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GPSA Electronic Data Book

Table of Contents
Dedication
Preface to the Eleventh Edition
History and Sponsors
Disclaimer

Acknowledgments
Editorial Contributors
Index of Key Words
Contact GPSA

Volume I
1-General Information
2-Product Specifications
3-Measurement
4-Instrumentation
5-Relief Systems
6-Storage
7-Separators and Filters
8-Fired Equipment
9-Heat Exchangers
10-Aircooled Exchangers
11-Cooling Towers
12-Pumps and Hydraulic Turbines
13-Compressors and Expanders
14-Refrigeration
15-Prime Movers

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Volume II
16-Hydrocarbon Recovery
17-Fluid Flow and Piping
18-Water Treating
19-Fractionation and Absorption
20-Dehydration
21-Hydrocarbon Treating
22-Sulfur Recovery
23-Physical Properties
24-Thermodynamic Properties
25-Equilibrium Ratio (K) Data
26-GPSA Member List

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ENGINEERING DATA BOOK


FPS VERSION
Volume I & II
Sections 1-26

(Electronic)

Published as a service to the gas processing


and related process industries
by the

Gas Processors Suppliers Association


6526 East 60th Street
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74145
Phone: (918) 493-3872
Fax: (918) 493-3875
e-mail: gpsa@gasprocessors.com
Compiled and edited
in co-operation with the

Gas Processors Association


All Rights Reserved
Copyright 1998 Gas Processors Association
Reproduction or translation of any part of this work without permission of the
Gas Processors Suppliers Association is prohibited.

Eleventh Edition FPS


1998

Dedication
The Gas Processors Suppliers Association respectively dedicates this Eleventh Edition of
the Engineering Data Book in memory of Daniel W. Kemp. Dan served as a member of the
GPSA Editorial Review Board through three different publications of the Engineering
Data Book (the Ninth, Tenth, and 1980 SI Editions) and was actively working on this
Eleventh Edition at the time of his death in 1996.
Dan Kemp received his Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering from Purdue University in 1957. Upon graduation he entered the gas processing industry by joining Cities
Service as a plant engineer. He held various technical and managerial positions with Cities Service, later Occidental, and even later with Trident NGL before going into private
consulting. He spent his career involved in virtually every aspect of the gas processing industry including plant engineering, process design, operations, maintenance, measurement, and safety; and was considered by most to be a career gas processing technical
expert.
Throughout his career he gave freely of his technical and leadership talents to industry
groups involved in the natural gas business notably GPA and API. He came up through
GPAs ranks the hard way by presenting a number of technical papers and serving in leadership roles along the way. He served as chairman of Section G, Data Collection and Publication, from 1980 to 1984; he served on the Technical Committee from 1985 to 1995 and as
its chairman from 1986 to 1988. He was also chairman of GPAs Task Force on Odorization
and co-chairman of the industrys Joint Task Force on Odorization.
Dan was instrumental in the industrys acceptance of mass measurement of light liquid
hydrocarbons using the turbine meter. His presentation of the concept in 1967 helped educate the industry on an important tool which has been adopted by virtually the entire gas
liquids industry.
As chairman of the American Petroleum Institutes Committee on Petroleum Measurement, he helped organize and develop an extensive, industry-wide project to update 50year-old basic orifice flow coefficients. This work, when completed, resulted in the
adoption of a revised industry standard on measurement of natural gas for custody transfer.
In 1986, when the propane industry was reeling from lawsuits and allegations that ethyl
mercaptan was an ineffective odorizing agent for propane, he became the industrys driving force in forming an industry-wide task force to address the issue. The task force responded by directing vital human response testing research; by publishing a "Report of
Investigations" which became a fundamental tool to respond to many of the earlier accusations; by developing low-cost, accurate test methods for quantifying the amount of ethyl
mercaptan in propane; and by initiating a joint research project to investigate potential
techniques for cylinder surface passivation.
In 1991 he was honored by his peers by receiving the gas processing industrys highest
honor, the GPA Hanlon Award. Dan will be remembered as a working leader in the gas
processing industry and one who personified the high integrity of its people. The Gas Processors Suppliers Association respectively dedicates this edition of the Engineering Data
Book in Dans memory.

ii

Preface to the Eleventh Edition


engineers who, in spite of increasing availability of computer routines and other sophisticated design methods, require a general reference work as a guide to accepted
engineering practice for estimating, feasibility studies,
preliminary design, and for making on-site operating decisions.

The Gas Processors Suppliers Association is an organization of companies with specialized knowledge of the supply and service needs of the gas processing and related
industries. A major service to them is embodied in the Engineering Data Book, which was first published in 1935.
Over 135,000 copies of the Ninth and Tenth Editions of
the English-unit book were distributed for use throughout
the world by engineers, operating personnel, and students.

The loose-leaf format of the Data Book permits periodic


updating to meet the changing technology of the process
industries.

This Eleventh Edition of the Engineering Data Book,


available in two versions FPS and SI is an attempt
to assemble, in a single compilation, basic design information together with data and procedures that can be used
by field and plant engineers to determine operating and
design parameters. It is also intended as an aid to design

GPSA recognizes that the maintenance of the Data Book


is a continuing task. Users comments and suggestions are
welcome. Any such comments should be made in writing
to:
Gas Processors Suppliers Association
6526 E. 60th St.
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74145
Fax: (918) 493-3875
e-mail: gpsa@gasprocessors.com

A Brief History of the Engineering Data Book and Sponsoring Organizations


The GPSA Engineering Data Book was first published
in 1935 as a booklet containing much advertising and a little technical information. In subsequent editions, technical information was expanded and the Data Book
gradually became the accepted engineering reference
work for the gas processing industry. In addition, the Data
Book has found wide acceptance in the petroleum refining, gas transmission, and petrochemical industries.

Both organizations underwent name changes in subsequent years in response to changing industry conditions. In 1961, the organizations became known as the
Natural Gas Processors Association (NGPA) and the Natural Gas Processors Suppliers Association (NGPSA). In
1974 the names changed to the current Gas Processors Association (GPA) and Gas Processors Suppliers Association
(GPSA).

The Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA) was


organized in 1928 as the Natural Gasoline Supply Mens
Association (NGSMA). Its principal purpose was as a service organization to the parent Natural Gasoline Association of America (NGAA).

Users of the manual should note that numerous references throughout the book may refer to publications of
these organizations by the names in effect at the time of
the publication.

Disclaimer
The Gas Processors Suppliers Association takes no position as to whether any method, apparatus, or product mentioned herein is covered by an existing patent, nor as to
the validity of any patent alleged to cover any such
method, apparatus, or product. Furthermore, the information contained in this publication does not grant the right
by implication or otherwise for manufacture, sale, or use
in connection with any method, apparatus, or product cov-

ered by letters patent; nor does it insure anyone against liability for infringement of letters patent.
This publication may be used by anyone desiring to do
so, but neither the Gas Processors Suppliers Association
or any of its members shall be held responsible or liable in
any way for loss or damage resulting therefrom, or for the
violation of any federal, state, or municipal regulations
with which it may conflict.

iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Eleventh Edition
GPSA wishes to acknowledge the work of those individuals who contributed their talents and literally thousands of
hours of time to the writing, editing, reviewing, and assembling of the information in this Eleventh Edition of the Engineering Data Book. Many, though not all, of those
individuals are listed in the roster of contributors. GPSA is
also indebted to processing and service companies that
made available expert personnel, and for release of technical information for this edition, some of which has not been
published previously.

