Anda di halaman 1dari 11

# SUMMARY

## Physics deals with the interaction of matter and energy.

The scientific method consists of the following steps:
a) Identifying the problem
b) Collecting data relevant to the problem
c) Analyzing data searching for trends, patterns, or relationships between variables
d) Expressing relationships mathematically
e) Verifying relationships under the same conditions for other cases
f) Stating a hypothesis or theory
An acceptable theory is comprehensive yet simple. It has a predictive power
Light is a form of energy. It travels in straight lines.
The speed of light is constant in a vacuum. It is approximately equal to 3.0 x 10 8 m/s.
Light rays are regularly reflected by smooth, shiny surfaces. Images form on these surfaces.
These are irregularly reflected by rough surfaces. No image forms on these surfaces.
Light rays are refracted when they pass at an angle from one medium to another.
Light travels in a less dense than in a denser medium.
Sunlight separates into different colors, called the visible spectrum, as it passes through a
prism. The spectrum consists of the color of the rainbow: red, orange, yellow, green, blue,
indigo, and violet.
Dispersion is the separation of visible light into its different colors: red, orange, yellow, green,
blue, indigo, and violet.
Red, green, and blue (RGB) are the primary colors in light.
When white light falls on an object which does not transmit light, one of the following
happens:
o All of the colors in white light are reflected: the object will appear white
o Some of the colors may be reflected: the object appears colored
o All the colors are absorbed by the object: the object appears black
The colors of opaque objects are the colors they reflect and which reach our eyes. The colors
of transparent materials are the color they transmit.
The law of reflection states that the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.
Reflection causes the formation of images in plane and curved mirrors.
Real images appear in front of mirrors. These can be projected on screen. Virtual images
appear behind mirrors. These images cannot be projected on a screen.
The image in a plane mirror is virtual, has the same size and color as the object, and located
as far behind the mirror as the object in front of the mirror. This image is laterally inverted.
Reflected rays in a convex or converging mirror meet at the principal focus; reflected rays in a
diverging mirror spread out. Extended reflected rays in diverging mirrors meet at the virtual
focus.
A convex mirror (e.g., side mirror of a car) forms images that are always virtual, upright, and
smaller than the object.
Light rays are refracted when they pass at an angle from one medium to another. The
bending of light is due to the change in its speed as it passes from one medium to another.
The angle of incidence is greater than the angle of refraction when light passes from a less
dense to a denser medium.
Light travels faster in a less dense than a denser medium
The law of refraction states that: For the given two media, whatever the direction of the
incident light, the ration of the sine of the angle of incidence (sin i) to the sine of the angle of
refraction (sin r) is the index of refraction n,
that is, n = sin i = v1
sin r = v2

## A mediums optical density determines the speed of light in that medium.

The index of refraction indicates the extent of the bending of light ray.
The higher a mediums optical density, the higher its index of refractions.
The index of refraction of a material is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed
of light in the material or: n = speed of light in vacuum = c
speed of light in material = v
Total internal reflection occurs if, as light passes from a dense to a less dense medium, its
angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle. This phenomenon is applied in fiber
optics and diamond cutting.
There are two main types of lenses: converging (convex) and diverging (concave).
Lenses refract light. The degree of bending depends on the lens curvature and index of
refraction.
The point where refracted rays meet is the lens focal point or focus.
The distance from the focus to the lens midpoint is the lens focal length.
Light bends when it passes through a convex lens. Refracted rays meet at the focus.
Light diverges or spreads out when it passes through a concave lens. Extended refracted rays
meet at the focus.
The power of a lens in inversely proportional to its focal length. The shorter the focal length,
the higher the power.
Refracted light rays determine the image produced by a lens.
Convex lenses produce real images when the object is located at a distance greater than the
focal length of the lens otherwise the image formed is virtual.
The location and nature of an image formed by lenses depends on the location of the object
and on the type of lens.
A pinhole camera forms a real and an upside down image.
The lens of the camera refracts light rays to form images on the film.
Camera and the human eye have many similarities. The film of the camera receives the
image in the same way that the retina of the eye does. The camera lens functions like the
lens of the eye. The adjustable diaphragm of the camera that controls the amount of light
that enters the camera corresponds to the iris. The shutter that cuts off the light functions like
our eyelids and the black interior of the camera is the choroids layer of the eye which absorbs
whatever light is not focused on the retina.
Nearsightedness or myopia is a vision defect caused by too long eyeballs. It is the inability of
the eye to focus on distant objects. A nearsighted eye can see nearby objects clearly but has
difficulty in seeing far objects.
Farsightedness is a vision defect caused by too short eyeballs. It is the inability of the eye to
focus on nearby objects. A farsighted eye can see far objects clearly but not nearby objects.
A converging lens placed in front of a farsighted eye can correct this defect. It moves the
image closer and onto the retina.
A diverging lens placed in front of a nearsighted eye moves the image farther away and onto
the retina.
A magnifying lens placed in front of a nearsighted eye moves the image farther away and
onto the retina.
Several lenses in a compound microscope refract light rays to form enlarged images of
extremely small objects.
Several lenses in a telescope refract light rays to form diminished images of faraway objects.
Radioactivity comes from unstable nuclei of atoms.
Radioactive emissions consist of three types: alpha particles, beta rays, and gamma rays.
Isotopes are atoms of the same element having different number of neutrons.

