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A Dual-Polarized Planar-Array Antenna for

S-Band and X-Band Airborne Applications


Shi -Hsun

Hsu',

Yu-Jiun

Ren

and

Kai

Chang

"Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University


College Station, TX 77843-3128, USA
Tel: +1 (979) 845-5285; E-mail: shihhsun@ece.tamu.edu
21ntelligent Automation, Inc.
Rockville, MD 20855, USA

Abstract
A new dual-frequency dual-polarized array antenna for airborne applications is presented in this paper. Two planar arrays
with thin substrates (RIT Ouroid 5880 substrate, with e; = 2.2 and a thickness of 0.13 mm) are integrated to provide
simultaneous operation at S band (3 GHz) and X band (10 GHz). Each 3 GHz antenna element is a large rectangular ringresonator antenna, and has a 9.5 dBi gain that is about 3 dB higher than the gain of an ordinary ring antenna. The 10 GHz
antenna elements are circular patches. They are combined to form the array with a gain of 18.3 dBi, using a series-fed
structure to save the space of the feeding line network. The ultra-thin array can be easily placed on an aircraft's fuselage, due
to its lightweight and conformal structure. It will be useful for wireless communication, radar, remote sensing, and surveillance
applications.
Keywords: Antenna arrays; microstrip arrays; microwave antenna arrays; aircraft antennas; planar arrays; polarization

1. Introduction

odern wireless communication systems demand low-profile,


lightweight, and relatively inexpensive antennas [1]. There
has been increasing interest in the development of dual-polarized
antennas/arrays, due to many advantages in performance improvement for wireless communication and radar systems. Dual
polarization avoids the requirement of precise alignment needed in
single-polarized systems. Dual-polarized operation can also provide more information for radar systems, can increase the isolation
between the transmitting and receiving signals of transceivers and
transponders, and can double the capacity of communication systems by means of frequency reuse [2, 3]. In simultaneous transmitting-receiving applications, dual-polarized antennas with two-port
connections offer an alternative to the commonly used bulky
circulator, or separate transmitting and receiving antennas. Furthermore, dual-polarized antennas can provide polarization diversity,
which prevents the system's performance degradation due to multipath fading in complex propagation environments [4]. Compared
with space diversity, the polarization-diversity technique has the
advantage of reducing the number and size of the antenna elements
in the system.
To create dual polarization, the antenna element has to be fed
at two orthogonal points or edges, such that two degenerate resonant modes can be excited for the orthogonal polarizations, i.e.,
vertical and horizontal polarizations. Design techniques of dualpolarized antennas can be classified into three main categories. The
first is to make an orthogonal arrangement of the radiation ele70

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ments for two polarizations [5, 6]. The second is to properly


choose stacked structures of the radiating elements [7, 8]. The third
is to use special feeding techniques [9, 10]. In general, symmetric
structures tend to give better dual-polarization performance. At
higher frequencies, a dielectric-resonator antenna can be used to
reduce the metallic loss of the patch [11].
The dual-polarized antenna elements can be assembled to
construct a high-gain array. Although many dual-polarized antennas have been proposed, not all of them are good candidates for
array design, due to their complex structures and feeding-line networks. Many of them are bulky and heavy, and not suitable for airborne applications. On the other hand, isolation is one of the
important parameters to be considered in dual-polarized array
design. Most reported dual-polarized arrays achieve at least 20 dB
isolation [12-15]. To minimize the coupling between the feed-line
networks, a proximity/aperture-coupling structure can be applied to
prevent radiation due to the microstrip line and radiator from
degrading the polarization performance. The multilayer structure
can also be used to enhance the isolation, in which isolations of
better than 20-30 dB can be obtained with more-complicated structures. However, most dual-polarized antenna designs will result in
a bulky array that is not suitable for use in aircraft, airships, or
unmanned aerial vehicles (DAVs).

