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Stanzin

Lab 2:

Stoichiometry

Exploration:
Reactions with dilute hydrochloric acid . All the metals react with dilute hydrochloric
acid to give bubbles of hydrogen and a colourless solution of the metal chloride.

The reactions get more vigorous as you go down the Group. 1

In exothermic reactions, heat energy is released. Explosion of fireworks is an example of


exothermic chemical change. The explosion releases energy in the form of light

The Reaction of Metals with Dilute Acid.Potassium, sodium, lithium and calcium all react v
iolently with dilute sulfuric acid and dilute hydrochloric acid.It is dangerous to put

.3

these metals into an acid

1 http://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/group2/reactacids.html 25-11-14
2 http://amrita.olabs.co.in/?sub=73&brch=2&sim=77&cnt=1
3 http://www.gcsescience.com/r4-metal-reaction-with-acid.htm

Research question: What is the change in temperature when different metal


reacts with Hydrochloric acid?

Independent variable: Metal


Dependent Variable: Change in temperature

Controlled Variable:

volume of acid (20 cm3),


concentration of acid (1.0 M),
mass of metal,
time interval (30 sec for 3mins) ,
experiment carried out at RTP,

Requirements
Chemicals
Mg strips
Zn
powder
Al powder
Fe
powder
Cu
powder
HCl = 1.0
M

Instruments
Thermometer ( 0.5 C)
Measuring cylinder (
1.0cm3)
Weighing scale (0.01 g)
Timer (0.01s)

Others
Styrofoam cup
insulator
Glass rod for stirring
Spatula 4
Scissors to cut Mg
strips
Paper pieces for
weighing the metal
Dropper

Procedure:
1. Weigh out 0.05g of Mg strips
2. With a measuring cylinder measure out 20 cm 3 of HCl and pour in a clean and
dry Styrofoam cup.
3. Place a thermometer in the acid and record the most stable temperature of
the acid. For a stable temperature leave the thermometer in the acid for 2
minutes.
4. Record this temperature as the initial temperature. T i
5. Carefully add all the Mg strips to the Styrofoam cup. Start the timer. Be careful
here, there would be fizzing.
6. Record the temperature of the reaction mixture every 30 s for 3 minutes. The
highest temperature of the reaction mixture is - T f
7. Repeat step 1 6 for another 2 trials
8. Record the time and temperature in a table.
9. Repeat steps 2 to 7 with 0.1g, 0.2g, 0.5of Mg strips.
10.Repeat steps 2 to 8 with the next metal.