Nuclei with an even number of neutrons and protons tend to be stable; those with more
neutrons than protons tend to be unstable.
Nuclear transformation involves the formation of a new element when and particles are
emitted by a nucleus.
Half-life is the time required for one-half of a radioactive substance initially present to
disintegrate. It is a measure of an isotopes stability. The shorter half-life, the more rapidly an
isotope decays.
The extent of radiation damage inflected by a dose of radiation depends on the dose level,
the degree of exposure (cells vs. entire human body), organ sensitivity and time length of
exposure.
When a beam of radiation strikes a material, some of the energy is transferred to and is
absorbed by the material. This interaction results to (a) a loss in the energy contained in the
original beam, and/or (b) physical and chemical changes within the material itself.
In radioactive dating, the relative amounts of the isotope and its decay products are
compared. By knowing the isotopes half-life and using its decay curve, one can estimate the
age of a sample isotope.
Uranium dating is used to date relatively old inorganic samples; carbon dating, for relatively
young plant and animal remains.
Mass defect is the difference between the total mass of reactants and products.
Nuclear binding energy is the energy released when protons and neutrons combine to form a
nucleus. It represents the difference in mass-energy of the nucleus. It is also the amount of
energy that must be supplied to break a nucleus.
Fission is the splitting of a heavy nucleus into medium-sized nuclei and neutrons.
A chain reaction proceeds in a series of steps, each facilitated by a preceding one.
Three important feature of 235U fission:
o A neutron starts the reaction, but the reaction itself generates two or three neutrons. This
o The energies in the reaction are about 200 MeV/ 235U atoms.
o The products of the fission reaction are radioactive nuclei.
A nuclear power plant is designed to initiate and regulate the fission of radioactive materials.
Uranium-235 and plutonium-239 are two important fuels of a fission reactor.
A moderator slows down fast neutrons to sustain a chain reaction.
Control rods regulate the number of neutrons available for fission.
Safety features have been incorporated in the basic design, construction, and operation of a
nuclear reactor.
Research reactors are used for a variety of purposes among which is the production of
radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications as well as scientific research.
Fission reactors present four types of hazards to man, namely: (a) possible accidents, (b)
management of radioactive wastes, and (d) thermal pollution.
Fusion is the combination of the nuclei of light elements (particularly hydrogen) to form
heavier nuclei.
Fusion is also called thermonuclear reaction because of the very high temperature it
requires.
The major barriers in achieving controlled fusion reaction are: (a) attaining the extremely high
temperature required and (b) producing the container for high temperature gaseous ions of
plasma.
Deuterium, a fusion fuel, is abundant in seas and oceans.
An electric circuit is any arrangement of materials that permits electron to flow.