In many airborne applications, an array antenna should have


good isolation, high efficiency, and ease of integration with the
aerial vehicle. A simple feeding-line network with lower loss and
high isolation is generally desired. Microstrip series-fed arrays
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Vol. 51, No.4, August 2009

have been shown to have a structure that enhances the antenna's


efficiency [1]. This is because the array feeding-line length is
significantly reduced, compared to the conventional corporate feeding-line network. Such arrays can be either traveling-wave or resonant arrays . A planar structure with a thin and flexible substrate is
a good choice , because it will not disturb the appearance of the aircraft, and can be easily integrated with electronic devices for signal
processing.
In this paper, a dual-frequency dual-polarized array antenna is
presented for airborne antenna applications. A multilayer structure
is adopted for dual -band operation. The antenna arrays for the two
frequencies are separated on different layers. To reduce the array's
volume and weight, a series-fed network is used . An ultra-thin substrate is chosen in order to make the array conformal, and the array
can be easily placed on an aircraft's fuselage, or inside the aircraft .
The parameters affecting the array's characteristics are discussed,
and the measured return losses, radiation gains, and array patterns
are presented.

Two RTlDuroid 5880 substrates (61

= 63 = 2.2)

and a foam

layer (62 = 1.06) form the multilayer structure. The thicknesses of


the substrates (hI

and h 2 ) are both only 0.13 rom (5 mil) . These

ultra-thin and flexible substrates make it possible for the array to


be easily attached onto the aircraft's fuselage, or installed inside
the aircraft . The foam layer has a thickness of h 2 = 1.6 mm . The
dimensions of the array were optimized by using the full-wave
electromagnetic simulator, IE3D [16] .

2.1 X-Band Antenna and Subarray


The X-band array uses the circular patch as its unit antenna
element. The patch radius, R, for the dominant TM)) mode at the
resonant frequency ( Ir' in GHz) can be calculated from [17]
(1)

2. Array Design
Unlike most other elements, the electrical parameters of the
substrate will be affected by the temperature and moisture variations occurring in airborne applications, and these affect the
performance of the antennas. The magnitude of the transmitting
power may also generate a large amount of heat, which results in a
significantly increased temperature. The choice of the substrate is
therefore an important factor in airborne-antenna design. The
configuration of the antenna element determines the complexity of
the array feeding-line network, which controls the size and mass of
the array. The configuration of the feeding-line networks may also
incur different levels of port isolation and pattern polarization.
Important design considerations of a dual-polarized airborne array
antenna are summarized in Table I. Our goal is to design a lowmass conformal array antenna for airborne applications. An ultrathin substrate is used to achieve the conformal antenna.
The multilayer array structure for dual-band (S band and X
band) operation is shown in Figure I. The S-band antenna elements
sit on the top layer, and the X-band antennas are on the bottom
layer. A foam layer (h 2 ) serves as the spacer, and is sandwiched
between the two substrate layers. One of the important design
considerations for this multilayer dual-band array is that the S-band
antenna element should be nearly transparent to the X-band
antenna elements. Otherwise, the S-band element may degrade the
performance of the X-band antenna.

D
y.

x
Figure 1. The multilayer structure of the dual-band dualpolarized array antenna.

Table 1. Design considerations for the airborne array antenna.


Factor
Temperature
Moisture
Electrical parameters
Feeding-line network
Isolation
Coupling
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Impact
This is determined by the aerial conditions and delivered power, which will affect the electrical
parameters ofthe substrate.
The effects due to moisture are similar to the temperature effects.
This controls the antenna's nerformance and is mainly changed by large temperature variations.
This determines the complexity of the array. Unsuitable antenna elements could result in a bulky
and heavy array.
Port-to-port isolation and cross-polarization level can be enhanced by using well-designed
feeing-line networks, such as proximity/aperture coupling and multilayer configurations.
For dual-frequency operation, the interference between antennas operating at different
frequencies may affect radiation patterns and gain.
, Vol. 51, No.4, August 2009

71

'lL--- ----

with

= 8.79r J ( / I

F:)

, 2R ,

-;---

L"

H-port

<,

f:O::::_'!:t------------------- -------------------

(2)

where Or and h (in em) are the relative dielectric constant and
thickness of the substrate, respectively. At the operating frequency,
fr = 10 GHz, an initial value of R of 5.82 mm, calculated from
Equation (I), was used. The optimized value of 5.95 mm was
obtained with the aid of IE3D.
The circular patches are fed with microstrip lines at the
circumferential edge, as shown in Figure 2a. For a single circular
patch, two microstrip feeding lines are used to feed the circular
patch to generate two orthogonally radiating TM t 1 modes for dualpolarized operation. Two feed points are located at the edge of the
patch, 900 away from each other, so that the coupling between
these two ports can be minimized. The port isolation also depends
on the quality factor of the patch. Increasing the substrate's thickness decreases the isolation [18]. Therefore, using thin substrates
could improve the quality of isolation.

