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# ECTest ID: 161274

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Answer Keys
General Aptitude

10

14

## Electronics and Communication Engineering

13.72

32

7.23

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

4.92

20

21

159.15

22

23

25

24

25

240

26

27

28

29

4.7

30

31

9.951

32

33

34

10

35

36

1.5

37

38

0.333

39

3.192

40

0.02

41

3.16

42

43

10

44

5.48

45

46

0.2

47

48

49

1.6779

50

1.67

51

52

53

0.6

54

55

Explanations:-

General Aptitude
3.

The given analogy is a pair of antonyms. Cavort means to enjoy while sulk means to be sad.
Similarly, goad means to instigate while deter means to discourage or prevent.

4.

## The number can only be two digit number.

Let the number be xy.
10x + y = 8 x + y
10x + y - 8x - 8y = 0
2x - 7y = 0
2x = 7y
x=7& y=2
Product = 7 2 = 14
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## ECTest ID: 161274

5.

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56 1.5 84
84 1.5 126
126 1.5 189
189 1.5 283.5

8.

## There are 4 people on all 3 boards, let's call them A, B, C and D.

So, to start we have:
Charity 1: ABCD
Charity 2: ABCD
Charity 3: ABCD
That accounts for 4 of the 5 people that the boards have in common with each other, but each
board needs 1 more person in common with each other charity. So, we need 1 more person for
charities 1/2, 1 more person for charities 1/3 and 1 more person for charities 2/3; let's call them E,
F and G.
Now we're up to:
Charity 1: ABCDEF
Charity 2: ABCDEG
Charity 3: ABCDFG
Finally, we need to round out each board with 2 more people to get up to 8, so our completed
roster is:
Charity 1: ABCDEFHI
Charity 2: ABCDEGJK
Charity 3: ABCDFGLM
A to M is 13 letters, so we have 13 board members in total.

9.

## We're choosing 2 items

4C2 = 4!/2!2! = 24/4 = 6.

out

of

4.

So,

the

total

of

possibilities

is:

Therefore, the basic denominator is 6. Eliminate 1/4 and 1/5 (the answer could be 1/2 or 1/3 after
cancelling).
Next, we need to calculate the # of products that can be written as the question demands.
If we recognize the new expression as a difference of squares (a^2 - b^2) our life becomes easier.
The only way to form a difference of squares is to multiply:
(a + b) and (a - b).
The only two expressions in this form are (x+y) and (x-y). So, there's only one pair of expressions
that give us what we want.
Therefore, 1 out of 6 possible outcomes matches the requirement: choose 1/6.
10.

We're given the slope of a line and one point on the line (the origin: 0,0). From this, we can
determine every other point on the line. The most direct way to find x and y involves solving for
each individually.
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## ECTest ID: 161274

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We know that slope (1/2, in this case), is equal to the change in y divided by the change in x.
Since we know that the line passes through (0,0) and (x,1), we can solve as follows:
1/2 = (1 0)/(x 0)
1/2 = 1/x
x=2
Use the same approach to solve for y:
1/2 = (y 0)/(10 0)
1/2 = y/10
y=5
Thus, x + y = 2 + 5 = 7

## Electronics and Communication Engineering

1.

W
W W W

L eq L 1 L 2 L 3

Beacuse ID I D1 ID2 I D3

223
7
Here MOSFETs is in saturation (or) linear region, the result doesnt effect.
2.

## n i 1.5 1010 ;n r N D 6.3 1019 cm3

Pn _______; E G 0.035
For heavily doped semiconductor
n n p n n i2 e EG

kT

10 2

pn

1.5 10

pn

3.

4.

6.3 1019

e0.035 0.026

8.646 1020
13.72
6.3 1019

## By language's mean value theorem, the value of x (a,b ) for f(x) = lx 2 + mn + n

a+b
Satisfactory mean value theorem is x =
2
1 2
x =
1.5
2
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## ECTest ID: 161274

5.

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## No. of complex additions in Direct DFT = N N 1 8 7 56

No. of complex additions in FFT = N log 2 N 8 log 2 8 8 3 24
Difference = 56-24 = 32

6.

## i t I0 i1 sin 1t 1 i2 sin 2 t 2 i3 sin 3 t

2

i i
then I rms I02 1 2
2 2

## but it is valid if and only if frequency are different

If same frequency components are there, to apply above formula we should convert it into
standard form.
5sin 2t 30 4sin 2t 40
5 120 4 50 7.39 89.44
7.39cos 2t 89.44

i t 5 7.39cos 2t 89.44
2

Irm

7.