J.M. Kramer, M.W. Kellogg Company


Ari Minkkinen, Institut Francais du Petrole
Bob Heigold, Delta Catalytic Engineering & Construction, Ltd.
Gustavo A. Soto Soto, PDVSA
Helge Rivelsrud, Norsk Hydro a.s.
Other Editorial Review Board members who served during compilation of the Eleventh Edition:
R.N. Maddox, Oklahoma State University Retired
Stuart Ferguson, Shell International Gas Ltd.
D.W. Kemp, Consultant Deceased
GPSA also wishes to acknowledge the work of Ed Raper,
ELR; Susan Coman and staff, ProType; Tim Anderson and
staff, Antec; Mike Jackson, Jackson Design; and Ron Cannon, GPAretired, for their work in converting the charts,
graphs, and text to SI, and completion of the task of publishing the Data Book one hundred percent electronically. The
Revised Tenth Edition of the Data Book was published partially electronically.

GPSA also acknowledges the outstanding work and dedication of the Editorial Review Board, which was totally responsible for final editing, review, and assembly of editorial
material for the Eleventh Edition. Review Board members
at the date of publication:
Fred G. Russell, Chairman, Hudson Products Corporation
D.J. Morgan, John M. Campbell & Company
W.M. Woodard, Phillips Petroleum Company
Brian Price, Black & Veatch Pritchard

Editorial Contributors Tenth and Eleventh Editions


Donald J. Cody, Stearns-Roger Corp.
Susan Coman and staff, ProType
Tom Cooley, Kvaerner Membrane Systems
Richard Cruz, Ben Holt Co.
W.L. Davis, Hudson Products Corporation
Harry Deakin, M W Kellogg Co.
Jack Dingman, Texaco Chemical Co.
M.S. DuPart, Dow Chemical
Lance Eckel, Oxy Cities Service NGL, Inc.
Peter W. Elder, Delta Projects Ltd.
D.G. Elliot, Davy McKee International
James F. Ely, Colorado School of Mines
S.K. Fan, Mycom, Inc.
Gerald L. Farrar, G.L. Farrar & Associates
James A. Feldman, Applied Automation, Inc.
Stuart Ferguson, Shell International Gas Ltd.
Tom Ferguson, The Randall Corporation
Vernon O. Fey, Stearns-Roger Corp.
R.H.E. Fierens, Raytheon Engineers
Wayne A. Fling, Oxy Cities ServiceRetired
A.J. Flynn, Shell Oil Co.
Francis Foret, Warren Petroleum
Ken Frankenberger, King Tool Company
G.D. Gaylon, Stearns-Roger Corp.
J.C. Geiger, Champlin Petroleum Co.
B.A. George, Amoco Production Co.
C.L. Gerlovich, Stearns-Roger Corp.
P. Gilcrease, Stearns-Roger Corp./Colorado School of Mines
Jack Gillaspy, Philadelphia Gear Co.
Bruce Gilmer, InterNorth, Inc.
Sudhir Golikeri, Davy McKee International
J.C. Green, Williams Pipeline
R.D. Gresham, Stearns-Roger Corp.
Kenneth R. Hall, Texas A&M University
Bob Hamilton, Consultant
R.L. Hamilton, Stearns-Roger Corp.
Charles Hammack, Engineers & Fabricators, Inc.
Glen E. Handwerk, Consultant
E.F. Harris, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Co.
S.T. Hartzog, Hudson Engineering Corp.

Fred G. Russell, Chairman, Hudson Products Corp.


Stanley Adler, M.W. Kellogg Co.
L.R. Albaugh, Arco Oil & Gas Co.
Gilbert J. Aldana, Intevep, S.A.
Jack Allen, Vinson Supply Co.
Abdulreda Alsaygh, University of Qatar
R.B. Anderson, Exxon Production & Research Co.
Tim Anderson and staff, Antec
J.C. Arnoldi, Stearns-Roger Corp.
Michael Ayers, Hudson Engineering Corp.
Tom Bacon, Dow Chemical
D.L. Bakas, Stearns-Roger Corp.
Tommy Ball, Ford, Bacon & Davis, Inc.
Hugh Bankes, Bankes Engineering
Jean-Claude Barbier, IFP
D.D. Battershell, D.D. Battershell & Associates
Ned Baudat, B & C Associates
R.E. Beaty, Amoco Production Co.
J.L. Berg, Hudson Products Corporation
David F. Bergman, Amoco
W.A. Bobbs, Fluor Daniel, Inc.
K.A. Bodine, Stearns-Roger Corp.
William C. Boyer, Oxy Cities Service NGL, Inc.
George Briley, Refrigeration Engineering Co.
Ron Brunner, GPA
Carroll Buster, Ford, Bacon & Davis, Inc.
Paul Buthod, University of Tulsa
Bill Caffey, Koch Hydrocarbon Co.
John M. Campbell, John M. Campbell Co.
P.R. Campbell, Hudson Engineering Corp.
R.E. Cannon, GPA, GPSA
O.T. Carlisle, Matthew Hall Engineering
Peter Carnell, ICI Katalco
Steve Chalmers, Cooling Products
Patsy Chappelear, Hudson Engineering Corp.
C.C. Chen, Hudson Engineering Corp.
Roger J.J. Chen, Davy McKee International
Jan K. Ciupak, Amoco Production Co.
H.A. Clayton, Phillips Petroleum Co.
Doug Clower, McDermott Marine Engineering

iv

Bob Piehl, Chevron


J.G. Pierpoint, Stearns-Roger Corp.
F.J. Pocock, Babcock & Wilcox
Verleon H. Porter, Key Engineering, Inc.
W.A. Potts, Exxon Production & Research Co.
Michael Prevade, Calgon Corporation
Brian Price, Black & Veatch Pritchard
J. Printz, Stearns-Roger Corp.
Ed Raper, ELR
Laurance Reid, Laurance Reid Associates, Inc.
J.M. Richards, Stearns-Roger Corp.
Peter Richardson, Davy McKee-Dresser Engineering Div.
C.J. Riley, Stearns-Roger Corp.
Helge Rivelsrud, Norsk Hydro a.s.
W.E. Robert, Fish Engineering & Construction, Inc.
Bill Robinson, Robinson-Utter & Associates
Sharon Robinson, Oxy Cities Service NGL, Inc.
Gary T. Rochelle, University of Texas
Gene Rochette, Optimized Process Furnaces
Alexandre Rojey, IFP
Bill Roof, C-E Natco
C.E. Rose, Warren Petroleum Co.
Tom Russell, T.H. Russell Co.
Dana Salamone, Contritech Corp.
S.R. Salzesen, Ingersoll-Rand Co.
D.J. Sampat, Stearns-Roger Corp.
James Schauls, Trane Co.
Ted H. Scheer, Arco Oil & Gas Co.
Paul Schmidt, Fish Engineering & Construction, Inc.
Robert Schwartz, John Zink Co.
Fred Selleck, Fluor Engineers & Constructors
Dale Sharpe, Bingham-Willamette Ltd.
R.M. Sherman, Peerless Manufacturing Co.
J.H. Shieh, Glitsch, Inc.
Alan Silverman, Mobil R&D Co.
C.R. Sivalls, Sivalls, Inc.
Bill Small, Phillips Petroleum Co.
Dexter Smith, Applied Automation, Inc.
Robert Smith, OPC Engineering
Gustavo A. Soto Soto, PDVSA
S.T. Stark, Phillips Petroleum Co.
Danny Stowe, John M. Campbell & Co.
Ellen Strange, Norsk Hydro
James H. Stuart, Fluor Engineers & Constructors
Carl Sutton, GPA
M.F. Sutton, GPA, GPSA
Harry Temple, Applied Automation, Inc.
J.C. Upchurch, Union Carbide Corp.
Gary Utter, Robinson-Utter & Associates
William R. Valego, Exxon Company, U.S.A.
Herman van Herwijnen, Shell International (SIPM)
Tom Varadi, Merichem Company
Robert Veroba, Huntsman Corporation
R.E. Vickrey, Vickrey Engineering Co.
Andrew Ward, International Process Systems
John Waterous, M W Kellogg Co.
Tom Welker, Welker Engineering
Jim Westmoreland, Texaco
Jeff White, John Zink Co.
L. Wielgot, Stearns-Roger Corp.
Dennis Williams, Chapman Engineers, Inc.
G. Brymer Williams, University of Michigan
R.T. Williamson, Stearns-Roger Corp.
Arild Wilson, Norsk Hydro
William Woodard, Phillips Petroleum Co.
Colin Woodward, ICI Katalco
Rich Worsham, Worsham Enterprises
Jesse Wyrick, Fenix & Scisson, Inc.
Lyman Yarborough, Amoco Production Co.
C.D. Young, Stearns-Roger Corp./Colorado School of Mines

Bob Heigold, Delta Catalytic Engineering & Construction, Ltd.