Figure 2a. The layout of the X-band antenna, where L = 106,


W = 183, R = 5.82, LxI = 22, and Wxt = 0.17 (all dimensions
are in mm),

Figure 2a shows a 4 x 8 dual-polarized X-band array. The V


port and the H port are the input ports for the two orthogonal
polarizations (vertical and horizontal). The array is composed of
two 4 x 4 subarrays. The corporate-fed power-divider lines split the
input power at each port to the subarrays. Within each subarray, the
circular patches are configured into four 4 x 1 series-fed resonant
type arrays, which make the total array compact and have less
microstrip line losses than would a purely corporate-fed type of
array [19]. An open circuit is placed after the last patch of each
4 x 1 array. The spacing between adjacent circular-patch centers is
about one guided wavelength ( A g = 21.5 mm at 10 GHz). This is
equivalent to a 3600 phase shift between patches, such that the
main beam points to the broadside. The power coupled to each
patch can also be controlled by adjusting the size of the individual
patch to achieve a tapered amplitude distribution for a lowersidelobe design. Another advantage of using the series-fed array
configuration is that the array can be easily converted into a traveling-wave array, with a matched termination at the end of the last
elements, if a steered-beam array is needed.

------ ----------------------------- ------------------1


,
,

..

.
H-port :

-.._..,---_._.._..

-,

L,5

Figure 2b. The layout of the S-band antenna, where L = 106 ,


W=183 , Lst = 53.89 , Ls2 = 44.6 , Ls3 = 0.94 , Ls4 = 19.31 ,
Lss = 34.17, Wst = 4.9, and Ws2 = 7.8 (all dimensions are in
mm).

2.2 S-Band Antenna and Subarray


As shown in Figure 2b, the S-band antenna elements are
printed on the top substrate, and are separated from the X-band elements by the foam layer. To reduce the blocking of the radiation
from the X-band elements at the bottom layer, the shape of the Sband elements has to be carefully selected. A ring configuration
was a good candidate, since it uses less metallization than an
equivalent patch element. Here, a square-ring microstrip antenna is
used as the unit element of the S-band array. Because antenna elements at both frequency bands share the same aperture, it is also
preferred that the number of elements on the top layer be as small
as possible, to minimize the blocking effects.
The stacked X-band and S-band array antennas are shown in
Figure 3. As can be seen in the figure, the four sides of the squarering element are laid out in such a way that they only cover part of
the feeding lines on the bottom layer, but none of the radiating elements. Unlike an ordinary microstrip-ring antenna that has a mean
circumference equal to a guided wavelength, the antenna proposed
here has a mean circumference of about 2A g (A g = 82.44 mm at

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(X-band)

H-port
(S-band )

Figure 3. The geometry of the dual-band dual-polarized array


antenna.
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H-port "

V-port .
(S-band)

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Vol. 51, No.4, August 2009

Select two operating frequencies


Use very thin substrates

3GHz

I------r----II

Mean radius of the ring - 2

"'9

10 GHz
Use Eq. (1) to calculate R
Select IX1 - 1 "'9' wx1 = 0.17 mm

Based on (l s2 - Is1) < (lx1 - 2R)


and (ls2 + Is1) /2 - 2 "'9 ,select Is1 and Is2
Select Is3 and W s3 (50 ohm)

Design the power divider


Interconnect the patch elements

No
No
Yes

Yes

Overlay the 3 GHz elements on the 10 GHz elements with


minimum blockage of the circular patches

Figure 4. The design flowchart of the proposed antenna array.