## A circuit contains a power source, connecting wires, a load, and a switch.

The household circuit consists of a meter, panel board, sockets, loads connecting wires, and
switches.
The switch serves to open or close the circuit. At the source, energy is converted from other
forms to electrical energy. In the load, electrical energy is converted to other forms. The
connecting wires provide a path for charges to flow to the different parts of the circuit.
The load in the circuit works when all the components are present and the circuit is closed.
When there is a net flow of charges along a material, electric current exists. Current I is the
amount of charge moving across a point in a conductor per unit time (I = q/t).
The direction of the conventional current is the direction of the motion of the positive charges,
that is, from positive to the negative terminal.
Electric current is measured in amperes using an ammeter.
Direct current (DC) does not change direction; while alternating current (AC) changes in
direction.
Batteries produce direct current. In a DC circuit, electrons move slowly in the conductor.
Alternating current allows electrical transmission across great distances. In an AC circuit,
energy not the electrons flows from the outlet, the electrons vibrate rhythmically in fixed
position.
Voltage source provides the potential difference between 2 points in the circuit. The unit is in
volt.
Dry cells are the common voltage source in the laboratory. Electrochemical cells and
generators supply electrical energy.
A voltmeter is a device used to measure potential difference or voltage between two points in
a circuit. It is connected in parallel with the load.
Voltage is measured in volts.
An ammeter is connected in series with the load/s.
Resistance is a property of a material that tends to reduce the flow of electric current.
Conductors have greater ability to conduct electricity than insulators.
Conducting wires connect the components of an electric circuit. Insulators are used to wrap
around current-carrying wires and devices.
Vibrating atoms of a conductor provide obstacles to electron flow giving rise to the resistance
of the conductor.
Ohms law states that the ratio of voltage to current in a material is a constant. This constant
is the resistance of the material. That is, R = V/I.
Ohmic materials are materials with a constant resistance. These are commonly used in
household wirings.
The factors affecting resistance R are: length, L, cross-sectional area, A, kind of material, and
temperature.
The resistance of a conductor is proportional to its length and inversely proportional to the
cross sectional area of the conductor.
Resistance of wire increases with the temperature. It is measured in ohms by an ohmmeter. In
equation, R = L/A, where resistivity is the proportionality constant in the equation.
Resistivity is the property of a material to resist electric current. Higher resistivity of a wire
means higher resistance.
Resistance also depends on the conductivity of the wire or how well the material conducts.
The higher the resistance in the conductor/load is, the smaller is the current.
In a series connection, current has only one route from the source through several loads and
back to the source.

In a parallel connection, current from the source divides to each load in separate paths and
Applying Ohms law:
For series connections: IT = I1 = I2 = I3
V T = V1 + V2 + V3 +
RT = R1 + R2 + R3 +
For parallel connections: IT = I1 + I2 + I3 +
V T = V1 = V2 = V3 =
1= 1 + 1 +1 +
RT = R1 + R2 + R3 +
In a series circuit, electrical devices form a single pathway for electrons to flow. Thus, if two or
three bulbs are connected in series and one gets busted, all the other bulbs wont glow
because the path for the electron is now disconnected.
Parallel connections are used in household wiring because home appliances and electrical
devices operate on the same line voltage 220 volts. Also, appliances are switched on and off
separately.
Electrical appliances are designed to work efficiently at a certain voltage rating, usually
printed at the back of appliances. If the source of electric current does not match the load,
the load (e.g., an appliance) gets damaged.
Power input is the rate at which an appliance uses up electrical energy.
Power is voltage multiplied by current. In symbols, P = VI, where P = power, V = voltage, and
I = current.
An appliance with high voltage across it, or with high current through it, has high power or
rate of converting electrical energy to other forms.
Electric energy can be converted into heat, light, mechanical, sound, and chemical energy.
Heat is always produced in every energy conversion process. A certain amount of electrical
energy is converted to heat in an electric circuit.
The thermal energy H produced by an electrical device depends on the resistance (R), the
current (I), and the length of time (t) the device is operational. That is, H = I2Rt.
Heating appliances convert more electrical energy than the non-heating appliances.
A short circuit takes place when current passes through a shortened path in the circuit due to
the crossing or touching of uncovered portions of the wire. Here, electrons flow through
portions of very low resistance in a circuit instead of passing though useful loads.
Short circuits cause overheating on the low resistance part of the circuit that may burn our
appliances and even our house.
Overloading occurs when an electrical wire carries too much current. This is a result of
connecting too many loads or appliances in a parallel circuit making its total resistance very
small.
When the total resistance gets smaller, the total current becomes bigger. A large current in an
electrical wiring produces too much heat (H = I2Rt).
Hot wirings could melt and ignite combustible materials nearby and set them on fire.
Overusing convenience outlets and extension cords, called octopus wiring, could lead to
circuit overloading. This happens when the total current drawn by appliances in octopus
wiring exceeds the maximum current the household wires can handle.
A fuse is a safety switching device made of fine wire which easily melts. In case of current
upsurge, the fuse wire melts, leaving the circuit open to avoid overheating and fire.
A circuit breaker is also a safety switching device. It has a bimetallic strip of metal attached to
a switch. When the metal is hot, it bends and opens the circuit without causing harm to the
circuit breaker.

