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cancer

Cancer or malignant neoplasm is a disease characterized by typical cell cycle


abnormalities that cause the cells' ability to:
Uncontrolled growth (cell division beyond the normal limits)
attack the nearby biological tissue.
migrate to other body tissues through blood circulation or lymphatic system, called
metastasis.
Three characters that distinguish this malignant cancer from benign tumors. Most cancers
form tumors, but some do not, such as leukemia. Branch of medical science relating to
the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer is called Oncology.
In general, cancer cells form a tumor, except in leukemia. The reaction between acid
tetraiodotiroasetat integrin is inhibiting hormone activity of thyroxine and tri-iodotironina
which is one of the factors that play a role in angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation.
[1] uncontrolled growth caused damage to DNA, causing mutations in vital genes that
control cell division . Some mutations may be required to change normal cells into cancer
cells. These mutations are often caused by chemical or physical agents called
carcinogens. Mutations can occur spontaneously (obtained) or inherited (germline
mutation). Cancer can cause many different symptoms, depending on the location and
character of malignancy, and presence or absence of metastasis. The diagnosis usually
requires microscopic examination of tissue obtained by biopsy. Once diagnosed, cancer is
usually treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation.
Most cancers cause death. Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in developing
countries. Most cancers can be treated and many cured, especially if treatment is started
early. Many forms of cancer associated with environmental factors that could have been
avoided. Smoking can cause cancer than many other environmental factors. Tumor
(Latin: swelling) appoint an abnormal mass of tissue, but can be a "malignant"
(cancerous) or "benign" (not cancerous). Only malignant tumors are capable of attacking
other networks or metastasize. Cancer can spread through the lymph nodes and blood
vessels to other organs.

What is cancer?
Cancer is a disease caused by the growth of body tissue cells that are not normal. Cancer
cells will grow rapidly, uncontrollably, and will continue to divide, then infiltrate into
surrounding tissues (invasive) and continue to spread through the connective tissue,
blood, and the attack vital organs and spinal cord. Under normal circumstances, cells will
divide only if there are replacement cells that have died and broken. Instead cancer cells
will divide continues even if the body does not need it, so it will happen accumulation of
new cells, called malignant tumors. Stacking the cells are urgent and damage normal
tissue, thus disturbing the organs they occupy. Cancer can occur in various tissues in
various organs in each body, from feet to head. When cancer occurs on the surface of the

body, will be easily detected and treated. But if there is in the body, the cancer will be
difficult to know and sometimes - sometimes have no symptoms. If symptoms occur, they
usually have an advanced stage that it is difficult to treat.

Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer or cancer of the cervix (often also called cervical cancer) is one of the
most common cancer for women. Every one hour, one woman died in Indonesia due to
cervical cancer or cervical cancer this. The facts show that millions of women in the
world are infected with HPV, which is considered a disease through sexual intercourse
most common in the world.
In Indonesia, every one hour, one woman died of cervical cancer
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), this infection is a major risk factor
for cervical cancer. Every year, hundreds of thousands of cases of HPV are diagnosed in
the world and thousands of women died of cervical cancer, caused by the infection.
Given the fact that this horrible, the various measures of prevention and treatment have
been made to address cervical cancer or cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer or cervical cancer occur in the reproductive organs of a woman. The
cervix is the narrow section at the bottom between the vagina and uterus of a woman. In
part this is happening place and the growth of cervical cancer. What causes cervical
cancer or cervical cancer? How do I prevent it? And how to handle it if it is infected with
HPV?

HPV
Cervical cancer caused by HPV infection (human papillomavirus) or human papilloma
virus. HPV causes warts in men and women, including genital warts, called condylomata
akuminatum. Only a few of the hundreds of variants of HPV that can cause cancer.
Cervical cancer or cervical cancer can occur if there is an infection that does not heal for
a long time. In contrast, most HPV infections will go away, overcome by the immune
system.

Causes

and

Symptoms

of

Cervical

Cancer

Cervical cancer attacks the area of the cervix or cervical infections caused by HPV
(human papillomavirus) that does not heal in a long time. If the immune system
decreases, the HPV infection will mengganas and can cause cervical cancer. Symptoms
did not appear at an early stage, that is why cervical cancer that starts from HPV infection
is considered as "The Silent Killer".