Data table 1: Collected Raw data

Initial
temperatu
re (C)
0.5
Mass (g)
0.01
0.05
0.10
0.20

Zn

Al

Attul , Beste

Prikshet , Lucas

Brishti, Stanzin, Hoa

27.0

27.0

27.0

Shyam, Nasiha,
Vedaaya

25.0

Highest Temperature(C) 0.5


1

36.
0
43.
0
51.
5

40.
5
45.
0
53.
0

39.
0
45.
0
53.
0

27.
0
27.
0
27.
0

27.
0
27.
0
27.
0

27.
0
27.
0
27.
0

27.
0
26.
0
26.
0

26.
5
26.
0
26.
0

26.
0
26.
0
26.
0

26.
5
26.
5
26.
5

26.
5
26.
5
26.
5

Data table 2: Processed raw data


Mass (g)
0.01

Fe

Mg

Average Final Temperature (C) 0.5


Mg

Zn

Al

Fe

0.05

38.5

27.0

26.5

26.5

0.10

44.5

27.0

26.0

26.5

0.20

52.5

27.0

26.0

26.5

Processed Data 2

26.5
26.5
26.5

Mass
(g)
0.0
1
Moles

0.05
0.10
0.20

Mg

Zn

Al

Fe

Attul , Beste

Prikshet , Lucas

Brishti, Stanzin, Hoa

Shyam, Nasiha, Vedaaya

0.002

Tf-Ti
(
1.0
0
C)
11.5

0.004

17.5

0.008

25.5

Tf-Ti/
Mole
s

mole
s

5750
.0
4375
.0
3187
.0

0.000
7
0.001
0
0.003
0

Tf-Ti
(
1.0
0
C)
0 .0

Tf-Ti/
Mole
s

Mole
s

0.0

0 .0

0.0

0 .0

0.0

0.00
2
0.00
4
0.00
7

Tf-Ti
(
1.0
0
C)
0.5

Tf-Ti/
Mole
s

Moles

Tf-Ti/
Moles

0.0009

Tf-Ti
(
1.0
0
C)
1.5

250

1.0
0
1.0
0

250

0.0012

1.5

1250.0

143

0.0030

1.5

500.0

1666.6

Calculations
Moles of metal= Given mass of the metal 0.01/ Atomic mass. Eg: Mols of
Mg= 0.5/24
Change in temperature = Final temperature (C) 0.5- initial temperature (C)
0.5 =Tf-Ti 1.0 0C.
Change in temperature/ moles= Tf-Ti/ Moles
Moles= Concentration x Volume

Qualitative Observation
Brisk effervescence increases, and formation of bubbles increases from
Fe<Zn<Al<Mg.
We can smell different Odour during the reaction.
After the reaction there was a change in colour of the solution as it becomes a
salt.
The temperature remained the same before after the reaction in Fe, Zn, Al but
in Mg the temperature after the reaction went quite high.

Relation between Moles and average temperature rise of specific


metals.
Graph 1.

60
50

f(x) = 2285.71x + 34.5


R = 0.99

40
Average temperature rise

30
20
10
0
0

0.01

0.01

0.01

Moles of Mg

Graph 2
30
25
20
Average Temperature rise

15
10
5
0
0

Moles of Zn

Graph 3

30
25
20
Average Temperature Rise

15
10
5
0
0

Moles of Al

Graph4
30
25
20
Average Temperature Rise 15
10
5
0
0

Moles of Fe

Analysis
We can see from the above graphs that there is no significant rise in temperature in
Al, Zn and Fe because we have only taken 1.0 M of HCL in 20 cm 3 which will only
give us 0.002 mols of HCL, where as we have different mols of metals for different
masses which exceeds the mol of HCL. As HCL is the limiting reagent the reaction is
incomplete as some metal didnt at all reacted with the acid, so how we can expect a
temperature rise. For example
Mg + 2HCL

MgCl2 +H2

Mass of Mg = 0.20g

1:2
0.0083= 2(0.0083)

Mols of Mg= 0.2024 =0.0083


but we only have 0.002
Mols of HCL =0.02 (con x vol)

=0.0166 mols of HCL is required


so HCL is the limiting reagent.

And we can only see a significant rise in temperature only in Magnesium, not in Al,
Zn and Fe that is because of the bond length of the MgCl 2 . It requires more energy to
break the bond between H and Cl but doesnt need that much energy to make the
bond between Mg and Cl, so the surplus energy is used up in the form of heat,
because MgCl2 has longer bond length then HCl. In order to get a significant result we
need to balance the equation theoretically, where the HCl should be in excess, this
experiment is not successful, we need to repeat it with more volume of HCl.

Evaluations and Improvements


1. This experiment was only repeated 3 times each for each metals
Improvement: we should increase the number of trials from 3 to 5 in order to
get good results and avoid random errors with more volume of HCl.
2. While weighing the metal powder, some crystal of metal powder got stuck
at the surface of Styrofoam cup, and hence there is a error in the mass of
the metal
Improvement: Take a piece of paper and put the metal powder on the paper
while weighing, so that when you mix it with acid it doesnt stick with the
surface.
3. Some crystal of metal powder didnt reacted with the acid, as they were
floating on the surface acid as they were metal powders and the reaction
was incomplete
Improvement: while mixing the metal with the acid, stir the solution
continuously with a glass rod, so that the metal mixes completely.
4. Time taken for measuring the temperature between the time intervals was
not fixed, which caused slight differences in the temperature, some metal
were allowed to react more .
Improvement: Fixed duration of time say 6 seconds should be there between
the intervals to check the temperature.
5. Metals in the container were both in solid form and powdered form, this
inconsistency would have effected in the time taking for the reaction to
happen.

Improvement: use only powdered metals so that the rate of the reaction will
stay uniform in every experiment.
6. Need to balance the equation first and do the experiment in order to see a
significant rise in temperature.