W.D. Henderson, Shell Oil Co.
Harvey L. Hensley, Davy McKee-Dresser Engineering Div.
Janet D. Herbert, Oxy Cities Service NGL, Inc.
J.P. Herrin, J.P. Herrin & Associates
John Hersley, Marley Equipment Co.
R.D. Higgins, Stearns-Roger Corp.
T.L. Hillburn, Phillips Petroleum Co.
Robert J. Hlozek, Union Carbide
David Holbrook, UOP
Howard Holder, El Paso Natural Gas Co.
Patrick Holub, Huntsman Corporation
Bill Homuth, Westinghouse
Robert Hubbard, John M. Campbell & Co.
Jack T. Hull, Fluor Engineers & Constructors
Mike Jackson, Jackson Design
Arland H. Johannes, Oklahoma State University
Johnny Johnson, The Pritchard Corp.
J.V. Johnson, Jr., Mobil Oil Corp.
Ken Joslin, Mobil R&D Co.
Kathrin Juch, Grace GmbH
J.E. Junkin, Stearns-Roger Corp.
Dan Kemp, Oxy Cities Service NGL, Inc.
Wendell Kensell, Aker Omega, Inc.
D. Kilgannon, Stearns-Roger Corp.
Bernard Kouzel, Union Oil Company of California
J.M. Kramer, M.W. Kellogg Company
Kevin Kramer, College of William & Mary
Joseph Larue, IFP
Willard A. Lewis, Amoco Production Co.
R.M. Ligon, Brown & Root, Inc.
Ted Levin, Hudson Engineering Corp.
Larry Lilly, John M. Campbell & Co.
Louis Lloyd, Lufkin Industries
Mark Loring, M W Kellogg Co.
Royce Loshbaugh, Mobil R&D Corp.
R.N. Maddox, Oklahoma State University
G.A. Madore, Stearns-Roger Corp.
Charles Maitland, Perry Gas Processors
William P. Maning, C-E Natco
Randy Marek, Hudson Engineering Corp.
Herbert D. Marsh, Crest Engineering, Inc.
John E. Martin, Canterra Energy Ltd.
Sharon Mason, ProType
Al Medencorp, Trend Construction Co.
Wiley B. Megee, Phillips Petroleum Co.
Yuv Mehra, Advanced Extraction Technologies, Inc.
H.M. Merritt, Glitsch, Inc.
Bill Millard, General Electric Co.
Ari Minkkinen, Institut Francais du Petrole
D.J. Morgan, John M. Campbell & Co.
Gary Mori, Warren Petroleum
Don Morris, Davy McKee-Dresser Engineering Div.
Mahmood Moshfeghian, Shiraz University
H.W. Mulkins, Stearns-Roger Corp.
M.J. Mulvany, Pioneer Gas Products Co.
P.M. McCann, Koch Hydrocarbon Co.
Russell L. McGalliard, AmocoRetired
J.T. McKinney, Process Equipment Co.
Marv Natham, Crawford & Russell, Inc.
H. Lee Norris III, Exxon Production & Research Co.
O.E. Norris, CBI-NaCon, Inc.
John Palsgrove, Bentley-Nevada
Donald Papa, Anderson Greenwood
Dav Parnell, Coastal Chemical Co.
Susu Patel, Petro Canada Resources
Charles C. Patton, C.C. Patton & Associates
Jerry R. Peebles, Oxy Cities Service NGL, Inc.
Glen Petty, Crawford Enterprises
Rob Phillips, Optimized Process Furances, Inc.
William Phillips, M W Kellogg Co.

Table of Contents
Volume II
Hydrocarbon Recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fluid Flow and Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water Treating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fractionation and Absorption . . . . . . . . .
Dehydration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydrocarbon Treating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sulfur Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermodynamic Properties . . . . . . . . . . .
Equilibrium Ratio (K) Data . . . . . . . . . . .
GPSA Members List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Volume I
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 1
Product Specifictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 2
Measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 3
Instrumentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 4
Relief Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 5
Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 6
Separators and Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 7
Fired Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 8
Heat Exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 9
Aircooled Exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 10
Cooling Towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 11
Pumps and Hydraulic Turbines. . . . . . . . Section 12
Compressors and Expanders . . . . . . . . . . Section 13
Refrigeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 14
Prime Movers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 15

Index
AGA-American Gas Association, 1-21
AIChE-American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1-21
AISC-American Institute of Steel Construction, 1-21
AISI-American Iron & Steel Institute, 1-21
ANSI-American National Standards Institute, 1-21
API Gravity, 1-2
API-American Petroleum Institute, 1-21
ASHRAE-American Society of Heating, Refrigerating &
Air-conditioning Engineers, 1-22
ASME-American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1-22
ASTM-American Society for Testing & Materials, 1-22
Absorber, 1-2
Absorption, 1-2, 19-30
Absorption and Stripping Factors, 19-31
Calculations, 19-30
Strippers, 19-32
Absorption Factor, 1-2
Absorption Oil, 1-2
Acentric Factor, 23-30
Acid Gas, 1-2, 22-1
Adiabatic Expansion, 1-2
Adsorbent, 1-2
Adsorption, 1-2
Affinity Laws, 12-3
Air Cooled Exchangers, 10-1
Advantages, 10-1, 10-2
Air Static-Pressure Drop, 10-15
Air-Density Ratio Chart, 10-14
Air Evaporative Coolers, 10-5
Air Film Coefficient, 10-15
Air-Side Control, 10-3
Disadvantages, 10-2
External Recirculation, 10-5
Fintube Data, 10-10
Forced Draft, 10-2
Friction Factor, 10-11
Header Design, 10-3
Heat-Transfer Coefficients, 10-9
Induced Draft, 10-1
Internal Recirculation, 10-4
Liquid Physical Properties, 10-12
Location, 10-6
LMTD Correction Factors, 10-8

Mechanical Design, 10-1


Pressure Drop, 10-12
Thermal Design, 10-7
Warm Air Recirculation, 10-4
Air Evaporative Coolers, 10-5
Alkalinity and pH Relationships, 18-1
Amine, 1-2
Amines
Diethanolamine, 21-10
Diglycolamine, 21-11
Diisopropanolamine, 21-11
Formulated Solvents, 21-11
Freezing Points, 21-10
Methyldiethanolamine, 21-11
Monoethanolamine, 21-10
Physical Properties, 21-8
Specific Gravity, 21-10
Sterically Hindered, 21-12
Triethanolamine, 21-11
Vapor Pressures, 21-9
Associated Gas, 1-2
Atmospheric Pressure, 1-2

