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2.

006

Spring 2014
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

2.006 Thermal-Fluids Engineering II

February6,2014

ProblemSet1

Due:February13,2014

This p-set consists of problems from the Fall 2013 2.005 final exam. It is intended to be a
refresher, as 2.006 will build upon the fundamentals covered in 2.005.
In the case of incorrect solution, partial points will be awarded if there is clear evidence of effort
in the form of well-presented, clear, logical arguments. Correct solutions will receive full points
for efforts. Unsupported answers will not receive credit.

Off-limit Problems:
Problem 1: Liquid Discharge (2 points)
An axi-symmetric object, shown in figure 1, is
floating inside a pipe of diameter D. A liquid
of density , is pumped upwards through the
pipe and discharged into the atmosphere. You
can consider the length of the body to be very
small. Neglecting viscous effects, determine
the volume flow rate, Q, of the liquid needed
to support the object in the position shown in
terms of d, D, g, and M.
Figure 1

A cycle that was used in early engine

development is the Lenoir cycle. The ideal engine employs a closed ideal gas system of
mass m and known constants c v and R . The gas in state 1 is at low temperature
T L and pressure PL . The gas experiences an internally reversible constant volume
heat transfer until it reaches a high temperature T H and pressure PH at state 2. The
gas is then reversibly and adiabatically expanded to state 3. In the final process of the
cycle, the gas experiences an internally reversible isobaric process that returns the gas
back to state 1.
a) Sketch the P-v and T-s diagrams for the Lenoir cycle.
b) Calculate the heat and work transfer for each of the three cycle processes.
c) Determine the thermal efficiency of the cycle.
Now, assume that the ideal engine interacts thermally only with two thermal reservoirs,
one at a temperature T H and another at T L through some material of finite thermal
conductivity. Please consider the thermally conductive material to be within the cycle
1

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Spring 2014

system.
d) Calculate the entropy generated in the system. Where is it, if nonzero,
generated?
Problem3:DrivingFlowRate(2points)

3
3
Water ( 1000 kg/m , 10 Pa-s ) flows through a pipe of length L 1 m ,
diameter D 10 cm , and surface roughness
. This pipe is inclined at an
3
angle 30 upward from the horizontal. If the flow rate is Q / 40 m /s , what is the
2
pressure drop, P Pin Pout needed to drive the flow? Use g 10 m/s

Problem 4: Turbojet Engine (6 points)

Figure 2 shows a typical gas turbine jet engine (or turbojet engine), which can be found
on most jet airliners (some use a turboprop engine, which operates somewhat differently).
In a frame of reference that is moving with the engine, air at temperature T 1 =T amb and
pressure P1=Patm enters the engine at a velocity v 1=v plane , where v plane is the
flight speed of the aircraft. The air passes through a diffuser, where it is rapidly
decelerated, and is then compressed in a compressor to a pressure P2=P H (known).
This high-pressure air is mixed with fuel and combusted ( 2 3 ) .
For our purposes, we shall model the combustion of the fuel/air mixture as a constant
pressure heat addition process, thereby avoiding any complications resulting from
chemical reactions. After the air is heated, it passes through a turbine, which drives the
compressor, before finally being accelerated through the nozzle; note that the turbine
shaft is connected directly to the compressor, as seen in the figure, so in the ideal case
turbine=W
compressor
W

Figure 2 Turbojet Engine

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Spring 2014

4
Burner
Turbine / Nozzle

Diffuser / Compressor

Figure 3- System Scheme

A simplified schematic representation of the jet engine is shown in the above diagram.
The relevant processes are summarized below:

(1 2) : Reversible, adiabatic compression in the diffuser and compressor

(2 3) : Constant pressure heat addition in the burner
(3 4) : Reversible, adiabatic expansion in the turbine and nozzle

Assumptions:
Air is an ideal gas with c p , c v , and R known.
Changes in potential energy are negligible for all process
Changes in kinetic energy are negligible in the burner
v 2 v 1 and v 3 v 4

turbine=W
compressor )
No losses between the turbine and compressor ( W
a) If the intake area (i.e., the cross sectional flow area at point 1) is A intake , what is
, of air through the engine?
the mass flow rate, m
b) What is the temperature, T 2 , of the air entering the burner?
c) What is the work transfer rate that must be provided by the compressor?
d) An aircraft is equipped with 2 engines (one on each wing). Suppose that the total
drag force on the aircraft is proportional to the flight speed, i.e.,
Fdrag =K v plane
where K is a (known) constant. What is the thrust, Fthrust that must be
generated by each of the engines to maintain a constant airspeed?
e) What is the exhaust velocity; v exhaust v 4 , necessary to provide the thrust
computed in Part (d?
f) What is the temperature, T 4 , of the exhaust gas?
that must be provided by the burner to operate
g) What is the heat transfer rate, Q
the engine under these conditions?
Problem 5: Liquid Stack (6 points)

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Spring 2014

Consider thin films of two liquids stacked above one another and flowing down an
incline in ambient air ( air 1 , 2) as shown in Figure 4. The angle of inclination is
. The viscosity and density of liquid 1 are 1 and 1 respectively. The
viscosity and density of liquid 2 are 2 and 2 . The thickness of liquid film 1 is
h1 and that of liquid 2 is h2 ( h1 , h2 L ). The flow can be assumed to be fully
developed and at steady state. The temperature of fluid 1 at the entry of the incline i.e.,
x=0 is T 1 . The acceleration due to gravity is g. The width into the board is w .
a) Provide the velocity and pressure boundary conditions for liquids 1 and 2
b) Derive expressions for the velocity of the liquids and sketch the velocity profiles.
c) Derive an expression for the volumetric flow rate Q of liquid 1.
d)

D
et
er
m
in
e

the temperature of liquid 1 at the exit of the incline i.e., at x=L . Liquid 2 and the
wall of the incline can be considered to be thermal insulators.
e) Determine the rate of entropy generation in liquid 1.

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Spring 2014

Figure 4 (the thickness of the liquid films is exaggerated for illustrative purposes)