## The energy consumption of an electrical appliance is determined by the appliances power

rating and the number of hours it is used.
The higher the power rating of an appliance, the greater is the energy consumption.
Electrical current affects the human body.
The nerves in the human body are conductors of electricity.
The real measure of shocks intensity lies in the amount of current forced through the body
and not the voltage.
The actual resistance of the body varies depending upon the points of contract and the skin
condition.
Every magnet, whatever its size or shape, has two poles: north (N) and south (S).
The N-pole of a suspended magnet, like a compass needle, always points to the north
magnetic pole of the earth.
A magnetic field always exists around a magnet. In this region, the magnet affects another
magnet and magnetizable objects.
Compass needles and magnetizable objects like iron filings align themselves along magnetic
lines of induction, which form closed loops.
The direction of magnetic lines of induction is indicated by the N-pole of a compass needle.
The number of lines of induction passing through a unit area is called magnetic flux. It is
symbolized by .
The strength of magnetic field B equals magnetic flux per unit area (/A), that is, B = /A.
The greater the flux per unit area, the stronger the field.
Magnetic field is a vector quantity. Its magnitude is equal to /A. Its direction at a certain
point is indicated by the N-pole of a compass needle at that point.
A compass-needle can be deflected from its usual N-S position by a current-carrying wire.
Magnetic lines of induction around a current-carrying wire form circular loops.
If the direction of the current I is known, the direction of the magnetic field B around a
current-carrying wire can be determined by applying the left-hand rule.
Magnetic field B exists around a current-carrying loop. The field pattern is similar to that of a
disk magnet.
B is strongest at the center of a current-carrying coil. Each loop contributes to the coils
magnetic field.
The magnetic field pattern of a solenoid is similar to that of a bar magnet. Its B is strongest
along its axis.
The end of the current-carrying coil, where line of induction emerge or come out, it the N-pole
of the coil.
An electromagnet loses its magnetic property when no current runs through the coil.
The left-hand rule can be used to determine the direction of the magnetic field at the center
of an electromagnet if the direction of the electron current through it is known.
The magnetic field strength of an electromagnet may be increased by: (a) increasing the
current in the coil; (b) increasing the number of loops in the coil; and (c) using soft iron as
core.
A circulating and spinning electron comprises a weak current. This produces a weak magnetic
field.
A domain is a small area within some materials wherein atoms produce a net magnetic field.
Many domains exist in such materials.
When placed at the core of an electromagnet, some materials like steel retain their
magnetism even after current in the coil is cut off. Such materials are suitable for making
permanent magnets.