B-P Mix, 1-3


BS&W, 1-3
Barrel, 1-2
Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling (BWRS), 25-7
Benfield Process, 21-16
Blanket Gas, 1-2
Blow Case, 1-3
Blowdown, 1-3, 18-1
Boilaway Test, 1-3
Boiler Water Systems, 18-4
Boiler Water Treatment, 18-9
Boiling Points, 23-24
Petroleum Fractions, 23-26
Bottoms, 1-3
Bourdon Tubes, 4-7
Breathing, 1-3
Bubble Point, 1-3
Butane, Commercial, 1-3, 2-1
Butane, Normal, 1-3
P-H Diagram, 24-32

ii

Section 16
Section 17
Section 18
Section 19
Section 20
Section 21
Section 22
Section 23
Section 24
Section 25
Section 26

Calculations, 22-18
Sulfur Recovery, 22-1
Cobalt Bromide Test, 2-3
Compressibility
Gases, 23-10
Hydrocarbon Liquid, 3-18, 23-24
Natural Gas, 23-1215
Compressibility Factor, 1-3
Compressibility Factors
Natural Gas, 23-12
Compression Ratio, 1-3
Compressors, 13-1
Centrifugal, 13-20
Performance Calculations, 13-2
Reciprocating, 13-2, 13-16
Refrigeration Compressors, 13-30
Types, 13-2
Condensate, 1-3
Condensers, 9-8
Steam, 10-6
Control Valves, 4-18
Actuators, 4-19
Bodies, 4-18
Calibration, 4-24
Cavitation, 4-23
Characteristics, 4-20
Failure, 5-2
Gas Service, 4-21
Installation, 4-24
Liquid Service, 4-23
Noise Prediction, 4-21
Sizing, 4-21, 4-23
Troubleshooting, 4-24
Valve Selection, 4-20
Convergence Pressure, 1-3, 25-1
Conversion Factors, 1-8
Area, 1-9
Base Pressures, 1-11
Capacity Volume, 1-9
Commercial Base Pressure, 1-11
Energy, 1-8
Length, 1-9
Mass, 1-9
Pressure, 1-9
Velocity, 1-8
Weights Per Unit of Area, 1-9
Cooling Systems Characteristics, 11-9
Cooling Towers, 11-1
Air Properties, 11-11
Atmospheric Spray Towers, 11-14
Blowdown Rate, 11-1
Coil Shed, 11-14
Concentration Cycles, 11-13
Dry Bulb/Web Bulb Data, 11-48
Forced Draft, 11-13
Hyperbolic Natural Draft Towers, 11-14
Induced Draft, 11-14
Mechanical Draft, 11-13
Natural Draft, 11-14
Performance Characteristics, 11-9
Performance Nomograph, 11-12
Psychrometry, 11-1, 11-3
Range, 11-10
Types, 11-13
Cooling Water Systems
Open Systems, 18-12
Copper Corrosion Test, 2-3

Vapor-Solid Equilibrium, 20-14


CGPA-Canadian Gas Processors Association, 1-22
Calorimeter, 1-3
Carbon Dioxide
P-H Diagram, 24-25
Vapor-Solid Equilibrium, 20-14
Carbon Disulfide, 22-1, 22-4, 22-6
Carbonyl Sulfide, 1-3, 22-1, 22-4, 22-6
Carbonyl Sulfide Removal, 21-21
Casinghead Gas, 1-3
Catasol, 21-15
Caustic Embrittlement, 18-1, 18-11
Centrifugal Compressors, 13-22
Anti-surge Control, 13-34
Control Systems, 13-33
Critical Speeds, 13-36
Efficiency, 13-28
Flow Limits, 13-30
Flow Range, 13-22
Head, 13-22, 13-27
Horsepower, 13-28
Inlet Guide Vanes, 13-34
Interstage Cooling, 13-30
Isentropic Calculation, 13-23
Journal and Thrust Bearings, 13-31
Lubrication and Seal-Oil Systems, 13-31
Mechanical Losses, 13-29
P-H Diagram, 13-2930
Performance, 13-22, 13-37
Performance Calculations, 13-22
Polytropic Calculation, 13-23
Pressure Control, 13-3334
Rotor Dynamics, 13-36
Shaft Seals, 13-31
Speed, 13-29
Troubleshooting, 13-37
Unbalance, 13-36
Vibration Control System, 13-35
Volume Control, 13-3334
Wheels Required, 13-29
Centrifugal Pumps, 12-9
Affinity Laws, 12-9
Alignment/Supports/ Couplings, 12-13
Common Pump Equations, 12-3
Control, 12-11
Differential Head, 12-6
Drivers, 12-11
Installation/Operation/Maintenance, 12-13
Materials of Construction, 12-13
NPSH, 12-6
Selection Guide, 12-7
Series and Parallel Operation, 12-11
Shaft Seals, 12-13
Suction Specific Speed, 12-6
Temperature rise, 12-11
Theory, 12-9
Troubles and Causes, 12-12
Charcoal Test, 1-3
Chemsweet, 21-17
Chillers, 14-2224
Chromatography, 1-3
Claus Plant
Maintenance, 22-30
Operations, 22-16
Systems, 22-9
Claus Process, 1-3

iii

Copper Strip Test, 1-3


Cricondenbar, 1-3
Cricondentherm, 1-3
Critical Density, 1-4
Critical Pressure, 1-4
Critical Temperature, 1-4
Cryogenic Plant, 1-4

Peng-Robinson, 25-7
Redlich-Kwong, 25-7
Soave Redlich Kwong (SRK), 25-7
van der Waals, 25-6
Equilibrium Ratios, 25-1
2000 psia Convergence Pressure, 25-11
3000 psia Convergence Pressure, 25-1224
Calculating Convergence Pressure, 25-2
Carbon Dioxide, 25-2
Convergence Pressure, 25-1, 25-9
Correlations, 25-4
Flash Calculation, 25-2
Nomenclature, 25-1
Sources of Data, 25-3
Ethane
P-H Diagram, 24-27
Quality Criteria, 2-2
Vapor-Solid Equilibrium, 20-12
Ethylene
P-H Diagram, 24-28
Exchanger Nomenclature, 9-15
Exchangers
Air Cooled, 10-1
Plate Fin, 9-22
Plate Frame, 9-30
Shell and Tube, 9-2
Expanders, 13-37
Auxiliary Systems, 13-43
Calculation, 13-40
Control Systems, 13-44
Expander Process, 13-39
Field Performance, 13-45
Lube Oil, 13-44
Mechanical, 13-41
P-H Diagram, 13-41
Pressure-Temperature Diagram, 13-39
Seal Gas, 13-44
Shutdown, 13-44
Solid CO2 Formation Conditions, 13-41
Thermodynamics, 13-39
Expansion Factors, 3-15
Expansion Turbine, 1-4
Extraction, 1-4

Deaerator, 1-4
Debutanizer, 1-4
Dehydration, 1-4
Dehydration, Gas, 1-4, 20-1, 20-22
Glycol Systems, 20-22
Solid Desiccant, 20-37
Dehydration, Liquid, 20-42
Demathanized Product, 1-4
Demethanizer, 1-4
Demisters, 7-7
Densitometers, 3-28
Depropanizer, 1-4
Desiccants, 1-4
Properties, 20-37
Regeneration, 20-39
Desulfurization, 1-4
Dew Point, 1-4
Diaphragm Pumps, 12-16
Distillation, 1-4
Doctor Test, 1-4
Dry Bulb/Web Bulb Temperature Data, 11-48
Dry Gas, 1-4

