and are concerned more about their meetings
rather than listening what people expect from them. Banks of these areas
are not clear about their role to finance poor rather they think about
profitability. Due to small land holding many of the farmers were not
considered to be eligible for loans. The recovery rate of loans from the
large farmers is also not much appreciable. So it raises a question –why
only small and marginal farmers are deprived of the loans?
After discussions with the local people one important fact came out that
SHGs among these tribals are not successful till now. The possible reasons
found to be low confidence on each other and seasonal migration of
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Feb 23 , 2010 Report on Action Research

farmers to other places for four months. In NREGS work in their village
people got less than Rs.50 due to malpractices and poor quality of work.

Rural development scenario


While moving from economically well villages to poor villages
ignorance about different development schemes is more. Tribal villages are
also untouched from mass media which is a potential tool to be updated
about beneficial schemes. They are not much benefited by government
schemes like Indira Aawas Yojna, Total sanitation Campaign etc. BPL cards
distribution criteria seems to miss the persons who really need it as farmers
with sufficient resources found to be posses it while those with less land
still demanding it. In absence of support to farmers before providing them
livestock, saplings and credit facilities they couldn’t sustain it for long time.
Due to this reason many efforts done by GVT vanished as they withdrew
support after completing seven years. Under PMGSY road connectivity has
improved a lot but NREGS progress limited to wells digging activities.
It is very regrettable that these poor people have to go Ratlam for
getting benefit of free medical facilities provided by charitable societies.

Existing government and non-government strategies and programmes-


Government of Madhya Pradesh has adopted a typical approach for
development. It is sharing the responsibilities of development with non-
government organization and CSR. Such approach resulted in utilization of
funds through these organizations. On the real ground it seems that
schemes of Government and non-government sectors is overlapping but no
one is achieving full target. Government officials not approachable by
people of these remote areas while non-government agencies are focused
on achieving own targets, so remains less flexible in their approach. For
example agencies complaining lack of funds while I suggested adopting a
National Institute of Rural Development | PGDRDM
Feb 23 , 2010 Report on Action Research

capacity building approach. They know it’s importance but unable to


implement because no initial provision were made when agreement was
signed between government and agency. People initiative is totally absent
in tribal areas due to their individualistic values (as it seems and confirmed
by Tribals themselves). This is the main reason of their low social and
political strength.
**from Government sources

Literature reviewed-

ATMA guidelines of Government-PDF

MP Government’s new policy for Agri-business

Recommendation of working group on Agriculture extension for formulation of Eleven five year plan

Background paper on revitalization of Agriculture extension


Spice-magazine MANAGE Hyd-Nov 2002 issue
Operationalization of ATMA-Dr. M.A.Kareem

National Institute of Rural Development | PGDRDM