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1.

After reviewing your classmates drawings, were there computer devices that you could
have included on your diagram? If so, which ones and why?
* I PC1 because another pc already taken

2. After reviewing your classmates drawings, how were some of the model designs the
same or different? What modifications would you make to your drawing after reviewing
the other drawings?
**

Adfr
Different models of his designs . I do not add anything to the model of my designs

3. In what way could icons on a network drawing provide a streamlined thought process
and facilitate
your learning? Explain your answer.
*I think the icons on the Cisco packet tracer has been very helpful in learning computer
network

MAPPING THE INTERNET


Part One
1. All these pings were run from a computer located in the U.S. What happens to the
average ping time in milliseconds when data is traveling within the same continent
(North America) as compared to data from North America traveling to different
continents?
Every time the ping takes a little longer to be received.
2. What is interesting about the pings that were sent to the European website?
The request timed out assuming that it takes a little longer to receive a ping from
Europe causing it to time out.
Part Two
3. What happens at hop 7? Is level3.net the same ISP as hops 2-6, or a different ISP?
Use the whois tool to answer this question.
In hop 7, the IP address changes from the previous hops because it found a new ISP to
hop to. Theyre different because the hop 2-6 ISP is Verizon while hops 7 ISP is Level 3
Communications.
4. What happens in hop 10 to the amount of time it takes for a packet to travel between
Washington D.C. and Paris, as compared with the earlier hops 1-9?
It causes the hop to take a little longer to get to Paris because its farther away but still
manages to reach.
5. What happens in hop 18? Do a whois lookup on 168.209.201.74 using the whois
tool. Who owns this network?
In hop 18, it has reached afrinic.net POP router and no body owns this ISP.

Part Three

6. How is the traceroute different when going to www.cisco.com from the command
prompt (see Part 1) rather than from the online website? (Your results may vary
depending upon where you are located geographically, and which ISP is providing
connectivity to your school.)
The tracert command prompt is different than the online website because with the
prompt, it used pings from my service provider to get to cisco.com while the online
website took a different route to the cisco website.
7. Compare the tracert from Part 1 that goes to Africa with the tracert that goes to
Africa from the web interface. What difference do you notice?
It took a couple more pings in the command than the online website for it to get to the
website in Africa. Im assuming the reason it pings faster to Africa using the online
website because the command prompt will have to connect to the internet while youre
already on the internet using the online website creating a shorter distance to ping.
8. Some of the traceroutes have the abbreviation asymm in them. Any guesses as to
what this means? What is its significance?
means the the path to the hop and back have been different (asymmetric). This usually
happens when there is some link in one direction jammed or the network architecture
encourages different paths for the different directions.
Part Four
Step 1: List the path to www.cisco.com using tracert.
1

1 ms

1 ms

<1 ms 192.168.0.1

Request timed out.

14 ms

41 ms

47 ms

41 ms rc3ar-tge0-6-0-17.ed.shawcable.net [66.163.76.198]

43 ms

44 ms

34 ms rc4ec-hge0-9-0-1.il.shawcable.net [66.163.77.202]

41 ms

35 ms

33 ms eqx-ch.3-2.r1.ch.hwng.net [206.223.119.96]

34 ms

34 ms

25 ms 209.197.20.23

11 ms rc2nr-tge0-1-0-25-21.wp.shawcable.net [64.59.178.133]

8 34 ms 33 ms
[23.197.144.170]

24 ms a23-197-144-170.deploy.static.akamaitechnologies.com

Step 2: List the path to www.cisco.com using the web-based tool on subnetonline.com.
1: pera.subnetonline.com (141.138.203.105)
1: gw-v130.xl-is.net (141.138.203.1)
2: rt-eu01-v2.xl-is.net (79.170.92.19)

0.215ms pmtu 1500


0.488ms
0.701ms

3: xl-internetservices.nikhef.openpeering.nl (217.170.0.225) 7.311ms


4: amsix-ams9.netarch.akamai.com (195.69.144.168)

1.937ms

5-31: No Reply
Too many hops: pmtu 1500
Resume: pmtu 1500
---- Finished -----Step 3: List the path to www.cisco.com using VisualRoute Lite edition.
196.168.56.1
192.168.0.1
64.59.178.133
66.163.73.198
66.163.78.213
66.163.73.202
66.163.76.198
66.163.78.209
66.163.65.114
66.163.78.85
66.163.77.206

66.163.65.70
66.163.75.117
66.163.77.202
66.163.65.118
206.223.119.96
209.197.20.23
23.197.144.170
9. Did all the traceroute utilities use the same paths to www.cisco.com? Why or Why
not?
No it didnt because every path is unique and can take a different route to get to its
destination causing it to take a different path each time.
Reflection
10. Having now viewed traceroute through three different tools (tracert, web interface,
and VisualRoute), are there any insights that using VisualRoute provided that the
other two tools did not?
I believe using VisualRoute is a good way to see the path we take to reach a website
because it breaks it down the information better by separating them into rows. It also
has a great visual path showing the user how they are getting to the website.

