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4

TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STONE CRUSHING PLANT

4.1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION


As indicated at Section 1 Project Particulars, the project consists of the setting-up
and operation of a stone-crushing plant and of four other inter-linked plants (namely:
block making plant, ready-mix concrete plant, pre-mixed asphalt plant and precast
production) over a portion of land of 70,668m2at Labatie Beemanique. This section
describes the technical characteristics of the stone crushing plant.
The project general layout (i.e. encompassing all the 5No. manufacturing plants) can be
seen from the drawing enclosed at Annex 4A, at the end of Section 4.
4.2 STONE CRUSHING PLANT
The stone crushing plant which will be installed at the site has a production capacity and
a throughput capacity of 500T/hour of finished products comprising of aggregates of the
following sizes:

0 - 2 mm (washed and unwashed)

0 - 4 mm (washed and unwashed)

4 - 6 mm

6 10 mm

0 20 mm

10 14 mm

14 20 mm

These aggregates are meant not only for sales but will also be used as raw materials for
the other plants.
The stone crushing plant will itself be fed with boulders extracted from the rock quarry
which will be exploited within the same project area. This approach eliminates the need
for the boulder transportation to be effected along public roads, which would have
otherwise contributed to an increase in road traffic in the region surrounding the project
site, and adversely affected traffic patterns on the nearby roads, including the M1
motorway.
The General Arrangement of the stone crushing plant is enclosed at Annex 4B, at the
end of Section 4.
4.3 PROCESS DESCRIPTION
The overall stone crushing process will involve, as is the standard case, the following
processing units:

Primary crushing through a jaw crusher

A secondary crushing through a cone crusher

A tertiary crushing through a cone crusher

A quaternary crushing through an impact Crusher

Finally a sieving process.

The process flowchart is reproduced at Annex 4C at the end of Section 4.


Each of the 3 unit processes is fully described in the following sub-sections.
4.4 PRIMARY CRUSHER
4.4.1

Boulder Feed
Dumper trucks, of average carrying capacity of 25 tonnes, will deliver boulders to the
stone crusher by an internal road network within the site, distinct from other usual
traffic routes which will be used by visitors, buyers, staff, etc. The boulder transport
internal route leads up to the feed ramp upstream of the crushing area.
The trucks will unload into a delivery hopper of a capacity of 80 tonnes which will in
turn feed a vibrating grizzly feeder of dimension 450 x 1500 mm (labelled F1 on the
flow diagram enclosed at Annex 4C).
The primary crushing process will be carried out by a jaw crusher.
The jaw crusher will be enclosed on all of its sides, so as to contain dust emission and
noise generation arising during the loading of boulders in the crusher.
A water-mister station will be situated at the mouth of the crusher to abate any dust
emission. Thus the dust generation will be reduced at source, and will not therefore
affect the surrounding.

4.4.2

Technical Characteristics of Jaw Crusher


The technical characteristics of the Jaw Crusher are listed in Table 4-1 below
Table 4-1: Technical Charateristics of Jaw Crusher
Model

48 x 60 DT

Size of Feeder Opening (inch)

48 x 60

Capacity (t/h)

500

Motor Power (kW)

190

Noise Level Generated (dB)

<90

4.4.3

Picture of Jaw Crusher


To enable a visual appreciation of the primary jaw crusher, a picture of a typical
assembly is reproduced in Figure 4a below.

Figure 4a: Jaw Crusher

4.4.4

Primary Tunnel Feeder


The secondary cone crusher will be fed by 2Nos. vibrating feeders marked as F2 and F3
on the flow chart enclosed at Annex 4C at the end of Section 4.
The vibrating feeders will be installed in a tunnel beneath the stockpile and will feed
rocks of nominal size up to 200mm to the cone crusher through conveyor C5 and C6.

4.5 INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTE


The waste arising from the grizzly vibrating screen in the form of soil and pebbles of
size varying from 0 60mm will pass through the grizzly feeder grid bars and will be
collected on the conveyor labelled C2 on the flow chart.
The scalping screen is fed by the conveyor with soil and pebbles arising from the
primary crushing process. The waste in the form of soil and pebbles will be screened in
order to segregate pebbles which can be used in the process from the waste. Pebbles
which can be used in the crushing process are re-injected through conveyor labelled C4.
This process ensures that the generation of waste is kept to a minimum. This mixture of
soil and pebbles will be stacked on the project site for future use in the rock quarry.

4.6 SECONDARY CRUSHER


4.6.1

Secondary Cone Crusher


The cone crusher represents the secondary stage of the stone crushing process and is
considered therefore to be the secondary crusher. Two secondary cone crushers namely
M2 and M4, will be installed to carry out the secondary crushing process.
The materials (nominal size 200mm to 250mm) from the primary jaw crusher are fed
into the cone crusher as a secondary crushing process which further reduces the size of
the rocks into aggregate sizes equal to or less than 75mm. The spalls are fed to the cone
crusher through two vibrating feeders F2 and F3.
Water misters will be installed at the discharge points of the cone crusher to suppress
dust emissions.