7.39
5
7.23
2
2

## Differentating with respect to x

dy
2Ax + 2By = 0
(1)
dx
Again on differenciating, we get
dy 2
d 2 y
2A+2B y 2 0
(2)
dx
dx
on solving equations (1) & (2), we get
2

d 2 y dy y dy
y 2
0
dx dx x dx
order 2 , degree1

8.

## For unit ramp input K v Lt SG s

s 0

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## ECTest ID: 161274

9.

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1
s
1
L1 2
L1 2

s s 1
s(s 1)
1
s
L1 L1 2
1 cos t
s
s 1

10.

X f

f
fC

fC

f c 2

Xce f X f fc

## Now Xce t is inverse Fourier transform of x ce t

2

x ce t

2.e

j2 ft

2.e

2.e

j2 2 t

2.e j2 ft
df
j2t

e
j2.t

j2 t
2

j2 t

3
j2 t
j2 32 t
2
e

j2. t

3
sin 2 t
2

2.e j2 t
t
sin 3 t
2.e j2 t
t
j t
6e sin c 3 t

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## ECTest ID: 161274

11.

15V

Vi

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VO

Vx

15V

5k
10 k

Vi
10

Vx

T
2

15 10k
10
15k

## Vi peak to peak 20V

10

Always Vi Vx , b at t

T
, Vi becomes 10V,
2

V0 Vsat 15V
V0
15

12.

13.

The given spectrum is periodic with 2 and continuous in frequency. Thus the corresponding
time domain signal is discrete and aperiodic in nature.
F 0 P x 0 P x 0 0.6
F 1 P x 1 P x 0 P x 1
0.6 0.4 1

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## ECTest ID: 161274

14.

4V

2V

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1V

5V

6V

## Let mark the various nodes of the circuit as A, B, C, D.

If someone take C as reference then VB = 6V
If someone take D as reference then VB = 1V
If someone take A as reference then VB = 4V
If someone take B as reference then VB = 0V.
So we can conclude that as long as the reference node is not defined we cant have a unique
answer for absolute node potential. In this case reference node is not given so we dont have any
answer unique.
15.

A B C m 1,2,4,7
BC

A
1

1
1

16.

Of course since all poles are on left of s-plane for all bounded input output it always bounded.
But notice the presence of right half zero i.e. if we give a unbounded input such that the poles
of input canceled by zero of transfer function. The output is still bounded.
So in the above case if we choose specifically input as e2t u(t) output is still bounded but if we
go for e4t u(t), e6t ....eat if a 2, then it is always bounded.

17.

f0

18.

f CLK
60k

10 kHz
mod - value 2 3

10k
5kHz
2

## z = a is a pole of order 3 of f(z)

Resf z
z a

1
d2
lim 2
2! z a dz

z a .f z
2

1
d2
lim 2 2z 2 .e z
2 z a dz

lim e z z 2 4z 2 e a a 2 4a 2
z a

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## ECTest ID: 161274

19.

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n b a
75
2

Zo

o
1
n b a
75 m, r 4.92
2
0 r

20.

The most fundamental assumption in any 2 port network is they should not have any independent
source.
In this case we cant defined

21.

V1
ratio
I1

## The oscillation of frequency is

f

R
2 103

159.15 kHz
2L 2 2 103

22.

DRAM contains only one transistor along with one capacitor, so their packing density is
more.

23.

If the load happens to be purely resistive then for maximum power transfer the condition is
3 j4
R L Zin 3 j4 5
2

PRL Irms R L
I rm

20 10
5 16.56
8 j4

20 10 r.m.s

Irm 5

1
2

PR L Irm R L 5 5 25W
20
90
9
9

24.

j9

Characteristic equation of A is

A I 0
1

3
2

2
1 0
1
3

3 6 2 3 18 0
By Caley-Hamilton theorem

A 3 6A 2 3A 18I 0
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## ECTest ID: 161274

25.

Duty cycle

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TON
TON TOFF

0.4 sec
1500 0.4 sec
1
prf

## Average power Pavg Pt Duty cycle

400K 1500 0.4 10 6
240W

26.

