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Problem Identification

Review of Related Literature

Objectives Formulation
Formulation of Hypothesis

Conceptual Framework
Research Design

Data Collection

Data Analysis and Interpretation

Conclusion and Recommendation

Report Writing

Problem a perceive difficulty or a feeling of discomfort with the way things are or
a discrepancy between what is and what should be.

The heart of every research because it is the paramount in the

importance to the success of the research effort, thus the situation
is simple: No Problem, No Research.

Problem could be:

Conditions they want to improve
Difficulties they want to eliminate
Questions for which they want answers
Information gaps they wish to fill
Theories they wish to validate


1.)General Factors
a. Availability of funds
b. Interest
c. Ability and training of the researcher
2.) Specific Factors
a. Problem must be researchable. (Researchable can be perceived
through research. Data can be collected, organized and interpreted
to answer new problem.)
b. It must be specific.
c. It must be feasible / attainable.
d. It must have significance.


Literature refers to all the writings having an excellence of form

or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal
interest produced in a particular language, country or age.
Related implies that the literature reviewed has some
connection, bearing or relation to the problem or concern under
Review to study something again.

Review of Related Literature the process of collecting, selecting and reading

books, journals, reports, abstracts, and other reference materials. The ff. info maybe
1.) Background info about the problem and related concepts.

2.) Theories that explain the existence of the problem and the possible
connection between certain factors and the problem.
3.) Data that confirms the existence and seriousness of the problem.
4.) General and specific findings of studies related to the problem.
5.) Recommendations for further study given in related studies.
Types of Literature
o Research Literature refers to written reports on the result if
researchers or studies which were done previously, either
published or unpublished.
o Conceptual Literature consists of article or books written by
authorities giving their opinions, experience, theories or ideas of
what is good and bad, desirable and undesirable within the
problem area.
Ways of Presenting Reviewed Literature
1.) Chronological Approach according to the time they were written, that is,
following the time-sequence pattern. The recent ones should be presented
first going as far back as three to five years ago.
2.) Type of Literature Approach literature is classified into two categories
conceptual and research with the former presented first.
3.) Findings, Theme or Topic Approach bring together and classify reviewed
literature according to similarity of findings, themes or topics.
4.) Country Approach classifies literature by country or into local and
foreign studies categories.
RRL Summary:

Summarized studies directly related to your research.

Use the authors ideas and put them in your own words
(paraphrasing); or use the authors exact words (direct
Include only relevant information; Most recent findings
Identification of gaps in existing knowledge about the
problem being studied.
Do not simple enumerate; synthesize all readings on each
Prepare an outline of your literature review, put subheadings to make the presentation easy to follow and

Documents the written sources of information used in the study.

Includes pertinent resource materials in the research paper

Lists all books, papers, journal articles and communication cited in the paper.


Arrange the bibliographical entries alphabetically
American Psychological Association (APA) style is preferably used.
Reference to start at the left margin, second line should be indented to 6
If there are more than six authors, list the first six and then use et. al.
Suggested Format in Writing the Background of the Study
What is the current problem?
What are some initiatives undertaken to solve/address the problem?
What is/are the weakness/es of the solutions done before?
What is unique about the solution that I am going to provide through this

The third stage of research process

Refers to the statements of purpose for which the investigation is to be
conducted. It describes the aims or goals which are expected to be attained
at the end of the research process, the research problem is the initiating
reason for the study, and the research objective should be anchored or based
on it.
Types of Research Objective
1.)General Objective a broad statement of purpose which uses abstract and
non-measurable concepts.
- More often than not, the general objective is the rephrase of the
research title and usually starts with infinitive verbs.
2.)Specific Objective statement of purpose which uses well-defines and
measurable concepts
- the formulation of which should be based on and logically flow from
the general objective.
Classifications of objectives based on the analytical
Descriptive does not require hypothesis
Comparative/Relational require hypothesis