3 GHz). Although the size of the proposed unit element is larger
than an ordinary ring antenna, its gain is about twice as high,
because of its larger radiation-aperture area. The ring is loaded by
two gaps at two of its parallel sides, and these make it possible to
achieve a 50 n input match at the edge of the third side without
using a small value of L s2/ LsI' as mentioned in [20]. For an edgefed microstrip ring, if a second feed line is added to the orthogonal
edge, the coupling between the two feeding ports will be high. The
V-port and H-port feeds are therefore placed at two individual elements, so that the coupling between the two ports can be significantly reduced. Using separate elements seems to increase the
number of antenna elements within a given aperture. However, this
harmful effect could be minimized by reducing the number of elements with the use of larger-sized microstrip rings. A design flowchart of the proposed antenna array is provided in Figure 4.

top of it. The center frequency of both polarizations was at around


9.95 GHz, and the return losses (811 and 8 22 ) were better than
22 dB. 811 was the return loss for the V port, and 8 22 was for the
H port. The isolation (82 1 or 8 12 ) between the V and the H
polarizations was better than 30 dB at the resonant frequency, and
better than 25 dB over a wide frequency band. These results were
considered excellent for a dual-polarized array for which the feeding lines for both polarizations were present at the same layer.
These results were similar to those reported in [4], and the physical
size of the array was reduced, due to the hybrid use of the corporate-fed and series-fed configurations.

3.1 X-band Array

Normalized measured radiation patterns are shown in Figure 6. Well-defined patterns were observed. Cross-polarization levels in the E plane and H plane were 17 dB below the co-polarizedbeam peaks. It was noted that the dimensions of the ground plane
used for the array were about 18.3 em x 10.6 em, which were close
to those of the array's aperture. This could create strong edge
diffraction, and might account for the relatively higher crosspolarization levels. The peak sidelobe levels (SLL) were -10 to
-13dB, which were normal for the arrays with a uniform amplitude distribution. The asymmetric sidelobes of the H port were
caused by its feeding-line network asymmetry with respect to the
array's center. The maximum measured gain was 18.3 dBi, and the
averaged radiation efficiency was 31%. The half-power beamwidth
(HPBW) of the x-z plane was 9, and that of the y-z plane was 17.
This difference was due to the asymmetry of the 4 x 8 array
arrangement.

Figure 5 shows the return loss and the isolation of the X-band
array. The measurements were carried out with the S-band layer on

Theoretically, a microstrip antenna has a very good front-toback ratio (FBR), due to its infinite - or relatively large - ground

3. Measurement and Discussion


A dual-band array prototype was fabricated and tested in the
anechoic chamber of the Texas A&M University. The array was
tested for one polarization at one frequency at a time, while the
other three ports were terminated with 50 n loads. Detailed simulated and measured results are given and discussed in the following.

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Vol. 51, No.4, August 2009

73

plane . This is similar to the case when an airborne antenna is


mounted on an airframe. Here, with a finite ground plane , the
front-to -back radiation ratios of both the E and H planes were better than 30 dB. The back radiation was very small , and hence not
shown. A ground plane with a larger dimension can provide a
higher front-to -back radiation ratio , since the coupling and diffraction of electromagnetic waves are reduced. Detailed specifications
of the X-band array are summarized in Table 2.

_ 'Ii:- _ - < _

- - Mea sured E-plane co-pol


- - - - - Measured E-plane x-pol
Simulated E-plane co-pol

3.2 S-Band Array


The return loss of the S-band array is shown in Figure 7. The
measurements were carried out with the X-band layer under the
S-band layer. About 19 dB return loss was obtained at the resonant
frequency of 2.96 GHz, for both polarizations. Since two separate
elements were used for two polarizations, the results show that the
port isolation was close to 30 dB. Normalized measured radiation
patterns for both polarizations are shown in Figure 8. A typical single main beam with a wide 3 dB beam width was observed. The
cross-polarization levels were better than 20 dB. The maximum
gain of the antenna was measured to be 9.5 dBi, and the averaged
radiation efficiency was 81 %. The HPBW of the S-band array was
about 56 on each plane. The front-to-back radiation ratios on both
planes were better than 34 dB for the V port and 25 dB for the H
port, which indicated that the dimensions of the ground plane were
acceptable for the S-band antenna.

Figure 6a. The radiation patterns of the X-band array: V-pert


feed, E plane.

- - Measured H-plane co-pol


-- --- Measured H-plane x-pol
Simulated H-plane co-pol

Figure 6b. The radiation patterns of the X-band array: V-port


feed, H plane.

-10 ...

- - Measured E-plane co-pol


Measured E-plane x-pol
Simulated E-plane co-pol

-20

30

.
Measured S11
........Simulated S11
-><- Measured S12

(dB) -30

Figure Sa. The S parameters of the X-band array, where port 1


is the V-port feed for vertical polarization.
o

-10

Figure 6c. The radiation patterns of the X-band array: H-port


feed, E plane.