## Considering MAP criteria,

H1

P x 0 / y a P{x 1 / y a}
H2

## H1 decision in favour of x=0

H2 decision in favour of x=1.
H1

## P{y a / x 0}.P{x 0} P{y a/ x 1}.P{x 1}

H2

2 4 1 1
. .
3 5 3 5
on receiving y=a, we should decide in favour of x=0.
Similarly,
H1

>

P x 0 y b < P x 1 y b
H2

P y b x 0 p x 0 P y b x 1 p x 1

1 4 2 1
. .
3 5 3 5
4
2

15 15
On receiving y = b, we should decide in favour of x = 0 only.
Probability of correct reception

8 4 12 4
1
Probability of error =
15 15 15 5
5

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## ECTest ID: 161274

27.

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## There are 4 constellation point surrounded by two boundaries.

d 2
Pe of each of constellation point is 2A

## There are 4 constellation point surrounded by three boundaries

d 2
Pe of each constellation point is 3Q

1
d 2
d 2
Avg. probability of error 4.2Q
4.3Q

8

5 d 2
Q

2
Q
x

d 2
d 2
x

d
2

28.

d
2

1
f
f
sin c 4t
rect
4
4
1
f
f
sin c 2t
rect
2
2

1
4
2

1
2

14
18

Slope
3

When two rectangular signals of different widths are convolved the resultant is a trapezium.
Area under the above trapezium is 1.
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10

## ECTest ID: 161274

29.

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## Under normal condition VBE 0.7V

VBE VB VE
5mA

0.7V 0 VE VE 0 0.7V.
VE 0
VB
1
V
I E 1 E 1 0.7 0.3mA Ic 1
1
Vc 5 0.3 .1 4.7V Vc 4.7V

1k

IE 1

IB 0
IE

IE 1
VE

1mA

30.

Given P A =P A/B
And P B/A

VC

V, Ic

1k

1
4

1
2

P B/A

P A B
1
P A B P B/A .P A
8
P A

P A/B

P A B
P A B 1/ 8 1
P B

P B
P A / B 1/ 4 2

Clearly P A B P A P B

1 1 1
.
2 4 8

## A and B are independent

P A B

P A /B
P
B

P A .P B
1 3

1
P B
4 4

P B A

And similarly P B / A

PA

All are correct
31.

P B .P A
1
2

PA

N A 1018 cm 3
N D 1016 cm 3

From Figure
From mass action Law

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11

## ECTest ID: 161274

p P0 N A , n p0

n i2
NA

n n0 ND , pn0

n i2
ND

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0.70

0.7

## y n x p 2 102 e 0.0256 9.856 1013 cm 3

y z 9.9511015 cm3
C
2 VO ,
At node x voltage x =
C
3
C
2

Vi

V0

32.

V0
3 ,

1
SC

V0
V0
Vi
VO
3
0
By Nodal analysis 3
1
1
SC
SC

So, Vi

Vo
3

At output node
Ix i' i

2 VO
3
V

O
3
1
SC
SC
SC VO

Vx 2V0
Vx
2
1
C

Ceq
F
C
Ix
SC
2
S
2

33.

from [G]
Coefficient matrix [P] is

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## ECTest ID: 161274

1
0
p 1

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1 0
1 0 1 1
1 1
and its transpose is P T 1 1 0 1

0 1

0
1
1
1

1 1

## From above, the parity check matrix can be written as

H PT : I
1 0 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 1 0 0 1 37

From above matrix, that no two columns of [H] add up to zero, but sum of three columns of [H]
can produce , here columns are 14, 7 d* = 3.
34.

If Vin 0, D1 is ON , D 2 Off
V0

R3
R
Vin 3 Vin Vin
R1
20k

(i)

If Vin 0, D1 is OFF , D 2 ON

R3
Vin Vin
20k
R 3 20k
V0

## So, From (1) R 1

35.

20k
10 k
2

I
1
I
a 2

2
1

a 2

H = H1+H2+H3

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## ECTest ID: 161274

H1
H1

H1

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I
sin 1 sin 2 a
4
I
a
4

2 3

sin 60 sin 60

3I
2a

H 3H1

36.

TarGATE16

Here H1 H 2 H3
9I
2a

By Gauss-Divergence theorem,

## F.n ds div Fdv y+z+x dxdydz

v

x0 y0 z0 x+y+z dz dydx

1
1
1
x2

1
1 1

x+y dy dx x dx +x
2
2 2
2
0
x 0
0
y 0
1

1.5
37.

