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Computer Organization: concerned with the way the hardware parts are

connected together to form the computer system


Computer Architecture: attributes like physical address memory/CPU and
how they should be made to coordinate with each other keeping the future
demands.

Principal of Equivalence of Hardware and Software: Any task done by


software can be done using hardware and vice-versa assuming speed is not
a concern.

VON NEUMANN ARCHITECTURE:

Disadvantage: has the same


memory for both programs
and data and therefore the
whole execution is slower.

MEMORY

Advantage: requires less


hardware

CONTROL
UNIT

ARITHMET
IC LOGIC
UNIT

PROCESSO
R

ACCUMULAT
OR

Inputs and
Outputs

Computers with large main memory can run larger programs with greater
speed than computers having smaller memories.
RAM (Random Access Memory) memory contents can be accessed
directly if you know its location.
Cache is a type of temporary memory that can be accessed faster
than ram.

Pascaline: used a counting wheel design. Numbers for each digit where
arranged on wheels and revolutions of one wheel would engage gears that
turned the wheel 1/10 of a revolution to its immediate left.
Babbages Difference engine: it was a mechanical calculator designed to
tabulate polynomial functions.
Babbages Analytical engine: never built, but if it was it would have done
calculations like any modern computer but much slower.

ENIAC: first digital computer (Electronic Numerical Integrator And


Calculator)
Integrated circuits are made up of resistors, capacitors, diodes and
transistors that are formed directly onto the surface of a silicon crystal.

Main functions of CPU: fetching program instructions, decoding each


instruction and performing indicated sequence of operations on the correct
data. When an interrupt occurs in the CPU, an interrupt handling routine is
dispatched which follows the fetch-decode-execute cycle to process the
handlers instructions. When finished, the normal execution of the program
continues.
Diode: Allows the flow of current in one direction only.
Transistors: Control the movement of electricity.
Resistors: A device having resistance to the passage of current.
Capacitor: Stores an electric charge.

The computers CPU fetches, decodes and executes program instructions.


The two principal paths of the CPU are the datapath and the control unit.
Datapath consists of an ALU and storage units that are interconnected by
a data bus that is connected to the main memory.
Control unit sends signals that make various CPU components perform
sequenced operations.

The bus shares information with other system components. There are two
types of buses: point-to-point and multipoint.

Seria
l port

CPU

Modem

MEMOR
Y

DISK
CONTROLLE
R

DISK
CONTROLLE
R

point-to-point

Multipoint

A bus is a set of wires that simultaneously transfer a single bit along each
line.
Busses consist of:
1. Data lines: transfer bits from one device to another
2. Control lines: determine the direction of data flow
3. Address lines: determine the location of the source or destination of
data

MARIE (Machine Architecture that Is Really Intuitive and Easy) was designed
for a single purpose of illustrating basic computer system concepts.
It has the following characteristics:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Twos complement data representation


Fixed word length, data and instructions
16-bit instructions (4opcode and 12 address)
7 registers

MARIEs 7 registers are:

Accumulator (AC)=holds a conditional operator (less than)


Memory address register (MAR)=holds the memory address of an
instruction
Memory buffer register (MBR)=holds data after/before their placement
in memory
Program counter (PC)=holds the address of the next program instruction
to be executed
Instruction register (IR)=holds an instruction immediately following its
execution
Input register (InREG)=holds data read from an input device
Output register (OutREG)=holds data that is ready for the output device
Level
Level
Level
Level
Level
Level
Level

0
1
2
3
4
5
6

Digital logic
Control
Machine
System Software
Assembly language
High-level language
User

MARIEs data path diagram

Low order interleaving: the low order of the bits in the address specifies
which memory bank contains the address of interest.
High order interleaving: the high order of the bits in the address specifies
which memory bank contains the address of interest.
ISA (instruction set architecture): specifies the format of its instructions
and the operations a machine can perform. Its an interface between a
computers hardware and software.