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ECE 5260 Microwave Engineering

University of Virginia
Spring 2016
Homework # 1
Due: Thursday, January 28
1. This one is easy, but pay attention, it points out some important aspects of using decibels.
Using Matlab (or your favorite math program) plot the power function P (x) = sinc2 (x) (mW)
for 5 x 5.
(you can ignore the divide by zero warning)
(a) Plot the power in mW from 0 to 1 mW.
(b) Plot the power in dBm from -30 to 0 dBm.
Discuss the significant differences between these two plots.
2. Consider a generator with impedance Zg = Rg +jXg and open circuit rms voltage of V0 . Find
the maximum power available from this generator and the corresponding load impedance that
produces the maximum available power (this is essentially impedance matching at low frequencies).

3. The circuit model shown below can be used to represent a section of transmission line, one of
the most important components used in microwave circuit design. The lumped impedance Z
represents series inductance and resistance along the conductors of the transmission line. The
lumped admittance Y represents shunt conductance and capacitance between the transmission
line conductors.

Suppose the transmission line shown above is semi-infinite. That is, it is sufficiently long in
the x-direction that we need not consider the effect of the far end. The impedance seen looking
into the end of a semi-infinite transmission line is known as the characteristic impedance, Z0 .
(a) Find the characteristic impedance of the above transmission line in terms of Z and
Y . (Hint: One way to approach the problem is to consider adding one more section of
series Z and shunt Y to the input of the line. Will adding this extra section change the
impedance looking into the circuit?)

(b) Suppose the series impedance is purely inductive (Z = jL) and the shunt admittance is
purely capacitive (Y = jC). In this case, the transmission line is lossless because there
are no dissipative (resistive) elements in the model. Furthermore, assume the impedance
and admittance of each section are very small so that ZY << 1. Use this information
to find a simplified expression for the transmission line characteristic impedance.
4. Two waves on a string are given by the following functions:
y1 (x, t) = 3 cos(20t 30x) (cm)
y2 (x, t) = 3 cos(20t + 30x) (cm)
where x is in centimeters. The waves are said to interfere constructively when their superposition |ys | = |y1 + y2 | is a maximum, and they interfere destructively when |ys | is a minimum.
(a) What are the directions of propagation of waves y1 (x, t) and y2 (x, t)?
(b) At t = (/50) s, at what location x do the two waves interfere constructively, and what
is the corresponding value of |ys |?
(c) At t = (/50) s, at what location x do the two waves interfere destructively, and what
is the corresponding value of |ys |?
5. The voltage of an electromagnetic wave traveling on a transmission line is given by
v(z, t) = 3 ez sin(2 109 t 10z) (V)
where z is the distance in meters from the generator,
(a) Find the frequency, wavelength, and phase velocity of the wave.
(b) At z = 2 m, the amplitude of the wave was measured to be 1 V. Find .