## Energy absorbed by resistor during t = 0 to is

E R t i 2R R dt
0

iR ic c

dVc
dt

Vc t VS 1 e t RC ; t 0
d
d
V
i R c VS VSe t RC S e t RC ; t 0
dt
dt
R
2

E R t S e t RC R dt
R

VS2 RC2t
e dt
R 0

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## ECTest ID: 161274

38.

VS2
R

CVS2
1
0 1 CVS2
2
2

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RC 2t RC

2 e
0

## The C.E. of system is 1+GH = 0

S3+(3+k)S2+(2+18k)S+80K = 0
S3
S2

S1

1
3 K

2 18K
80K

3 K 2 18K 80K

3 K
80K

## the various constraint for stability are

(a) 3 + k > 0 k > -3
(b) 80 k > 0 k > 0
from a and b we can have k > 0
(c) (3+k)(2+18k)-80k > 0
18k 2 56k 6 80k 0
4

k2 k 0
3
3
1

k k 1 0
3

k k 1 0 ,
3

From Equation
Both term should be +ve or both ve
*

If both ve
1
k &k 1
3

if both ve
1
k &k 1
3

combiningly k 1 *

combining k

1
3

## Combining the conclusion from a, b and c is

k 0 and k 1 1 k
or
1
1

k 0 and k 3 1 k 3

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## so system is stable in 1 k and 0 k

www.gateforum.com

1
1
so unstable range is k 1
3
3
akb

So a/b = 1/3

39.

I0
I REF

3 Is 2

1 Is1

4
I REF Ic 1

3 V V
BE
I0 IREF
1 0

4
V
1
A2

3 5 0.7
300 4.3
I0 5mA
1
5mA
1
15.663mA

4
100
104 100
1

100
50
R0
3.192k
15.663mA

40.

m
p
3
E E
KT n
Fi
midgap 4

mn

E
So E

41.

3
0.0256 n 3 E
0.0210 eV
midgap 4
midgap

Fi

VGS2 Vt VG VS2
So, VS2 Vt
id1 max VGS1 VS
Vt 2VoV Vt 2 VOV
V0V

I
kx '

W
L

## id max 2 V0V 3.16V

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## ECTest ID: 161274

42.

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The periodic square wave comprises of infinite number of harmonic component. Each component
will contribute one component to the current i(t). So here at first we need to
derive
the
source whose frequency is g rad/sec.
The above square wave satisfy half wave and odd symmetry of Fourier series so we have
only sine terms having frequency 0 , 30 , 50
i.e. an = 0 and bn will exist only for odd n
Here we have 0

2 2

## 1, so the source frequency that we are interested is 90 .

T 2

bn

2
V t sin n 0 t dt
T 0

2
10

10sin n t dt
cos nt 0

2 0
n

10
10
n
cos 0 cos n 1 1
n
n

10
20
1 1
n
9
so our sourceof interest is

b9

bn sin 90 t

20
sin 9t
9

20
20
90
90
0
I 9
9
0.078 173.65
1 j9
82 tan 1 9
i t 0.078cos 9t 173.65
comparing with i t A sin 9t
A 0.078
43.

If V & I are in phase means the areas circuit is operating on resonant frequency.
W0

1
1

LC
(10 mH)(1 f)

50

L
.
R

0 (10 mH)
R coil

R coil

X L 100

2
50 50

## Total amount of average power supplied from source is

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## ECTest ID: 161274

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## P (Irms )2 8 R coil I rms 10

Irm

100
1A
8 2 j10 j10
2

P I rm 10 10W

44.

Pres p t .

A er A et
2R 2

A er

2
2
D
1.5 1.6786
4
4

A et

2
2
D
1.642 1.8375
4
4

Pres

Pt . 1.6786 1.8375

3.75

3 2

20 10

## Pres 5.48 108 W

45.

E 2 2 sin t z a x 2 2 sin t z a y
4
4

## So, it is left hand circular polarization, Phase shift is -900

46.

We know n bit SAR type converter takes n clock to convert the analog signal.
Vx = k (Decimal of binary input)
In 1st clock, input to DAC is = (1000)2 = 8
So Vx 8 0.5 4V, so it maintain (1000)2.

