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DEFECTS

Syllabus - The study of various


defects in buildings and their
remedies, Defects caused by
dampness, applied forces and
changes in size.

STRUCTURAL DEFECTS

DEFINITION
Damage to the load-bearing portion of a

building that affects the use of the structure


for human purposes.
Includes damage from shifting of soil due to
earthquake, flood or other factors

Makes a project dangerous, unsafe or

causes real damage to the consumer.


Building defects affect society at large
due to possible danger posed;

REASONS
usually

include any deficiency in the


performing or furnishing of
design,
planning,
supervision,
inspection,
construction

REASONS
Construction defects usually include any

deficiency in the performing or furnishing of the


design,
planning,
supervision,
inspection,

WHAT ARE CONSTRUCTION DEFECTS


Defective building material or

components-materials: i.e., inferior


material such as building bricks,
cement, roofing material, poorly
manufactured windows
A violation of Building Codes at the
time of construction.
Failure to meet professional standards
for design at the time plans were
approved. Design: i.e., faulty R.C.C.
roofing design contributes to water
intrusion
Failure to build according to accepted
trade standards for good and workman
like construction. Workmanship: i.e.,
substandard or shoddy work
Engineering/Soil: i.e., structural failures
and earth movements

STRUCTURAL
DEFECTS

VERTICALITY

DESIGN
DEFICIENCEIES

LINEARITY

MATERIAL
DEFIECIENCIES

ANGULARITY

SUBSTANDARD
WORKMANSHIP

SUB-SURFACE OR
GEO-TECHNICAL
PROBLEMS

CRACKS IN THE BUILDING

Structural Cracks:These occur due to incorrect


design, faulty construction or
overloading and these may
endanger the safety of a
building. e.g. Extensive
cracking in wall and beams.

Structural Damage
Structural damage is probably the
most expensive type of
damage to repair. If not done
properly, your house can
collapse.
Structural problems, though rare,
are usually very expensive to
repair.

Structural Damage

Floor joist cut to


allow for heating
duct. Structural
integrity of the
floor in danger.

Structural Damage
Welding torch
hole cut in steel
beam in garage to
facilitate the
garage door
opener.

Structural Damage
Old pier with
washed away
footing and
CMU blocks
set on their
sides.

Structural Damage
Diagonal crack
with multiple
plane. Uneven
settling,
commonly seen in
clay soil
conditions.
A real structural
problem.

ELASTIC
DEFORMATION:
Structural components of a building

undergo elastic deformation due to


dead and the super imposed live
loads.

ELASTIC
DEFORMATION:
Structural components of a building undergo

elastic deformation due to dead and the super


imposed live loads, in accordance with hook
law. The amount of deformation depends upon
elastic modulus, meningitides of loading and
the dimension of the component. This elastic
deformation under certain circumstances
causes cracking in the building as under: When walls are unevenly loaded with wide

variations in stress in different parts, excessive


shear stress is developed which causes cracking in
walls.
When a beam or slab of large span undergoes
excessive deflection and there is not much vertical
load above the supports (as in the case of roof
slab), ends of beam / slab curl up causing cracks in
supporting masonry.
When two materials, having widely different elastic
properties, are built side by side, under the effect of
load, shear stresses are set up at the interface of
the two materials, resulting in cracks at the junction.
Such a situation is commonly encountered in the
constructions of RCC framed structure and brick
masonry panel (external) and partitions (internal)

ELASTIC
DEFORMATION:
When walls are unevenly loaded with wide

variations in stress in different parts,


excessive shear stress is developed which
causes cracking in walls.
When a beam or slab of large span
undergoes excessive deflection and there is
not much vertical load above the supports
(as in the case of roof slab), ends of beam /
slab curl up causing cracks in supporting
masonry.
When two materials, having widely different
elastic properties, are built side by side,
under the effect of load, shear stresses are
set up at the interface of the two materials,
resulting in cracks at the junction. Such a
situation is commonly encountered in the
constructions of RCC framed structure and
brick masonry panel (external) and
partitions (internal) walls.