Chapter 1 Introduction to Switched Networks 1.0.1.2 Class Activity Sent or Received


Instructor Note:

Objectives
Describe convergence of data, voice, and video in the context of switched networks.

Scenario
Individually, or in groups (per the instructors decision), discuss various ways hosts send and
receive data, voice, and streaming video.
Develop a matrix (table) listing network data types that can be sent and received. Provide five
examples.
Your matrix table might look something like this:
. Reflection 1.
1. What are some problems that may be encountered if you receive streaming video from your
instructors server through a low-end switch?
Answers will vary bandwidth might be too low for the video stream to many recipients causing
lag time distortion may result in picture, audio, etc. Some stations could be kicked out as a
result of traffic overload depending on the application program being used to stream the video,
etc. There is also the possibility of sniffing or snooping depending on how the switch is
configured.
2.How would the traffic flow be determined: multicast or broadcast in transmission?
When users have to log in to the application to receive the video transmission, this would be
considered a multicast. If students are set up collectively into a group by the
server to push the stream, it would be considered a broadcast on the LAN side.
1.3.1.1 Class Activity Its Network Access Time 3
3.What would influence your decision on the type of switch to use for voice, streaming video
and regular data these types of transmissions?
Answers will vary if the switch will be also used for WAN streams and other intensive
download traffic, a higher level switch would be used
4.As you learned in the first course of the Academy, video and voice use a special TCP/IP model,
transportlayer protocol.What protocol is used in this layer and why is it important to voice and video
streaming?

is an alternative communications protocol to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) used primarily for
establishing low-latency and loss tolerating connections between applications on the Internet. Both
UDP and TCP run on top of the Internet Protocol (IP) and are sometimes referred to as UDP/IP or
TCP/IP. Both protocols send short packets of data, called datagrams.

NETWORK AND DESIGN


Explain the need to design a hierarchical network that is scalable.
The Cisco hierarchical (three-layer) internetworking model is an industry wide adopted
model for designing a reliable, scalable, and cost-efficient internetwork. In this section, you
will learn about the access, distribution, and core layers and their role in the hierarchical
network model.

Step 1: Use the Internet to find information and take notes about the Cisco three-layer
hierarchical model. The site should include information about the:

Access layer: Provides workgroup/user access to the network


Distribution layer: Provides policy-based connectivity and controls the boundary
between the access and core layers
Core layer: Provides fast transport between distribution switches within the
enterprise campus

Step 2: In your research, make sure to include:

a. A simple definition of each hierarchical layer

Packet filtering (firewalling): Processes packets and regulates the transmission of


packets based on its source and destination information to create network borders.
QoS: The router or layer 3 switches can read packets and prioritize delivery, based
on policies you set.
Access Layer Aggregation Point: The layer serves the aggregation point for the
desktop layer switches.
Control Broadcast and Multicast: The layer serves as the boundary for broadcast
and multicast domains.
Application Gateways: The layer allows you to create protocol gateways to and
from different network architectures.
The distribution layer also performs queuing and provides packet manipulation of the
network traffic.

b. Three concise facts about each layer

Enable MAC address filtering: It is possible to program a switch to allow only certain systems to
access the connected LANs.
Create separate collision domains: A switch can create separate collision domains for each
connected node to improve performance.
Share bandwidth: You can allow the same network connection to handle all data.

c. Network device capabilities needed at each layer


d. A detailed graphic that shows a full, three-layer hierarchical model design Step

3: Create a simple table to organize and share your research with another student, group, the class, or
instructor.

Lab Researching WAN Technologies

Objectives
Part 1: Investigate Dedicated WAN Technologies and Providers
Part 2: Investigate a Dedicated Leased Line Service Provider in Your Area

Background / Scenario
Todays broadband Internet services are fast, affordable, and secure using VPN technologies. However, many
companies still find the need for a 24-hour dedicated connection to the Internet or a dedicated point-topoint
connection from one office location to another. In this lab, you will investigate the cost and availability of
purchasing a dedicated T1 Internet connection for your home or business.