-20

-20

- - Measured H-plane co-pol


- - - - - Measured H-plane x-pol
Simulated H-plane co-pol

-30

-40

9.5

9.6

9.7

9.8

9.9

10

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4

-20

10.5

-10

Frequency (GHz)

Figure Sb. The S parameters of the X-band array, where port 2


is the H-port feed for horizontal polarization.

Figure 6d. The radiation patterns of the X-band array: H-port


feed, H plane.
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, Vol. 51, No.4, August2009

Table 2. A summary of the measured and simulated results for the X-band and S-band array antennas.

Frequency (GHz)
Bandwidth (%)
Gain (dBi)
Efficiency (%)
HPBW (degrees)
Peak SLL (dB)

Polarization
Measurement
Simulation
Measurement
Simulation
Measurement
Simulation
Measurement
Simulation
E plane
Hplane
Measurement
Simulation

FBR (dB)
Isolation (dB)

X-Band
V Port
H Port
9.8-9.98
9.81-10.0
9.91-9.99
9.9-10.0
2.3
1.8
1.0
1.0
17.3
18.3
17.6
17.6
32.4
28.8
27.5
27.5
17
8.9

9.5

17.4

-12.3
-13.0
-30
> 3I.l
X to S band

-10.0
-13.0
-30
> 25.3
X to S band

-20

- - Measured 522
Measreud 521
-e-o-e-Simulated Sll

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - -- -- -- - - - - - - - -

Simulated S22

CD

" -3 0
-40

-50

2.8

2.9

2.85

2.95
3
3.05
Frequency (GHz)

3.1

3.15

58
53

59
52

None

None

-34.8
>36.4
S to X band

-25.5
>33 .8
S to X band

ments for the S-band array, with or without the presence of the Xband array, including the S parameters and the radiation patterns.
When the X band was presented, the isolation of S-to-X (from the
ports of the S-band antenna to the ports of the X-band) was
between 33 dB and 42 dB; the isolation of X-to-S was better than
25 dB.

- - - - Measured 511
10

S-Band
V Port
HPort
2.94-2.96
2.94-2.96
2.94-2.96
2.94-2.96
1.03
1.03
1.03
1.03
9.5
7.9
8.72
8.73
96.8
66.8
80.9
80.9

3.2

It was observed that increasing the spacing between the Sband and the X-band antennas did not significantly improve the
isolation . Instead, it raised the center frequency of the S-band
antenna, and vice versa. Consider the case where the foam-layer
thickness (h z ) is changed within O.5 mm, If h z is increased by
-

Measured
Measured
- - Measu red
Measu red

Simulated
Simulated

Figure 7. The S parameters of the S-band array, where port 1


is the V-port feed for vertical polarization, and port 2 is the Hport feed for horizontal polarization.

Simulated results of the return losses and radiation patterns


from IE3D are also shown for comparison. Good agreement was
observed for both frequency bands. Small discrepancies in the
resonant frequencies may be attributed to the accuracy of the
permittivity and the thickness dimension ofthe foam layer given by
the manufacturer. The former value played a more important role.
The resonant frequency shifts from 3 GHz to 2.95 GHz when the
dielectric constant of the foam layer (6Z) changes from 1.06 to
I.l2, a 5.7% change within the inaccuracy of the fabrication process. The effects due to the thickness ofthe foam layer are described
in the following section. The specifications of the S-band array are
summarized in Table 2.

-0--

E-plane co-pol
[ -plane r-pe l
H-plane co-pol
H-plan e s-pot
[ -plane co-pol
If-plane co-pol

-90

Figure 8a. Radiation patterns ofthe S-band array: V-port feed.

Measured [-plane co-pol


Measured [-plane s-pot
- - Measured If-plane co-pol
- - Measur ed " ..plane x..pol

Simulated E-plan e co-pol


Simulated H-plan e co-pol
-0--

3.3 Mutual Coupling Effects of Two Layers


The results presented here for both the X and S bands were
measured with the concurrent presence of both antenna layers
(dual-band operation). However, measurements of the single layer
without the presence of the other layer, i.e., single-band operation,
were also conducted, to investigate the mutual-coupling effects
between the elements of different frequency bands. It was found
that there were no distinct variations between the two measureIE Anteas d

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Vol. 51, No.4, August 2009

Figure 8b. Radiation patterns of the S-band array: H-port feed.