Electromagnets are used in many devices, like the electric doorbell, buzzer, electric relay,
telegraph, and many others.
A magnetic field exerts a force F on a current-carrying conductor. The direction of this force
can be determined by the left-hand rule.
The magnitude of F depends on: (a) the current in the wire; (b) the strength of the magnetic
field, and (c) the length L of the conductor within the magnetic field. This is summarized the
equation F = B / L.
The strength of the magnetic field can be calculated using the equation B = F/L if B, F, and I
are mutually perpendicular to each other.
A coil of wire in a magnetic field rotates continuously as long as it carries current. The
direction of rotation can be determined by using the left-hand rule.
The rate of the motors rotation depends on the force on the armature. This is equal to B/L.
The length of the armature may be increased by having more loops.
A magnetic field deflects a positively or negatively charged particle moving in a vacuum. The
magnitude of the force exerted on the particles depends on the magnetic field B, charge q,
and the velocity v of the particle.
The force on a moving charge may be varied by changing B, v, or both.
In a TV picture tube, controlled rapid changes of B cause the deflection of the electron beam.
The direction of the force on a moving positively charged particle is opposite that on a
negatively charged particle.
The source of energy which runs the turbine determines the type of power plant.
The type of power plant in a locality depends on available natural fuel resources. Oil-thermal
plants are found where there are no indigenous fuel resources.
In all power plants, a large generator is connected to a turbine through a drive shaft. As the
turbine rotates, it brings the generator with it, which generates electrical energy.
Several energy transformations take place in power plants. Refer to figure 10.2 of the student
textbook.
The power capacity of an electric power plant depends on the amount of electrical energy it
can produce per unit time.
The Philippine Energy Plan recommends the use of indigenous energy sources for power
generation to make the country self-reliant and less dependent on imported fuel while at the
same time reducing dollar expenditures.
Oersteds discovery of the existence of a magnetic field around current-carrying wires
encouraged other scientists to look for ways of producing current through magnetism.
Faraday did several experiments which helped him discover that a changing magnetic field
generated current.
Current is induced in a conductor within a changing magnetic field. Magnetic field changes
relative to a conductor when (a) there is relative motion between them and (b) current
changes in a nearby coil.
The amount of current induced when a conductor and a magnetic field are in relative motion
depends on (a) the relative velocity v of the conductor and the magnetic field, (b) the
strength of the magnetic field B, and (c) the length L of the conductor in the field.
For a conductor of length L with a relative velocity v in a magnetic field B, induced voltage V
is given by V = BvL, where B and v are perpendicular to each other.
Induced voltage V in a loop is numerically equal to the rate of change of magnetic flux ( /
t) through the loop. In symbols, this gives V = / t.
Lenzs law: The direction of the induced current is such that it sets up a magnetic field of its
own, which opposes whatever action is responsible for the production of the current.
Lenzs law can be used to determine the direction of the induced current in a conductor.

The induced current in a conductor also sets up its own magnetic field. This opposes the
original field which produced the current.
A simple DC generator is a rotating loop in a magnetic field which produces current that
fluctuates in value but does not change direction. The current is thus called pulsating direct
current (DC).
A simple AC generator is a rotating loop in a magnetic field which produces current that
fluctuates in value and changes direction every half-rotation of the loop. The current is thus
call alternating current (AC).
Current from a battery is steady and unindirectional.
Commercial generators in power plants produce alternating current. They have coils which
are stationary (called stator) and a rotating electromagnet (called rotor). As the rotor turns
inside the stator, it generates current in the stator.
A motor and a generator have common parts. This makes it possible to convert one device to
the other. When it acts as motor, it changes electrical energy to mechanical energy. A
generator transforms mechanical energy to electrical energy.
Electrical energy from a power plant is transmitted at high voltage and low current to
minimize power losses. Step-up transformers raise output voltage from generators before
transmission.
The step-up transformer has more loops in the secondary coil relative to that at the primary
coil. It increases voltage.
The step-down transformer has less number of loops in the secondary coil relative to that at
the primary coil. It decreases voltage.
Electrical energy distribution begins at the first substation where the transmission voltage is
initially reduced. At subsequent substations, voltage is further cut down. The final reduction of
the voltage to 220 volts occurs at distribution transformers found on electric poles. From
there, power is brought to houses through service wires.
In the generator-turbine system of a thermal power plant, more energy is wasted as heat at
the turbine than the energy generated.
There are two ways of minimizing power loss in transmission lines: (a) transmit power at low
current and (b) use low-resistance coils in transformers and transmission lines.
Copper wires are used in transformers and generator coils as wells as in transmission lines.
Superconductors are materials which offer no electrical resistance at low temperatures.
If superconductors are used as coils for transformers, motors, and generators, very little or no
energy will be lost as heat.
Speed is the distance traveled by a moving object per unit time. In equation form, s = d/t.
Objects seldom move at constant speed. The motion of objects is often described in terms of
average speed. It is calculated from the following equation: s = total d / total t.
Acceleration is the rate at which speed changes with time. In equation form, acceleration =
s / total time.
Unit of acceleration is m/s2.
Neglecting friction, a falling object moves at constant acceleration of about 10 m/s 2.
For a body moving at constant speed v, the graph of distance vs. time of travel is a straight
line. The slope of the graph is equal to the bodys speed. In equation, v = d / t.
For a body moving at constant acceleration, the graph of speed vs. time is a straight line. The
slope of the graph is equal to the bodys acceleration. a = v / t.
For a body moving from rest at constant acceleration, the graph of distance vs. time squared
is a straight line. The slope of the graph is equal to one-half of the bodys acceleration.
Velocity consists of both speed and the direction of motion of an object.
Velocity = net displacement / t.