Required Resources
Device with Internet access

Part 1: Investigate Dedicated WAN Technologies and Providers


In Part 1, you will research basic characteristics of dedicated WAN technologies, and in Step 2, you will
discover providers that offer dedicated WAN services.

Step 1: Research WAN technology characteristics.


Use search engines and websites to research the following WAN technologies to complete the table below.
Last Mile Media
WAN Technology

Dedicated
Connection
(yes/no)

Copper
(yes/no)

Fiber
(yes/no)

Wireless
(yes/no)

Speed/Range

T1/DS1

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

1.544 Mb/s

T3/DS3

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

44.736 Mb/s

OC3 (SONET)

Yes

No

Yes

No

155.52 Mb/s

Frame Relay

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

56 Kb/s - 1.544 Mb/s

ATM

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

155 Mb/s 622 Mb/s

MPLS

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Up to 10 Gb/s

EPL (Ethernet Private Line)

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Up to 10 Gb/s

Step 2: Discover dedicated WAN technology service providers.


Navigate to http://www.telarus.com/carriers.html. This webpage lists the Internet service providers (also
known as carriers) that partner with Telarus to provide automated real-time telecom pricing. Click the links to
the various carrier partners and search for the dedicated WAN technologies that they provide. Complete the
table below by identifying each service providers dedicated WAN services, based on the information provided
on the website. Use the extra lines provided in the table to record additional service providers.

Internet Service
Provider

T1/DS1/PRI

T3/DS3

OC3
(SONET)

Frame
Relay

ATM

MPLS

EPL
Ethernet Private Line

Comcast
Integra
tw telecom

x
x

AT&T
Cbeyond
Earthlink
Level 3
Communications
XO
Communications
Verizon

Part 2: Investigate a Dedicated Leased Line Service Provider in Your Area


In Part 2, you will research a local service provider that will provide a T1 dedicated leased line to the
geographical area specified. This application requires a name, address, and phone number before the search
can be performed. You may wish to use your current information or research an address locally where a
business might be looking for a WAN connection.

Step 1: Navigate to http://www.telarus.com/geoquote.html to try GeoQuote.


GeoQuote is a web application that automates the search for WAN technology service providers, and
provides price quotes in real-time. Fill in the required fields.
a. Click the Service Type drop-down list and select Data (High Speed Internet).
b. Type your First Name and Last Name, your sample Company, and your Email address.
c.

Type the Phone Number to connect to the WAN. This number should be a landline number. d. Click the
button marked Step 2.

Step 2: Select the service type.


Choose Internet T1 (1.5 MB) and scroll down to Step 3 on the webpage.

Step 3: Enter installation information.


a. In the Installation BTN field, enter your sample business telephone number. This should be a landline
number.
b. Enter your address, city, state, and zip code.

Step 4: Enter contact preferences.


a. Do not click the first radio button (Please call me ASAP at), but do provide your contact telephone number.
b. Click the I am just window shopping radio button.
c.

Click Continue.

Step 5: Examine the results.


You should see a list of quotes showing the available pricing of a T1 connection to the location you specified.
Was the pricing in the area you chose comparable to those pictured below?

What was the range of prices from your results?


Answers will vary depending on service location and availability.

Reflection
1. What are the disadvantages to using a T1 leased line for personal home use? What would be a better
solution?
A symmetrical service such as T1 would be more expensive and unnecessary for home use. Home users
typically do much more downloading than uploading and an asymmetrical service such as DSL or Cable could
provide faster downloads at a more affordable price
2. When might the use of a dedicated WAN connection, of any type, be a good connectivity solution for a
business.
A business, which requires fast Internet speeds, both download and upload, and an
uninterrupted connection would benefit from a dedicated connection.

3. Describe other WAN technologies that provide high-speed, low-cost options that could be an alternative
solution to a T1 connection.
Frame Relay, MPLS, and Metro Ethernet or Ethernet Private Line (EPL) are technologies that would be worth
researching.