75

- - Dual layer
- - - X-ba nd layer only

5. Acknowledgment
The authors would like to thank the Rogers Corporation for
donating the high-frequency laminates, and Mr. Ming-Yi Li of
Texas A&M University for his technical assistance and helpful
suggestions.

6. References

-90
Figure 9a. Comparisons of the X-band radiation patterns of
the If-port feed for the E plane.
- - Dual layer
- - - X-band layer only

1. A. Vallecchi and G. Gentili, "Design of Dual-Polarized SeriesFed Microstrip Arrays with Low Losses and High Polarization
Purity," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, AP-S3,
5, May 2005, pp. 1791-1798.
2. S. Gao and A. Sambell, "Dual-Polarized Broad-Band Microstrip
Antennas Fed by Proximity Coupling," IEEE Transactions on
Antennas and Propagation, AP-S3, 1, January 2005, pp. 526-530.
3. X. Qu, S. Zhong, Y. Zhang, and W. Wang, "Design of an SIX
Dual-Band Dual-Polarised Microstrip Antenna Array for SAR
Applications," lET Microwave, Antennas, and Propagation, 1, 2,
April 2007, pp. 513-517.

(d B)

-30

Figure 9b. Comparisons of the X-band radiation patterns of


the H-port feed for the H plane.

4. S. Zhong, X. Yang, S. Gao, and J. Cui, "Comer-Fed Microstrip


Antenna Element and Arrays of Dual-Polarization Operation,"
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, AP-SO, 10,
October 2002, pp. 1473-1480.
5. G. Chattopadhyay and J. Zmuidzinas, "A Dual-Polarized Slot
Antenna for Millimeter Waves," IEEE Transactions on Antennas
and Propagation, AP-46 , 5, May 1998, pp. 736-737.

0.1 mm, the frequency is raised by 40 MHz; while if h 2 is


decreased by 0.1 mm, the frequency is reduced by about 60 MHz.

6. K. Mak, H. Wong, and M. Luk, "A Shorted Bowtie Patch


Antenna with a Cross Dipole for Dual Polarization," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 6, 2007, pp. 126-129.

For the X-band array, only small variations in the sidelobe


levels were observed, and the measured peak gain dropped about
0.5 dB with the presence of the top S-band layer. Comparisons of
the radiation patterns of the H port are shown in Figure 9. The Sband layer presented little effect on the performance of the X-band
layer. The statement that one antenna layer was transparent to the
other one was therefore confirmed.

7. S. Gao and A. Sambell, "Dual-Polarized Broad-Band Microstrip


Antennas Fed by Proximity Coupling," IEEE Transactions on
Antennas and Propagation, AP-S3, 1, January 2005, pp. 526-530.

4. Conclusions
A dual-frequency (S-band and X-band) dual-polarization
array antenna has been developed. An ultra-thin structure was
adopted for the purpose of use with aircraft. The conformal array
can be installed on the airframe or inside the aircraft, due to its
small size and light weight. The X-band array used a series-fed
configuration to save the space of the feeding-line network. The Sband array adopted a larger radiation aperture to decrease the number of elements, to reduce the blockage, and to enhance the radiation gain. The V and H ports were put on two separate elements to
achieve high isolation. More subarrays could be assembled to
obtain higher gain with a narrower beamwidth. The newly developed dual-frequency dual-polarization array antenna should be useful for future wireless communications, remote sensing, surveillance, radar systems, and UAV applications .

8. K. Ghorbani and R. Waterhouse, "Dual Polarized Wide-Band


Aperture Stacked Patch Antennas ," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, AP-S2, 8, August 2004, pp. 2171-2174.
9. D. Krishna, M. Gopikrishna, C. Aanandan, P. Mohanan, and K.
Vasudevan, "Compact Dual-Polarized Square Microstrip Antenna
with Triangular Slots for Wireless Communication," lEE Electronics Letters, 42,16, August 2006, pp. 894-895.
10. K. Wong and T. Chiou, "Design of Dual Polarized Patch
Antennas Fed by Hybrid Feeds," Proceedings of the IEEE Fifth
International Symposium on Antennas, Propagation, and EM Theory, Beijing, China, August 2000, pp. 22-25.
11. Y. Guo and K. Luk, "Dual-Polarized Dielectric Resonator,"
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, AP-51, 5, May
2003,pp.1120-1123 .
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13. A Parfitt and N. Nikolic, "A Dual-Polarised Wideband Planar


Array for X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar," IEEE International
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1633-1639.