Some symptoms can be observed although not always an indication of HPV infection.
Whitish or spend a little blood after intercourse is little sign of symptoms of this cancer.
In addition, a yellowish liquid that smells in the genital area can also be an indication of
HPV infection. This virus can be transmitted from one patient to another and infect the
person. Transmission can be through direct contact and because of sex.
When there is this virus in a person's hand, then touching the genitals, the virus will move
and can infect the cervix or neck of your womb. Another transmission method is in the
closet in a public restroom that has been contaminated with the virus. A cancer patient
may use a closet, which contained the HPV virus in patients switch to the closet. When
you use it without cleaning it, the virus could then move to your genital area.
The poor person's lifestyle may be supporting the increasing number of patients with this
cancer. Smoking habits, lack of vitamin C, vitamin E and folic acid may be the cause. If
you eat nutritious foods will make the immune system can drive up and HPV virus.
Risk of cervical cancer is an active woman having sex since very early age, the frequently
changing sex partners, or who have sex with men who liked to switch partners. Another
causative factor is the Pill for a long time or come from families who have a history of
cancer.
Often times, a man who showed no symptoms of HPV infection that is spread it to their
partner. A man who had sex with a woman who suffered from cervical cancer, will
become the carrier of this virus. Furthermore, when a man is having sex with his wife, the
virus can move to his wife and infected him.

Detection of Cervical Cancer


How do I detect that a woman infected with HPV that cause cervical cancer? Symptoms
of a person infected with HPV are not visible and not easily observed. The easiest way to
find out by cytological examination of the cervix. This examination is currently popular
with the name of the Pap smear or Papanicolaou smear taken from a Greek doctor who
discovered this method of George N. Papanicolaou. However, there are also various other
methods for early detection of HPV infection and cervical cancer as follows:

IVA
IVA is the abbreviation of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid. Method of examination
with cervical smear or cervix with acetic acid. Then observe whether there is any
abnormality such as a white area. If no color change, then it can be no infection in the
cervix. You can do at the health center with a relatively cheap price. This can be done
only for early detection. If you detect any suspicious signs, the other detection methods
should be done further.

Pap smear
Pap smear test methods in common: the doctor uses a scraper or brush to remove a small
sample of cervical cells or cervical. Then these cells will be analyzed in the laboratory.
The test can reveal whether there is infection, inflammation, or abnormal cells.

According to reports the world, with regular Pap smear tests have reduced the number of
deaths from cervical cancer.

Thin prep
Thin prep method is more accurate than Pap smears. If a Pap smear only take some of the
cells in the cervix or cervix, the Thin prep will inspect all parts of the cervix or uterus. Of
course the result will be far more accurate and precise.

Treating Cervical Cancer


If infected with HPV, do not worry, because currently available a variety of treatments
that can control HPV infection. Some treatments aim to turn off the cells that contain the
HPV virus. Another way is by getting rid of damaged or infected with electric surgery,
laser surgery, or cryosurgery (remove the abnormal tissue by freezing).
If cervical cancer has reached the advanced stage, it will be done chemo therapy. In some
severe cases may also be performed hysterectomy is surgical removal of the uterus or
womb in total. The aim is to remove cervical cancer cells that have been developed in the
body.
However, prevention is better than cure. Therefore, how to prevent infection with HPV
and cervical cancer? Here are some ways you can do to prevent cervical cancer.

Preventing Cervical Cancer


Although cervical cancer is scary, but we all can prevent it. You can do a lot of
precautionary measures before ultimately infected with HPV and cervical cancer. Some
practical ways you can do in everyday life include:
Have a healthy diet, rich in vegetables, fruit and cereal to stimulate the immune system.
For example, consuming a variety of carotene, vitamins A, C, and E, and folic acid can
reduce the risk of cervical cancer.
Avoid smoking. Much evidence suggests the use of tobacco can increase the risk of
cervical cancer.
Avoid sex before marriage or at a very young age or a dozen years.
Avoid having sex during menstrual period proved to be effective to prevent and inhibit
the formation and development of cervical cancer.
Avoid having sex with multiple partners.
The routine Pap smear tests regularly. Currently, a Pap smear test can be done even at
the health center at an affordable price.
Alternative Pap smear is a test IVA with a cheaper cost of Pap smears. The goal for
early detection of HPV infection.
The HPV vaccine or vaccination to prevent HPV infection.
Perform cleaning sex organs or vagina known as a toilet. This can be done alone or can
also with the help of specialists. The goal is to clean the female sex organs of dirt and
disease.

Healthy Living Without Cervical Cancer


Cervical cancer is preventable and treatable. Early detection and routine Pap smears will
reduce the risk of cervical cancer. Change your lifestyle and your diet to avoid the
diseases that killed many women in this world. Thus, the cervix or cervical health is
guaranteed. With proper treatment, cervical cancer is not something frightening.