Lab - Establishing a Console Session with Tera Term


C. While you are in the user EXEC mode, display the IOS version for your switch.
Switch> show version Cisco IOS Software, C2960 Software (C2960LANBASEK9-M), Version 15.0(2)SE, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Technical
Support: http://www.cisco.com/techsupport Copyright (c) 1986-2012 by Cisco
Systems, Inc. Compiled Sat 28-Jul-12 00:29 by prod_rel_team ROM: Bootstrap
program is C2960 boot loader BOOTLDR: C2960 Boot Loader (C2960-HBOOTM) Version 12.2(53r)SEY3, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) Switch uptime is 2
minutes System returned to ROM by power-on System image file is
"flash://c2960-lanbasek9-mz.150" Which IOS image version is currently in use by your switch?
*c2960-lanbasek9-mz.150-2.SE.bin. Answers will vary depending on the switch.
Lab - Building a Simple Network

FastEthernet0/4
FastEthernet0/5
FastEthernet0/6
FastEthernet0/7
FastEthernet0/8
FastEthernet0/9
FastEthernet0/10
FastEthernet0/11
FastEthernet0/12
FastEthernet0/13
FastEthernet0/14
FastEthernet0/15
FastEthernet0/16
FastEthernet0/17
FastEthernet0/18
FastEthernet0/19
FastEthernet0/20
FastEthernet0/21
FastEthernet0/22
FastEthernet0/23
FastEthernet0/24
GigabitEthernet0/1
GigabitEthernet0/2

unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES
unassigned YES

unset down
unset down
unset up
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down
unset down

down
down
up
down
down
down
down
down
down
down
down
down
down
down
down
down
down
down
down
down
down
down
down

S1

S2

S2

S1

Protocol

Status

Protocol

Status

F0/1

Up

Up

Up

Up

F0/6

Up

Down

Down

Up

F0/18

Down

Up

Up

Down

VLAN 1

Up

Up

Up

Up

Interface

Why are some Fast Ethernet ports on the switches are up and others are down?
The Fast Ethernet ports are up when cables are connected to the ports unless they were manually shutdown
by the administrators. Otherwise, the ports would be down.
Reflection:
What could prevent a ping from being sent between the PCs? Lab
Wrong IP address, media disconnected, switch powered off or ports administratively down, firewall. Note: It
may be necessary to disable the PC firewall to ping between PCs
.

Reflection

1. How do you prevent unauthorized personnel from accessing your Cisco device
through the console port?
*Physically secure the device and the use password protection.
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using the serial console
connection as compared to the USB console connection to a Cisco router or switch?
*It depend on the port available on the PC and the router or the switch. If the Pc has a
serial and DB9-to RJ45 cable is available , it is generally easier to connect the router or
switch using the serial console port. If the PC does not have a serial port, a third party USB
is not an option. If connecting frequently to a CISCO router that has a Mini USB console
port this can be the most effective method ones the CISCO driver are installed, because
nearly all newer PCs have USB ports.

Lab - Researching Networking Standards

Part 1: Research Networking Standards Organizations


In Part 1, you will identify some of the major standards organizations and important characteristics, such as
the number of years in existence, the size of their membership, the important historical figures, some of the
responsibilities and duties, organizational oversight role, and the location of the organizations headquarters.
Use a web browser or websites for various organizations to research information about the following
organizations and the people who have been instrumental in maintaining them. You can find answers to the
questions below by searching the following organizational acronyms and terms: ISO, ITU, ICANN, IANA,
IEEE, EIA, TIA, ISOC, IAB, IETF, W3C, RFC, and Wi-Fi Alliance.

1. Who is Jonathan B. Postel and what is he known for?

2. Which two related organizations are responsible for managing the top-level domain
name space and the root Domain Name System (DNS) name servers on the
Internet?
3. Vinton Cerf has been called one of main fathers of the Internet. What Internet
organizations did he chair or help found? What Internet technologies did he help to
develop?

4. What organization is responsible for publishing Request for Comments (RFC)?

5. What do RFC 349 and RFC 1700 have in common?

6. What RFC number is the ARPAWOCKY? What is it?


7. Who founded the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)?
8. Name 10 World Wide Web (WWW) standards that the W3C develops and maintains?

9. Where is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) headquarters located and what is the
significance of its logo?
10. What is the IEEE standard for the Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) security protocol?

11. Is the Wi-Fi Alliance a non-profit standards organization? What is their goal? 12. Who is Hamadoun
Tour?

13. What is the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and where is it headquartered?

14. Name the three ITU sectors? 15. What does the RS in RS-232 stand for and which organization
introduced it?

16. What is SpaceWire?

17. What is the mission of the ISOC and where are its headquarters located?

18. What organizations does the IAB oversee?

19. What organization oversees the IAB? 20. When was the ISO founded and where are its headquarters
located?