Introducing the Feature Article Authors


Texas -A&M University, he conducted research on wireless power
transmission, power combining, ultra-wideband antennas, and
phased arrays. In 2007, he joined Intelligent Automation Inc.,
Rockville, MD, where he is involved in research and development
of advanced antennas and RP/microwave systems, including
conformal antennas, metamaterial antennas, VAV collision avoidance radar, airborne weather radar, through-the-wall noise radar,
and RPID sensors for biological-warfare agent detection and structure health monitoring.
Shih-Hsu Hsu received the BSEE degree from National
Cheng-Kung University, Taiwan; the MS degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin-Madison; and the PhD
degree from Texas A&M University at College Station; in 2000,
2004, and 2008 , respectively. At Texas A&M University, his
research activities involved microstrip reflectarrays, reconfigurable
antennas, and wideband antennas. In October 2008, he joined
Applied Optoelectronics, Inc., where he is involve in high-speed
laser design.

Kai Chang received the BSEE degree from the National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; the MS degree from the State
University of New York at Stony Brook; and the PhD degree from
the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; in 1970, 1972, and 1976,
respectively.
Yu-Jiun Ren received the BSEE from National ChungHsing University, Taiwan; the MS degree in Communication Engineering from National Chiao-Tung University, Taiwan; and the
PhD degree from Texas A&M University at College Station; in
2000,2002, and 2007 , respectively. From 2002 to 2003, he was a
research assistant with the Radio Wave Propagation and Scattering
Laboratory, National Chiao-Tung University, and involved in
mobile-radio propagation, channel modeling, and cell planning. At

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From 1972 to 1976, he worked for the Microwave Solid-State


Circuits Group, Cooley Electronics Laboratory of the University of
Michigan as a Research Assistant. From 1976 to 1978, he was
employed by Shared Applications, Inc., Ann Arbor, where he
worked in computer simulation of microwave circuits and micro wave tubes . From 1978 to 1981, he worked for the Electron
Dynamics Division, Hughes Aircraft Company, Torrance, CA,

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where he was involved in the research and development of


millimeter-wave solid-state devices and circuits, power combiners,
oscillators and transmitters. From 1981 to 1985, he worked for the
TRW Electronics and Defense, Redondo Beach, CA, as a Section
Head, developing state-of-the-art millimeter-wave integrated circuits and subsystems including mixers, VCOs, transmitters,
amplifiers, modulators, up-converters, switches, multipliers,
receivers, and transceivers. He joined the Electrical Engineering
Department of Texas A&M University in August 1985 as an
Associate Professor, and was promoted to a Professor in 1988. In
January 1990, he was appointed Raytheon E-Systems Endowed
Professor of Electrical Engineering. His current interests are in
microwave and millimeter-wave devices and circuits, microwave
integrated circuits, integrated antennas, wideband and active antennas, phased arrays, microwave power transmission, and microwave
optical interactions.
Dr. Chang has authored and coauthored several books. He
served as the editor of the four-volume Handbook of Microwave
and Optical Components, published by John Wiley in 1989 and
1990 (second edition 2003), and the editor for the Wiley
Encyclopedia of RF and Microwave Engineering (six volumes,
2005). He is the editor of Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, and the Wiley book series in Microwave and Optical
Engineering (over 70 books published). He has published over 450
papers, and many book chapters in the areas of microwave and
millimeter-wave devices, circuits, and antennas. He has graduated
over 25 PhD students and over 35 MS students.
Dr. Chang has served as technical committee member and
session chair for IEEE MTT-S, AP-S, and many international
conferences. He was the Vice General Chair for the 2002 IEEE
International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation. He
received the Special Achievement Award from TRW in 1984, the
Halliburton Professor Award in 1988, the Distinguished Teaching
Award in 1989, the Distinguished Research Award in 1992, and
the TEES Fellow Award in 1996 from the Texas A&M University.
Dr. Chang is a Fellow of the IEEE.

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