Understanding Cervical Cancer


Cervical cancer is a cancer that attacks the cervix or the cervical area, namely the area
below the uterus that connects the uterus and vagina. Cancer is caused by a virus called
Human Papilloma Virus - or better known as HPV virus this.
Usually the new cervical cancer will show serious symptoms, after the next 10-20 years
in women who are married or sexually active. Because the phase of precancerous and
early stages, did not show any symptoms. And also because a lot of new cervical cancer
patients recognize and perform the treatment when the cancer is acute stage. Who

potentially infected with the HPV virus?


Both women and men who are sexually active, both women and men, are potentially
infected with the HPV virus. Because the virus is easily menjakiti active couples having
sex.
Meruntun of the causes of cervical cancer, the presence of genital warts disease is also
one factor supporting the spread of HPV virus. The disease also genital warts caused by
HPV virus. But the difference, if cervical cancer is caused by HPV types 16 and 18,
genital warts caused by HPV types 6 and 11.
Genital warts is a lump-benjoilan that grows on human genitals in a variety of forms. In
women, genital warts grow on the vulva and cervix. While padapria, genital warts will
tend to appear on the penis or scrotum, and in some specific cases of genital warts grow
in the groin area.
For men who had genital warts, complaints will be perceived that a sense of gata and
heat, bleeding and pain in the penis, strotum and anal area. In women, a complaint which
will be felt almost the same as men, ie itching and heat. Especially in women who are
pregnant, genital warts can infect the fetus suffered in the womb at birth.
Genital warts can penetrate and transmit to the baby, so it will cause warts on the baby's
neck and make a baby has difficulty breathing, which leads to the growth of cervical
cancer.

Percentage distribution of Cervical Cancer


Worldwide, cases of cervical cancer has been experienced by 1.4 million women. And
according to data obtained from Globocan 2002 that Indonesia Cancer Foundation, there
are more than 40,000 new cases of cervical cancer with a range of mortality rates
exceeded 22 000 in women in Southeast Asia. In this regard, Indonesia is a country in

ASEAN that was ranked top for total mortality of cervical cancer in women and
supplemented with new case rate of approximately 20 cases per day.

How dangerous this disease?


World Health Organization (WHO) said the current cervical cancer is ranked top among
the various types of cancer that causes death in women in the world. In Indonesia, every
year more than 15,000 detected cases of cervical cancer, and approximately 8000 cases of
which ended with the death. According to WHO, Indonesia is a country with the number
of patients with cervical cancer is highest in the world. Why be so dangerous? Because
cervical cancer appeared as enemies in a blanket. It is difficult to detect until the disease
has reached an advanced stage.

How it is transmitted?
Transmission of HPV virus can occur through sexual intercourse, especially with multiple
partners. Transmission of the virus can occur either by transmission through the genital
organs to the genital organs, oral to genital, or manually to the genitals. Therefore, the use
of condoms during intercourse does not significantly prevent transmission of HPV virus.
For, not only transmitted through the fluid, the virus can move through the touch of skin.

What are the symptoms?


In the early stages, this disease does not cause symptoms that are easily observed. That's
why, you are already sexually active highly recommended to do pap smear test every two
years. Physical symptoms of this disease are generally only felt by patients with advanced
cancer. Namely, the emergence of pain and bleeding during intercourse (contact
bleeding), excessive vaginal discharge and abnormal bleeding outside the menstrual cycle
and drastic weight loss. If the cancer has spread to the pelvis, then the patient will suffer
from back pain complaints, the obstacles in urination, and kidney enlargement.

HVP
Human Papilloma Virus (also known as HPV) is sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
There are more than 40 types of HPV that can infect the genital area of men and women.
Types of HPV also can infect the mouth and throat. HPV is not the same as the herpes
virus or HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). All of these viruses can be transmitted during
sexual intercourse, but cause symptoms and other health problems.
What are the signs and symptoms of HPV infection and what can cause health problems?
In rare cases, this virus also causes warts in the throat, a condition called recurrent
respiratory papillomatosis or recurrent respiratory papillomatosis / RRP. Other types of
HPV can cause cervical cancer. Types of HPV also can cause serious but less common
cancers, including cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus head, and and neck (tongue,
tonsils and throat).
Signs and symptoms of health problems related to HPV:
Genital warts usually appear in the genital area as small grains of individuals or groups.

They can be small or large, flat or raised or cauliflower. Respiratory Papillomatosis


Recurrent or PRR causes the growth of warts in the throat. Sometimes it can block the
airways, causing hoarseness or difficulty breathing.