V4 6.7V

Vx

SARregister

## In 2nd clock, input to DAC is = (1100)2 = 12

So Vx 12 0.5 6V, so it maintain (1100)2
In 3rd clock, input to DAC is = (1110)2 = 14
So Vx 14 0.5 7V, (6.7<7) so it has (1100)2

4bit O Pregister

## In 4th clock input to DAC is 1101

finally Vx = 6.5V
So Va Vx = 6.7-0.5 = 0.2V
47.

## 4bit DAC k 0.5V

To know how many poles and zeros, we should have all slopes.

## 1st line slope is -20 db/dec

Since at = 100, |M| = 40 db

= 1k; |M| = 20 db
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## ECTest ID: 161274

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## 3rd line slope is -20 db/dec

Since at = 10k, |M| = 20

= 100k; |M| = 0
to find slope of 2nd line, we need the frequency w.r.t.
|M| = 10
-20

10 20
x 3.162 k
log x log 1000

## So slope of middle line

20 10
log 10000 log 3162.2

20 db dec

So number of poles = 3
1 at origin
2 at = 1k

## Number of zero = 2 at = 3.162k

So sum of poles and zero = 3+2 = 5
48.

S x y; C xy;

## 2nd HALF ADDER

S x y xy;

c x y xy

S x y 1 x

c xy xy xy 0

S x xy
S x xy x xy
S xy x x y
S xy x xy
S xy x
Sxy
1BIT COMPARATOR
A x y; B 0;
q A B A B x y 0 x y x y

r A B AB x y 0 0;
q x, y r x, y x y

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## ECTest ID: 161274

49.

T11 1 11

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cos i
cos t

cos30
cos 45
3
1.37
1
2
2
T11 1.678
1 0.35

50.

G S

200
10

s s 1 s 2 20 s s 1 s 2

p 1800

tan 1 tan 1 2 90

2 1
2 0
1
2

2 1.414 rad s
G

10
2

10
2

2 1 4 2

10
1.67
6

M = 1.67
51.

sin t

1
3 2

## Positive half-cycle u (sin t) = 1

Negative half-cycle u (sin t) = 0
Thus the resultant signal u (sin t) is also periodic with the same period 2

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TarGATE16

## ECTest ID: 161274

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u sin t

## Shift the DC level of the signal by

1
2

1
2

on shifting the DC level, odd-symmetry and half-wave symmetric can be observed on the signal.
Thus only odd sine terms will exist in the signal.
As the DC level is shifted by a certain value the signal has a non-zero DC value
52.

## Taking Laplace transform of given equation

s 2 y(s) sy(0) y(0) y(s)

1
s2

## applying y(0) 1,y(0) 2

1
s2
y(s) 2 2
2
s (s 1) s 1

1
s2
L1[y(s)] L1 2 2
2
s (s 1) s 1
y(t) t cost 3sint

53.

x t b

x at b y t

Scale by 'a'

1 b

3b

1 b
a

3 b
a

1 b 1 3 b 3
;

a
4 a
2
4 4b a;6 2b 3a

On solving b = 0.6

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## ECTest ID: 161274

54.

1 0
Let L U = A; where L l2 1
l31 l32
1
l21
l31

0
1
l32

0 U11
0 0
1 0

U12
U 22

0
U11

0 ; U 0
0
1

U12
U 22
0

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U13
U 23
U 33

U13 3 2 7
U 23 2 3 1
U 33 3 4 1

u12
u11

l21u11 l21u12 u 22
l31u11 l31u12 l32 u 22

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u13
l21u13 u 23

3 2 7
2 3 1

l21u13 l32 u 23 u 33 3 4 1

## By equating the corresponding elements of first row;

u11 3, u12 2, u137

## Similarly, l21u11 2 l21 2 / 3

2
5
l21u12 u 22 3 (2) u 22 3 u 22
3
3
Similarly,
l 21u13 u 23 1 u 23

11
3

l31u11 3 l31 1
l21u12 l32 u 22 4 l32

6
5

l21u13 l32 u 23 u 33 1 u 33

8
5

0 0
7
1
3 2

Thus L 2 / 3 1
0 and u 0 5 / 3 1 / 3
0
0 0 8 / 5
6 / 5 1

55.

First DCR L executes 255 times, then it moves DCR H instruction this instruction is decremented
by 1, at that time DCR L will execute 256 times.
So, finally 255 256 237 60927.

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22