GIVE
EG./PIC

GIVE EG.

ELASTIC
DEFORMATION:
Structural components of a building undergo

elastic deformation due to dead and the super


imposed live loads, in accordance with hook
law. The amount of deformation depends upon
elastic modulus, meningitides of loading and
the dimension of the component. This elastic
deformation under certain circumstances
causes cracking in the building as under: When walls are unevenly loaded with wide

variations in stress in different parts, excessive


shear stress is developed which causes cracking in
walls.
When a beam or slab of large span undergoes
excessive deflection and there is not much vertical
load above the supports (as in the case of roof
slab), ends of beam / slab curl up causing cracks in
supporting masonry.
When two materials, having widely different elastic
properties, are built side by side, under the effect of
load, shear stresses are set up at the interface of
the two materials, resulting in cracks at the junction.
Such a situation is commonly encountered in the
constructions of RCC framed structure and brick
masonry panel (external) and partitions (internal)

Q. What are the causes for deterioration of RCC


buildings?

1. Poor structural design and specifications


2. Poor quality of construction
3. Poor maintenance of buildings e.g.
4. Environmental problems and aging effects
e.g.
5. Indiscriminate additions & alterations e.g.
6. Natural & manmade calamity

1.Poor structural design & specifications


-Densely spaced steel bars
-Segregated concrete at beam column junction
-Honey combing of concrete

2.Poor construction & overloading


with illegal mezzanine floors

Poor Construction, Poor quality of materials used & poor


supervision.

-Poor construction & neglected maintenance

Check for materials like cement,sand


admixtures etc.
-Proper mixing and batching of materials

Silt & clay in sand

Excess water in mortar

3.Poor maintenance
-Leaking roof
-Spalling (breaking into small componenets) of Concrete
due to corrosion

4- ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AROUND


THE BUILDINGS,
Chemicals like carbon-dioxide, chlorides, nitrous
oxides, moisture and sulphates

5- OVERLOADING OF STRUCTURE OR
WEAKENING ITS STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
DUE TO ALTERATION/ RENOVATION.

-Chipping of defective or
deteriorated
concrete

Repairs by guniting/jacketing
with concrete or treated with
cement or polymer concrete

Roughened base coat of plaster for


better mechanical bond with the
finishing coat.

Curing by ponding water on


horizontal surface

Curing by spraying water at regular


intervals on vertical surface

To reduce cost :Check the


locations where repairs are
necessary and where repairs need
not be done.

Removal of rust before


repair using gunuiting
Whole plaster is replaced.

Rusting of steel in RCC column on ground floor resulting in


spalling of concrete

Cracks,crevics ,joints and junctions should be


properly packed before repairs.

Cracks developed due to improper curing.

Failure due to modification

Building before repairs and after repairs

Corrosion of steel & spaulling


of concrete
due to ingress of moisture

-Cantilever canopy showing porous


honeycombed concrete
-Deteriorated cantilever balcony slabs

Spaulled concrete due to


corrosion of steel
by leakage

- Cracks over superficially


repaired surface

- Corrosion of steel in
RCC beam

5.Indiscriminate Addition & Alterations in Buildings


Some DOS & DONTS

Alterations in Window balcony

Additions to window canopy

Conversion of balcony into dressing room

Conversion of balcony into a bath room

Adding waterfall & potted plants on balcony

Overloading the RCC building by installing


large tanks

Careless modification causing damage to structure

Damaging RCC beam to conceal electric conduits & adding load


by new floor tiles

Chamfering RCC columns in stilt area to


avoid damage to cars

Removing RCC beams & columns


between two flats

Removing RCC beam and part of RCC slab & Introducing


additional staircase load to interconnect two flats

Introducing additional load on RCC slab &


beam by relocating partition wall

6. Calamities of building failure


-Earthquake
-Floods
-Terrorist attack
-Bomb blast

WALLS
FLOORS - TERRACE AND ROOM FLOORS
CEILING
BEAMS
COLUMNS