Specific objectives maybe stated in declarative or interrogative form

The statement of objectives should include the independent and dependent
Follow a logical flow when stating the objectives of the study; descriptive
objectives should be stated first, followed by comparative then relational.
Fourth stage of the research process.
Formulation of the study hypothesis on the basis of the
study objectives, particularly the specified ones.
Is a statement about expected relationships between two
or more variables which permit empirical testing.
Is a tentative assertion or proposition whose validity shall
be tested in the course of the research.
Described as educated or intelligent guess because its
formulation involves critical thinking and decision on the
basis of well-thought-of objectives, research paradigm and
review of related literature.
Its veracity, that it is whether it is true or not, will be
tested using the data that will be gathered.
Major Types of Hypothesis:
Null hypothesis denial of relationship, difference or an effect. As
such, it is expressed in the negative form of a statement.
Alternative hypothesis formal affirmative statement predicting
a single research outcome. It is the very opposite of what the null
hypothesis predicts.
Should always be in declarative form.
Number of hypothesis depends on the number of research objectives
which are comparative and relation in nature.
Like in the objective, hypothesis shows the independent and dependent

a general statement which forms the frame of reference for your inquiry or
investigation; usually written in a form of a diagram.

Sets out a rationale which underlies (a) why you do what you do? (b) how do
you do your research?
Functions of Conceptual Framework
1.)It provides general framework which can guide the data analysis.
2.)It identifies the variables to be measured.
3.)It explains why one variable can possible affect another.
4.)It limits the scope of data relevant to the framework by focusing on the


The scope defines the coverage or the boundary of the study in terms of:
Scope of the problem
Area or locality of the study
Reference population/sample size
Duration or period
Treatments done
Instruments used or research design

Statements which alert the reader of the research report to certain

conditions which are beyond the control of the researcher.
Delimitations factors which affect the scope of a research study and
are capable of being controlled by the researcher.
Helps the readers of a report or proposal in understanding the
research objectives, method (s) and findings because here they key
concepts are defined not only conceptually but most importantly,
operationally, that is, according to how they are used in the study.
Types of Definition of Terms:
1.) Conceptual Definition the universal meaning that is attributed
to a word or group of words and is understood by many people;
the dictionary is used as reference.
2.) Operational Definition meaning as used or measured in a
particular study.

Terms should be arranged alphabetically.
Conceptual definition of the term should come first before the operational
Operational terms should be enclosed with quotation marks as they have
peculiar meanings in a particular study.
Credit should be given to the sources of conceptual definitions of terms

Operational definition is on another paragraph.


Highlights the possible contributions of the research findings to the country or
to various sectors of the society.
Describes (a) the relevance of the research to felt needs; (b) how the
research output maybe directly useful to people; (c) how the research
contributes to the advance of science.
Content of Methodology
a. All processes done during actual experimentation
b. All materials and amount used in the study.
c. Description of experimental and control set-ups
d. Kind of data gathered.
e. Number of trials and replicates done.
f. Description of samples and reference population
g. Management of sample plants/ or animals.
h. Sampling Technique
i. Identification and classification of variables.
j. Chemical, physical and microbiological analysis of samples
k. Manner of data collection, organization and processing.
l. Statistical analysis
m. Limitation in the methods that have been discovered during the
Research Design
- A complete sequence of steps or procedures that need to be
followed when obtaining the needed data during an investigation.
- Involves the logical structure and organization of an experiment.
- A detail plan of the sampling procedures, data collection and data
analysis followed by the investigator during the actual

Principles of Research Design

1.) Replication refers to the repetition of the basic experiment done to
provide an estimate of variation among observations on units treated
alike, assessing the significance of observed differences.
Its purpose is to increase the volume of data through the
execution of the entire experiment more than once.

2.) Randomization refers to the assignment of the experimental units to

the treatments or vice versa by chance.
- Its purpose is to show that a factor among various others can best
be considered as the cause of an observed phenomenon and not the
other factors.
- It ensures a valid or unbiased estimate of population parameters
e.g. means and differences between treatments.