4.6.2

Technical Data of Cone Crusher


The technical data of the cone crusher are given in Table 4-2 below.
Table 4-2: Technical Data of Cone Crusher

4.6.3

Size of input material (mm)

200 - 250

Size of output material (mm)

Less than 75

Motorpower (kW)

200

Noise Level Generated (dB)

<90

Picture of Cone Crusher


To provide a visual appreciation of the type of cone crusher equipment in question, a
picture of the cone crusher is reproduced in Figure 4b below.

Figure 4b: Cone Crusher TC Type

4.7 TERTIARY CRUSHER


The third stage of the crushing process is the tertiary crushing. Two tertiary cone
crushers will be installed on the project site. The tertiary crushers are labelled as M3
and M5 on the flow chart enclosed at Annex 4C at the end of Section 4.
The tertiary crushers will crush any oversized material of sizes varying between 20mm
and 75mm. The oversized materials are obtained from the following sources:

4.7.1

Segregation of materials through the selector screen S2 which is fed by conveyor


C10

Conveyor C10

The feed hopper and conveyor 12

Technical Data of Tertiary Cone Crusher


The technical data of the tertiary cone crusher are given in Table 4-3 below.
Table 4-3: Technical Data of Tertiary Cone Crusher
Size of input material (mm)

20 - 75

Motorpower (kW)

200

Noise Level Generated (dB)

<90

4.8 QUATERNARY CRUSHER


The quaternary crusher is a vertical impactor used to crush materials of an incoming
size of 4 20 mm for the production of washed and unwashed rock sand of size 0 4
mm and 0 2 mm.
The impact crusher will be used to re-crush the excess aggregates from the
manufacturing process. The impact crusher will be fed by conveyor C13 and C16
through the surge hopper SH2. The surge hopper is fed by conveyor C15 and C20 from
the selector screen S2 and screens S3 and S4.
4.8.1

Technical Data of Impact Crusher


The technical data of the impact crusher are given in Table 4-4 below.
Table 4-4: Technical Data of Impact Crusher
Size of input material (mm)

4 -20

Size of output material (mm)

0-4

Motorpower (kW)

200

Noise Level Generated (dB)

<90

4.9 SIEVING PROCESS


4.9.1

Selector Screen
A three-deck selector screen will be supplied with aggregates of size 75mm from the
secondary crushers and oversized aggregates re-injected from the tertiary crusher. The
selector screen will consist of three different sized meshes on each deck.
The size of the mesh on each deck is as follows:

20 mm

14 mm

10 mm

The selector screen will be encapsulated in Tellex Rubber.


Coarse aggregates selected by the 14 mm and 10 mm decks of screen S2 will be
stockpiled for sales. Excess aggregates produced will be processed through the
quaternary crusher for the production of rock sand.
4.9.2

Product Screens
Aggregates from the quaternary crusher are sieved on the product screens where
finished products are separated with respect to their sizes, i.e. 0 4mm, 4 - 6mm and 6 10mm and directed to their respective stockpile.
A portion of the 0 4 mm sized sand is washed in a washing unit labelled DU1 on the
flow chart enclosed at Annex 4C for the production of washed rocksand.

4.10 LIST OF EQUIPMENT


All the equipment and components of the stone crushing plant which will be used for
the stone crushing process has been compiled and listed out. The list includes the
technical information of all the equipment which will be used on site.
The List of Equipment is enclosed at Annex D at the end of Section 4.

4.11 STOCKPILES
In a stone crushing process, it is inevitable to have recourse to stockpiles. In this
particular case, they will be as described below:
4.11.1

Spalls Stockpile
Spalls produced from the primary stone crusher jaw crusher will be stock piled before
being fed to the secondary crushers through the conveyors. Spalls from the primary
crusher will be conveyed via the conveyor belt labelled C1 to the primary stockpile at
an average throughout capacity of 500 tonnes per hour.
The boulders stockpile will of a maximum height of 15 metres giving a holding capacity
of about 15,000 tonnes.
This stockpile will be fitted with water misters/sprinklers which will keep the stockpiles
in a wetted condition at all times. The wetting of the spalls in the stockpile normally
induces the fine particles on the surface of the stockpile to cling to the spalls surface so
that they are not blown away by wind action to produce dust emission and pluming
which evidently constitute an environmental hazard. Thus the wetting of the stockpile
will eliminate the environmental impacts associated with dust emissions.

4.11.2

Product Stockpiles
Product stockpiles for each type of the finished materials (aggregates), as listed at subsection 4.2 above, will be established downstream of the product screens. It is
inevitable that these stockpiles shall be open to the atmosphere for the simple reason
that loaders are required to move from one point of the stockpile to the other for the
loading of the materials onto the transporting lorries. Thus loaders will be utilized to
load lorries with the intended type of material from the individually dedicated
stockpiles.
Dust emissions from the finished product stockpiles will be suppressed by the same type
of dust suppression system, namely water-misters and water sprinklers, in the same way
as for the spalls stockpiles.
The product stockpiles are positioned as shown on the general layout plan of the plants
enclosed at Annex 4A at the end of Section 4.

4.12 BOULDERS RESOURCES


As explained at sub-section 4.2, the boulders extracted from the rock quarry will be
used as raw materials to the stone crushing plant.
4.13 OTHER ASSOCIATED FACILITIES
The other facilities which will be provided for the SCP will be the:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

Office
Workers Mess
Toilet
Bathrooms
Workshop