EP-Mix (Ethane-Propane Mix), 1-4


Editorial Review Board, 1-2
Effective Temperature Difference
Heat Exchange, 9-2
End Point, 1-4
Engines, Internal Combustion, 15-21
Auxiliaries, 15-26
Bearings, 15-26
Couplings, 15-27
Diesel, 15-22
Dual-Fuel, 15-22
Four-Stroke-Cycle, 15-22
Gear Ratings, 15-27
Gears, 15-26
Lubrication, 15-27
Performance Rating, 15-22
Spark Ignition, 15-21
Supercharged, 15-22
Two-Stroke-Cycle, 15-22
Types, 15-21
Vibration, 15-28
Enthalpy, 24-2
Calculation, 24-3, 24-10
Effect of Pressure, 24-9
Hydrocarbon Liquid, 24-1819
Hydrocarbon Vapor, 24-1117
Ideal-Gas-State, 24-2, 24-57
Mixtures, 24-2
Pure Components, 24-2
Entropy, 24-3
Calculation, 24-20
Effect of Pressure, 24-2223
Pure Components, 24-21
Equations of State, 25-6
Benedict-Webb-Rubin-Starling (BWRS), 25-7

Field Separator, 1-4


Filter Separators, 7-1, 7-11
Filters, 7-1
Filtration, 7-14
Partical Removal, 7-14
Finned Tubes, 8-9
Fired Equipment, 8-1
Burners, 8-16
Cabin Direct Fired, 8-18
Combustion, 8-12
Conduction, 8-2
Controls, 8-25
Convection, 8-4
Convection Heaters, 8-28
Direct Fired, 8-18
Draft, 8-14
Firetube Heaters, 8-28
Molten Salt Heaters, 8-31
Nomenclature, 8-1
Radiant Heat Duty, 8-16
Stack Draft, 8-18
Steam Heaters, 8-31

iv

Thermal Efficiency, 8-14, 8-25, 8-27


Troubleshooting, 8-32
Water Bath Heaters, 8-29
Flare Stacks, 5-19
Low Temperature, 5-20
Smokeless, 5-19
Stack Height, 5-18
Flash Calculation, 25-4
Flash Point, 1-4
Flash Tank, 7-1
Flow Calculation Guide, 3-2, 3-3, 3-4
Flow Nozzles, 3-30
Flow Recorders, 3-30
Flow Sensors, 4-11
Fluid Densities, 23-16
Compressibility, 23-22
Liquid Densities, 23-2224
Fluid Flow, 17-1
AGA Equations, 17-4
Bernoulis Theorem, 17-2
Calculations, 17-17
Friction Factors, 17-3, 17-5
Fritzsches Formula, 17-15
Liquid Flow, 17-10
Low Pressure Gas Flow, 17-7
Nomenclature, 17-1
Panhandle A Equation, 17-6
Panhandle B Equation, 17-6
Physical Properties, 17-2
Plant Piping, 17-7
Pressure Drop, 17-13
Reynolds Number, 17-2
Single Phase Flow, 17-4
Slugging, 17-20
Two Phase Flow, 17-11
Weymouth Equation, 17-4
Weymouth Formula, 17-8, 17-9
Fluor Solvent, 21-14
Fouling Resistances
Heat Exchangers, 9-2
Fractionation, 1-4, 19-1
Column Sizing, 19-16
Design, 19-28
Design Considerations, 19-28
Downcomer Design, 19-12
Flood Capacity of Valve Trays, 19-13
Key Components, 19-4
Key Parameters, 19-5
Minimum Reflex Ratio, 19-6
Minimum Stages, 19-6
Number of Stages, 19-56
Operating Pressure, 19-5
Packed Column Internals, 19-16
Packed Columns, 19-15
Packing Depths, 19-16
Packing Height, 19-16
Reboiler Arrangements, 19-19
Reflux Ratio, 19-5, 19-6
Sizing, 19-9
Tray Efficiency, 19-14
Trayed Columns, 19-8
Types of Fractionators, 19-2
Valve Tray Diameter, 19-11
Freeze Valve, 1-4

Research Reports, 1-15


Technical Publications, 1-20
GPA/GPSA Technical Activities, 1-1
GPM, 1-5
Gas Constant, 1-4, 1-11
Gas Exchangers, 9-18
Gas Filter Capacity, 7-13
Gas Hydrate, 1-4
Gas Injection, 1-4
Gas Lift, 1-4
Gas Measurement, 3-2
Gas-Oil Ratio (GOR), 1-4
Gas Processing, 1-4
Gas Processing Plant, 1-4
Gas Sampling, 3-31
Gas Treating Chemicals, 21-8
Freezing Points, 21-10
Physical Properties, 21-8
Specific Gravity, 21-10
Vapor Pressure, 21-9
Gas-Well Gas, 1-4
Gas-Well Liquids, 1-4
Gasket Material
Temperature Limitations, 9-31
Gathering System, 1-5
Glycols
Boiling Point, 20-22
Contactor Capacity, 20-32
Densities, 20-19
Flow Diagram, 20-23
Freezing Points, 20-23
Heat Capacity, 20-2021
Physical Properties, 20-22
Thermal Conductivity, 20-21
Viscosity, 20-1920
Gravity
API, 1-10
Baum, 1-10
Weight Factors, 1-10
Gravity Settling, 7-2
Newtons Law, 7-3
Separators, 7-3
Stokes Law, 7-3
Ground Water, 18-1

Head, Acceleration, 12-2


Heat Exchange with Non-Linear Behavior, 9-2
Heat Exchanger Specifications, 9-9
Heat Exchangers, 9-1
Condensers, 9-8
Film Resistance, 9-2
Fouling Resistance, 9-2
Hairpin Exchangers, 9-19
Heat Transfer Coefficients, 9-6
Heat Transfer Fundamentals, 9-1
LMTD Chart, 9-35
Nomenclature, 9-15
Plate Fin Exchangers, 9-22
Plate Frame Exchangers, 9-30
Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger, 9-32
Reboilers, 9-11
Selection of Components, 9-14
Selection Guide, 9-16
Sensible Heat Transfer, 9-6
Shell and Tube, 9-2
Specifications, 9-9, 9-25

GPA
Publications, 1-13

Low Temperature Separation Unit, 16-4


Mechanical Refrigeration, 16-10
Mixed Refrigerant Processes, 16-1620
New Technology, 16-22
Nitrogen Rejection Unit, 16-2021
Overall Process Configuration, 16-25
Precooled Mixed Refrigerant Process, 16-20
Process Alternatives, 16-7, 16-10
Process Considerations, 16-7
Propane Recovery,16-7, 16-10
Recovery Efficiencies,16-6, 16-21
Refrigerated J-T, 16-12
Refrigerated Lean Oil Absorption Process, 16-9
Refrigeration, 16-4
Residue Recycle, 16-1314
Retrograde Condensation, 16-3
Separation of CO2 and H2S, 16-24
Separation of CO2 and Methane, 16-22
Shrinkage Value, 16-3
Side Draw Reflux Process, 16-16
Single Column NRU, 16-23
Stabilization, 16-6
Straight Refrigeration Process16-56
Turboexpander, 16-10
Turboexpander Processing, 16-12
Two Column NRU, 16-22
Hydrocarbon Treating, 21-1
Amine Processes, 21-6
Batch Processes, 21-17
Benfield Process, 21-16
Carbon Dioxide Removal, 21-20
Carbonyl Sulfide Removal, 21-21
Catacarb, 21-16
Catasol, 21-15
Caustic Wash, 21-14
Caustic Wash, Liquids, 21-21, 21-22
Chemical Reaction Processes, 21-6
Chemistry, 12-7
Chemsweet, 21-17
Fluor Solvent, 21-14
Gasoline and LP-Gas, 21-20
Hi-Pure Process, 21-15
Hot Carbonate, 21-16
Hydrogen Sulfide Removal, 21-20
Iron Chelate Processes, 21-18
Iron Sponge, 21-17
Liquids, 21-19
LO-CAT, 21-18
Membrane Separation, 21-19
Mercaptan Treating, 21-21
Mercury Removal, 21-18
Merichem, 21-21
Merox Process, 21-21
Molecular Sieve, 21-1819
Nomenclature, 21-1
Perco Sweetening, 21-22
Physical Solvents, 21-14
Process Flow, 21-7
Process Selection, Gases, 21-4
Puraspec, 21-17
Purisol, 21-15
Rectisol, 21-14
Safety Precautions, 21-2
Selexol, 21-14
Sulfa-Check, 21-17
Sulfa-Treat, 21-17
SulFerox, 21-19