## Speed is a scalar quantity, while velocity is a vector one.

Acceleration is a vector quantity.
Acceleration = final velocity initial velocity
Final time - Initial time
Velocity may change in any one of three ways: (a) when the speed changes, (b) when the
direction of motion changes, or (c) when both speed and direction of motion change.
The resultant or net force is the single force equivalent to all the forces acting on a body.
Net force is the vector sum of all individual forces acting on a body.
Bodies at rest will remain at rest and bodies in motion will continue to move with constant
speed along a straight path unless they are acted upon by a net force.
Inertia is the tendency of an object to stay at rest, if it is stationary, or to keep moving once it
is in motion.
The greater the mass of an object, the greater its inertia.
For a given inertial mass, sliding friction is greater than rolling friction.
At constant mass, acceleration is directly proportional to the net force acting on an object.
At constant net force, acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass of an object.
Newtons 2nd law of motion states that an objects constant acceleration is directly
proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to its mass. In symbols, a = k F net / m,
where k equals 1.
Acceleration always has the same direction as the net force causing it.
For every force there is an equal and opposite force. These two forces are called action and
reaction forces.
Action and reaction forces do not cancel each other because they act on different objects.
A falling body accelerates greatly compared to the earth because its mass is very small
compared to that of the earth.
Impulse = Ft
Momentum = mv
If no external force acts on a body, its momentum does not change. Momentum is conserved.
In collisions or explosions, total momentum before, during, and after the event remains
unchanged.
Friction is an unseen force which retards motion. It exists whenever a body moves along a
surface/medium
Objects are streamlined to reduce air friction. Moving parts of machines are lubricated to
minimize wear-and-tear due to friction.
When energy is transferred, one body loses energy, whereas another gains it.
Work is the product of an external net force applied on an object and the distance it travels in
the direction of F.
Work is a method of energy transfer. When a body does work, it loses energy. The body on
which work is done gains energy.
One joule is the work done on a body by a net force of 1 Newton applied through a distance of
1 meter.
The change in kinetic energy of a body is equal to the work done on it. A body with kinetic
energy can do work.
The potential energy of an object increases when work is done on the object. It decreases
when the object does work. A body with potential energy can do work.
If there is no friction, the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of a body remains constant.
Power is the rate of doing work.
Power may be transmitted using simple machines.
The efficiency of a machine is the ratio of output work to input work.