Tank Heaters, 9-20


Tube Vibration, 9-18
Tubing Characteristics, 9-17
Heat Media (Heating Media), 1-5
Heat Transfer
Burners, 8-16
Combustion, 8-12
Conduction, 8-2
Controls, 8-25
Convection, 8-4, 8-28
Direct Fired, 8-18
Draft, 8-14
Fired Heaters, 8-1
Fundamentals, 8-1
Heat Losses, 8-12
Hot Oil Heaters, 8-31
Hot Oil System, 8-29
Molten Salt Heaters, 8-31
Radiant, 8-18
Reboilers, 8-32
Stack Draft, 8-23
Thermal Efficiency, 8-14, 8-25, 8-33
Troubleshooting, 8-32
Heat Transfer Coefficient, 9-2, 9-6
Heaters
Fired Equipment, 8-1
Tank, 9-20
Heating Value
Natural Gas, 23-37
Heating Value (Heat of Combustion), 1-5
Heavy Ends, 1-5
Henrys Constants, 19-32
Hexanes Plus (or Heptanes Plus), 1-5
Hi-Pure Process, 21-15
Hydrate, 1-5
Hydrates
Formation, 20-7
Inhibition, 20-15
Natural Gas Systems, 20-9
Prediction, 20-10, 20-15
Hydraulic Turbines, 12-17
Hydrocarbon Recovery, 16-1
Absorption Refrigeration, 16-7
Cascade Refrigeration, 16-18
CO2 Ethane Separation, 16-24
CO2 Processing for EOR, 16-22
Cold Residue Recycle Process, 16-1516
Condensate Stabilization, 16-5
Conventional Process, 16-12
Cryogenic Technology, 16-21
Dew Point Control, 16-2
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), 16-2223
Ethane Recovery, 16-10, 16-15
Four-Column Ryan/Holmes Process, 16-26
Fractionation Considerations, 16-17
Gas Composition, 16-1
Gas Subcooled Process (GSP), 16-1314
Glycol Injection, 16-5
GPM, 16-1
Higher Heating Value (HHV), 16-1
Joule-Thompson Effect, 16-11
J-T Expansion, 16-11
J-T Valve, 16-1, 16-11
Lean Oil Absorption, 16-7, 16-9
Liquefied Natural Gas Production, 16-17
Low Pressure Retrograde Condensation, 16-3
Low Temperature Separation, 16-3

vi

Light Ends, 1-5


Light Hydrocarbons, 1-5, 21-19
Liquid Measurement, 3-17
Meter Proving, 3-22
Meter Selection and Performance, 3-20
Orifice Meters, 3-17
Orifice Sizing, 3-17
Liquid Sampling, 3-31
Liquid-Liquid Separators, 7-1
Retention Times, 7-14
Loading Rack, 1-5

Sulfinol, 21-15
Sulfur Removal, Liquids, 21-21
Sweetening, 21-7
Hydrogen Sulfide
Solubility, 22-22
Vapor-Solid Equilibrium, 20-14

Immiscible, 1-5
Inerts, 1-5
Instrumentation, 4-1
Analytical, 4-27
Computer Systems, 4-26
Concepts, 4-14
Control Modes, 4-15
Controllers, 4-15
Electronic Power Supplies, 4-6
Nomenclature, 4-1
Sensing Devices, 4-7
Symbols, 4-45
Temperature Sensors, 4-10
Transmitters, 4-13
Insulation
Conductivities, 8-3
Exchangers, 9-29
Fired Heaters, 8-24
Heat Flow, 6-13
Storage Facilities, 6-11
Ion-Exchange Processes
Electrodialysis, 18-7
Ions, Anions, Cations
Water Treating, 18-2
Iron Sponge, 21-17
Iso-Pentane
P-H Diagram, 24-33
Iso-Butane, 1-5
P-H Diagram, 24-31
Vapor-Solid Equilibrium, 20-14

Mass Flow Meters, 3-28


Mass Measurement, 3-27
Mass to Volume Calculation, 3-27
Mcf, 1-5
MMcf, 1-5
Measurement, 3-1
Gas, 3-2
Liquids, 3-17
Steam, 3-29
Membrane Separation, 21-19
Mercaptan, 1-5
Mercaptan Treating, 21-21
Merichem, 21-21
Merox Process, 21-21
Metal Resistance for Tubes
Heat Exchangers, 9-2
Meter Proving Reports, 3-22
Meter Proving Systems, 3-22
Meter Tubes, 3-6
Methane
P-H Diagram, 24-26
Vapor-Solid Equilibrium, 20-12
Mined Caverns, 6-7
Miscible Flood, 1-5
Mist Extractors, 7-8
Vane Type, 7-10
Molar Heat Capacity, Mcp, 13-5
Molecular Sieve, 20-37, 21-19
Design, 20-38
Motors, Electric
Drip-Proof, 15-20
Enclosures, 15-20
Induction, 15-19
Induction Generator, 15-21
Selection, 15-19
Speed, 15-20
Synchronous, 15-19
Voltage, 15-20

Jacket Water, 1-5


Joule-Thomson Effect, 1-5

Knockout Drums, 5-16

LMTD Chart, 9-3


LMTD Correction, 9-45
LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), 1-5
LO-CAT, 21-18
LP-Gas (Liquefied Petroleum Gas), 1-5
International Specifications, 2-4
Odorization, 2-5
LP-Gas Specifications, Parameters, 2-1
Moisture Content, 2-2
Residue, 2-5
Sulfur Content, 2-3
Vapor Pressure, 2-2
LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas), 1-5
LRG (Liquefied Refinery Gas), 1-5
LTX Unit (Low Temperature Extraction Unit), 1-5
Langelier Scaling Index, 18-2, 18-13
Lead Acetate Test, 1-5
Lean Gas, 1-5
Lean Oil, 1-5
Level Sensors, 4-8
Lift Gas, 1-5

NGL (Natural Gas Liquids), 1-6


NPSH Correction Factors, 12-6
Natural Gas, 1-2, 1-5
Components, 1-2
Pipeline Quality, 2-3
Natural Gas Processing Plant, 1-5
Natural Gasoline, 1-5
Specifications, 2-2
Test Methods, 2-2
Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH), 12-6
Nitrogen
P-H Diagram, 24-24
NOx Control, 8-17

vii

Odorant, 1-6
Oil-Well Gas, 1-6
On-Stream Factor, 1-6
Operating Factor, 1-6
Orifice Factors, 3-1112
Orifice Flanges, 3-2
Orifice Flow Rate, 3-10, 3-18
Orifice Meter Measurement, 3-2
Gas Orifice Calculations, 3-10
Meter Tube Lengths, 3-9
Pipe Diameter Tolerance, 3-8
Tolerance for Orifice Diameters, 3-8
Orifice Plate Dimensions, 3-7
Orifice Plates, 3-6
Orifice Sizing, 3-10, 3-17
Orifice Well test, 3-17
Outage, 1-6
Oxygen
P-H Diagram, 24-35

Positive Displacement Meters, 3-20, 4-12


Pressure Correction Factors for Steel, 3-26
Pressure Enthalpy Diagrams, 24-89
Pressure Sensors, 4-7
Prime Movers, 15-1
Electric Motors, 15-19
Gas Turbines, 15-9
Internal Combustion Engines, 15-21
Steam Turbines, 15-1
Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers, 9-32
Propane, 1-6
P-H Diagram, 24-29
Specifications, 2-1
Vapor-Solid Equilibrium, 20-13
Propane, Commercial, 1-6
Specifications, 2-1
Propane, HD-5, 1-6
Specifications, 2-1
Propylene
P-H Diagram, 24-30
Psychrometric Chart, 11-3
Pump Efficiency, Mechanical, 12-2
Pump Efficiency, Volumetric, 12-2
Pumps, 12-1
Centrifugal, 12-9
Codes, 12-19
Conversion Formulae, 12-3
Diaphram, 12-16
Reciprocating, 12-14
Speed Control, 12-11
Purisol, 21-15

Packaged Unit, 1-6


Packed Column, 1-6, 19-15
Particle Characteristics
Separators, 7-4
Peak Shaving, 1-6
Pelton Wheel, 12-2
Pentane-Plus, 1-6
Pentane, Normal
P-H Diagram, 24-34
Perco Sweetening, 21-22
Physical Constants, 23-29
Physical Properties, 23-1
Acentric Factor, 23-30
Boiling Points, 23-24, 23-29
Compressibility, Gases, 23-10, 23-1215
Compressibility, Liquids, 23-24
Computer Prediction, 23-10
Critical Properties, 23-26
Fluid Densities, 23-1617, 23-19
Liquid Densities, 23-19, 23-2225
Nomenclature, 23-1
Pseudocritical Properties, 23-10
Pseudocritical Temperature, 23-10
Specific Gravity, 23-18, 23-2021
Thermal Expansion, 23-27
Vapor Pressures, 23-2728, 23-32
Pigging, 1-6, 17-21
Pipeline Gas, 1-6
Quality Criteria, 2-3
Piping, 17-22
Design Properties, 17-24
Flanged Fitting, 17-27
Pipe and Flange Data, 17-22
Pressure-Temperature Ratings, 17-27
Steel Flanges, 17-23, 17-25
Transmission and Distribution, 17-2526
Working Pressures, 17-2425
Pitot Tubes, 3-29
Plate Fin Heat Exchangers, 9-22
Basic Configuration, 9-22
Hardware, 9-23
Heat Load Curve, 9-26
Sizing, 9-27
Specifications, 9-25
Plate Frame Heat Exchangers, 9-30
Pool Boiling Curve, 9-11

RVP (Reid Vapor Pressure), 1-6


Raw Gas, 1-6
Raw Mix Liquids, 1-6
Reboilers, 8-20, 8-25
Kettle, 19-22
Reciprocating Compressors, 13-2, 13-16
Bhp Per Million Curve, 13-1112
Bottle Sizing, 13-19
Capacity, 13-6
Capacity Control, 13-16
Control Devices, 13-16
Cylinder Design, 13-14
Detailed Calculations, 13-5
Discharge Temperatures, 13-8, 13-11
Equivalent Capacity, 13-8
Horsepower, 13-9
Horsepower Required to Compress Gases, 13-4
Intake Pressure, 13-13
Pulsation Control, 13-18
Pulsation Dampeners (Snubbers), 13-19
Rod Loading, 13-9
Specific Gravity Correction, 13-13
Troubleshooting, 13-20
Volumetric Efficiency, 13-6
Reciprocating Pumps, 12-14
Acceleration Head, 12-16
Acceleration Head Factors, 12-15
Calculations, 12-14
Displacement, 12-14
Pulsation, 12-16
Suction System, 12-15
Volumetric Efficiency, 12-15
Recorders, 4-14
Recovery, 1-6

viii

Characteristics, 5-3
Chatter, 5-14
Conventional, 5-4
Cycling, 5-13
Discharge Piping, 5-13
Fire Sizing, 5-11
Gas or Vapor Relief, 5-7
Installation, 5-13
Liquid Relief, 5-9
Mixed Phase Relief, 5-10
Pilot Operated, 5-5
Piping, 5-14
Rupture Disks, 5-6
Seat Leakage, 5-14
Sizing, 5-7
Steam Relief, 5-9
Thermal Relief, 5-10
Residue, 1-6
Retrograde Condensation (Vaporization), 1-6
Reynolds Number Factor, 3-1314
Rich Gas, 1-6
Rich Oil, 1-6
Roots of Flow, 3-31
Rotary Pumps, 12-16
Ryznar Scaling Index, 18-2, 18-13

Rectisol, 21-14
Recycle, 1-6
Redlich-Kwong, 25-7
Reflux, 1-6
Reflux Ratio, 1-6
Refractories, 8-3
Refrigerants
Aqueous Ammonia System, 14-27
Ethylene, 14-14, 14-18, 14-22
Ethylene Condensing Curves, 14-10, 14-14, 14-18
Lithium Bromide, Water, 14-26
Mixed, 14-21
Physical Properties, 14-9
Propane Condensing Curves, 14-11, 14-15, 14-19
Propylene Condensing Curves, 14-12, 14-16, 14-20
Properties, 14-7
Purity, 14-17
R-22 Condensing Curves, 14-13, 14-17
Refrigeration, 14-1
Absorption, 14-25
Aqueous Ammonia System, 14-27
Cascading, 14-7
Chillers, 14-22, 14-23, 14-24
Compressors, 14-21
Condensation, 14-3
Condenser Duty, 14-7
Condensing Temperature, 14-6
Controls, 14-22
Cycles, 14-2
Design, 14-13
Evaporation, 14-2
Horsepower, 14-9
Lithium Bromide, Water System, 14-26
Mechanical, 14-2
Nomenclature, 14-1
Operating Considerations, 14-13
Single Stage, 14-3
Stages, 14-3
Subcooling, 14-7
System Check List, 14-25
Three-Stage, 14-3
Two-Stage, 14-3
Vacuum Systems, 14-13
Relief Systems, 1-6, 5-1
Back Pressure, 5-15
Blocked Discharge, 5-2
Design, 5-2
Devices, 5-4
Discharge Piping, 5-14
Fire Exposure, 5-2
Fire Sizing, 5-11
Flares, 5-17
Gas or Vapor Relief, 5-7
Knockout Drums, 5-16
Liquid Relief, 5-9
Mixed Phase Relief, 5-10
Nomenclature, 5-1
Piping Design, 5-14
Recommended Practices, 5-20
Sizing, 5-7
Steam Relief, 5-9
Thermal Relief, 5-10
Tube Rupture, 5-2
Vessel Protection, 5-3
Relief Valves, 5-1
Back Pressure Sizing, 5-15
Balanced, 5-5