## Work and mechanical energy can be converted to heat.

The amount of heat transferred may be measured from the change in temperature of the
object.
The thermal energy of a body is the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of its molecules.
A change in temperature indicates an increase in the kinetic energy of molecules.
A change in phase of the body indicates an increase in the potential energy of molecules.
Thermal energy may be increased by doing work.
Heat is energy in transit.
A heat engine is a device that transforms thermal energy into mechanical energy.
A gasoline engine operates of a four-stroke cycle which consists of intake, compression,
power, and exhaust.
In gasoline engines, a mixture of air and fuel is compressed while in diesel engines, only air is
compressed.
Combustion of fuel (burning) takes place inside the engine chamber in an internal combustion
engine, while burning occurs outside the engine in steam engines.
Energy may change from one form to another, but the total energy in the universe remains
constant.
The change in the thermal energy of a body equals the amount of heat transferred and the
work done on the body.
The law of conservation of mechanical energy is derived from the universal law.
A spontaneous process can occur by itself. It does not require any external energy. A nonspontaneous process cannot occur without energy.
In nature, energy transfers from a body or place at a higher temperature to a body or place at
a lover temperature.
All natural processes tend to go from a less disordered to a more disordered state.
A heat pump transfers energy from a colder to a warmer body.
The efficiency of a heat engine depends on the temperature of its fuel and the temperature of
its cooling system.
Pressure is equal to force per unit area.
Fluid pressure depends on the fluid columns height and density.
A barometer measures changes in atmospheric pressure. The mercury barometer relates
atmospheric pressure to the height of a column of mercury.
When pressure is applied to a confined liquid, it is transmitted equally in all directions within
the liquid.
The buoyant force of a liquid on a body immersed in it is equal to the weight of the displaced
liquid.
A body totally submerged in a liquid displaces a volume of water equal to its volume.
Air pressure decreases as the airs speed increases.
Lift is the upward force that results from the pressure difference on top and below the surface
of a body.
Sound waves are produced by vibrating objects. They are propagated through a medium from
the source.
Sound waves are longitudinal waves. Particles of the medium vibrate in the direction of wave
motion.
The speed of sound depends on the kind and temperature of the medium. Sound waves travel
fastest in solids and slowest in gases.
Loudness depends on the amplitude of vibration.
Intensity depends on the amplitude of vibration and the area of the vibrating body
perpendicular to the direction of wave motion.

## Pitch depends on the frequency of vibration.

Sound waves can be reflected.
A body resonates with a vibrating source when the body has the same natural frequency as
the vibrating source.
The telegraph uses a special code, the Morse code, in transmitting messages. The Morse code
assigns unique pattern for each character of the alphabet, as well as to the ten numerals and
punctuations.
The receiving instrument, the sounder, converts the electrical pulses into audible sounds
which are encoded by a trained telegrapher.
An EM wave consists of mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic fields which vary in
time and space.
The electromagnetic spectrum consists of various groups of EM waves having different
properties.
Modulation is the process of changing carrier radio waves according to the amplitude or
frequency of the sound waves for wireless transmission.
Amplitude and frequency modulation are two ways of modulating carrier waves. In amplitude
waves, the modulated wave has a constant frequency but varying amplitude. In frequency
modulation, the amplitude in constant and the frequency changes as the sound signal.
Radio communication is possible because the ionosphere reflects radio waves back to Earth.
Optical fibers transmit messages carried by light which undergoes total internal reflection
inside the fiber.
The Internet or the Information Superhighway is a network of networks. It is a global set of
connections of computers that enables the exchange of data, news, and opinion.
In an n-type semiconductor material, the charge carriers are electrons. In a p-type, the charge
carriers are holes also referred to as positive charge carriers.
Resistors control the currents in the different parts of the circuit. They also act as voltage
dividers.
A capacitor stores energy when the circuit is charged, and releases the energy when it is
discharged.
A diode is a device which allows the flow of charges in only one direction.
Transistors are three-terminal devices used as amplifiers and switches.
An npn transistor, the emitter sends electrons to the collector via the base; in a pnp
transistor, the emitter sends positive holes to the collector. For both npn and pnp transistors,
the direction of the arrow in the symbol refers to the conventional current.
A transistor can amplify signals because minimal changes in the base current cause much
larger changes in the collector and emitter currents.
An integrated circuit (IC) is a miniature electronic circuit that contains hundreds or thousands
of electronic elements (e.g., transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors).
In digital method, information is represented by a train of electrical pulses. These pulses are
described by the binary number system such as 1s or 0s.
In analogue method, information is represented by a continuous range of voltages (on
currents) between 0 and a maximum.