Scf (Standard Cubic Foot), 1-6


SI Terminology, 1-8
SNG (Synthetic or Substitute Natural Gas), 1-6
Sampling, 3-31
Saturated Air Properties, 11-15
Saturated Compounds, 1-6
Saturated Liquid, 1-6
Saturated Vapor, 1-6
Scrubber or Knockout, 7-1
Separation
Coalescing, 7-3
Newtons Law, 7-3
Stokes Law, 7-3
Separators, 7-1
Design and Construction, 7-3
Gas-Liquid, 7-7
Horizontal, 7-5
Liquid-Liquid, 7-11
Mist Eliminators, 7-8
Principles, 7-1
Spherical, 7-5
Types, 7-1
Vertical, 7-3
Shell and Tube Exchangers, 9-2
Selection Guide, 9-16
Shrinkage, 1-6
Slug Catcher, 7-1, 17-21
Soave Redlich Kwong (SRK), 25-7
Solid CO2 Formation Conditions, 13-42
Solution Gas, 1-6
Sonic Velocity, 5-18
Sour Gas, 1-7
Specific Gravity, 1-7
Hydrocarbon Mixtures, 23-21
Petroleum Fractions, 23-18, 23-20
Specific Gravity Factors, 3-3
Splitter, 1-7
Sponge Absorbent, 1-7
Stabilized Condensate, 1-7
Stabilizer, 1-7

ix

Stage Separation System, 1-7


Steam Coefficient Factors, 3-16
Steam Measurement, 3-29
Still, 1-7
Storage, 6-1
Atmospheric, 6-2
Codes, 6-26
High Pressure, 6-2
Installation, 6-14
Insulation, 6-11
Low Pressure, 6-2
Materials of Construction, 6-10
Medium Pressure, 6-2
Nomenclature, 6-1
Partial Volumes, 6-18
Protective Coatings, 6-11
Refrigerated Storage, 6-7
Site Preparation, 6-14
Underground, 6-2, 6-7
Working Pressures, 6-2
Storage Vessels, 6-5
Strapping, 1-7
Stream Day, 1-7
Stripper, 1-7
Stripping Factor, 1-7
Stripping Medium, 1-7
Sulfinol, 21-15
Sulfur, 1-7
Heat of Vaporization, 22-20
Liquid Viscosity, 22-15
Properties, 22-14
Specifications, 22-30
Vapor Pressure, 22-19
Viscosity, 22-20
Sulfur Compounds
Enthalpies, 22-25
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), 1-7
Recovery, 22-12
Sulfur Recovery, 22-1
Calculation, 22-18
Catalyst Converter Operation, 22-6, 22-9
Claus Process, 22-1
Combustion Operation, 22-4, 22-7
Condenser Operation, 22-5, 22-8
Piping, 22-9
Process Calculations, 22-18
Reheating Operation, 22-5, 22-9
Shutdown, 22-17
Startup, 22-16
Waste Heat Recovery, 22-5, 22-8
Sulfur Removal, 21-21
Sulfur Storage and Handling, 22-14
Surface Tension, 23-36
Paraffin Hydrocarbons, 23-40
Surface Water, 18-2
Sweet Gas, 1-7

Temperature Sensors, 4-10


Therm, 1-7
Thermal Conductivity, 23-34
Calculation, 23-40
Gases, 23-37
Hydrocarbon Gases, 23-37
Liquid Paraffin Hydrocarbons, 23-39
Metals, 9-6
Miscellaneous Gases, 23-37
Natural and Hydrocarbon Gases, 23-37
Petroleum Fractions, 23-39
Thermal Expansion, 23-25
Thermocouple Tables, 4-12
Thermocouples, 4-10
Thermodynamic Properties, 24-1
Enthalpy, 24-2
Entropy, 24-3
Nomenclature, 24-1
Steam, 24-3942
Water, 24-37, 24-38, 24-39
Thermometers, 4-11
Thermosyphon Reboilers, 9-13, 19-22
Trayed Column, 1-7, 19-8
Turbine Meters, 3-18, 4-12
Turbine Meter Installation, 3-21
Turbines, Gas
Acoustics, 15-13
Air Filtration, 15-12
Altitude Correction, 15-14
Ambient Temperature Correction, 15-14
Auxiliary Systems, 15-11
Brayton Cycle, 15-11
Combined Cycle, 15-11
Cycles, 15-11
Emissions, 15-15
Exhaust Loss Correction, 15-14
Inlet Loss Correction, 15-14
Lube Systems, 15-11
Open Cycle, 15-11
Types, 15-9
Turbines, Steam
Components, 15-3
Condensing/Non-Condensing, 15-1
Control Systems, 15-4
Control Valves, 15-3
Efficiency, 15-5
Exhaust Casings, 15-4
Extraction/Admission, 15-1
Impulse/Reaction, 15-1
Nozzles/Blades, 15-3
Part Load, 15-5
Single Stage, 15-1
Steam Rates, 15-7
Superheat Correction Factor, 15-7
Types, 15-1
Turboexpander, 1-7
Turboexpanders, 13-37

Tail Gas Clean-up Processes, 22-12, 22-13


Tail Gas Handling, 22-10
Temperature Base Factors, 3-3
Temperature Correction Factors, 1-7
for Mild Steel, 3-34
for Stainless Steel, 3-34
Temperature Difference (Effective)
Heat Exchange, 9-12
Temperature Factors, 3-3

Ullage, 1-7
Unsaturated Compounds, 1-7

Valve Freeze Methods, 2-3


Vapor Losses, 6-16
Vapor Pressure, 1-7, 23-32
High Temperature, 23-27
Low Temperature, 23-26

Wellhead, 1-8
Wet Gas, 1-8
Wobbe Number, 1-8

Vapor Pressure, GPA, 1-7


Vapor Pressure, Gasoline, 1-7
Vapor Recovery, 1-7
Vapor Recovery Systems, 6-17
Vaporization Losses, 6-16
Venturi Meter, 3-38
Viscosity, 23-32
Air, 23-33
Gas Mixture, 23-33, 23-36
Gases, 23-33
Hydrocarbon Gas, 23-31
Hydrocarbon Liquids, 23-29
Liquids, 23-35
Paraffin Hydrocarbon Gases, 23-30
Petroleum Fractions, 23-34
Pure and Mixed Hydrocarbons, 23-35
Ratio vs. Pseudoreduced Temperature, 23-32
Steam, 23-36
Viscosity-Temperature Chart, 23-29
Water, 23-34
Viscosity Relationships, 1-12
Volatile Sulfur, 1-7
Volume Correction Factors, 3-19
Vortex Flowmeter, 3-29
Vortex Shedding Flowmeters, 3-29

Ziegler-Nichols Method
Instrumentation, 4-17

Waste Heat Recovery, 8-33, 22-8


Wastewater Treatment and Disposal, 18-15
Water Content
Gases, 20-2
Hydrates, 20-7
Measurement, 20-7
Of Acid Gas Mixtures, 20-5
Of Carbon Dioxide, 20-5
Of Gases, 20-2
Of Hydrocarbon Gas, 20-4
Of Hydrogen Sulfide, 20-5
Solubility, 20-3
Solubility in Liquid Hydrocarbons, 20-3
Water Treating, 18-1
ABMA and ASME Standards, 18-4
Biological Fouling, 18-14
Boiler Blowdown, 18-4
Caustic Embrittlement, 18-1, 18-11
Chemical Reactions, 18-8
Closed Systems, 18-15
Corrosion Control, 18-12
Corrosion Mitigation, 18-11
Deaeration (Degasifying), 18-7
Foam Control, 18-11
Impurities in Water, 18-3
Ion-Exchange Processes, 18-5, 18-9
Once-Through Cooling Water Systems, 18-15
Oxygen Scavenging, 18-10
Precipitation Softening, 18-5
Scale Control, 18-11, 18-12
Silica Solubility, 18-6
Sludge Conditioning, 18-11
Solids (Suspended, Dissolved, Total), 18-2
Source Waters, 18-1
Water Analysis, 18-2
Water Chemistry, 18-4
Water Treatment, 18-1, 18-4
Weathering, 1-7
Weathering Test, 1-7
Weight in Air, 1-7

xi