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STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS

STRUCTRUAL SYSTEMS
RIGID FRAME
STRUCTURES

DESCRIPTION

SCHEMTATIC
DIAGRAM

Rigid frame
structures can be
defined as the
structures in which
beams & columns
are made
monolithically and
act collectively to
resist the moments
which are
generating due to
applied load.

Rigid Frames

STRUCTURAL
FUNCTION
Rigid frame structures
provide more stability.
This type of frame
structures resists the
shear, moment and
torsion more effectively
than any other type of
frame structures. Thats
why this frame system
is used in worlds most
astonishing building
Burj-Al-Arab

ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES
Advantages:
-One of the best
advantages of frame
structures is their
ease in construction.
it is very east to teach
the labor at the
construction site.
-Frame structures can
be constructed
rapidly.
-Economy is also very
important factor in
the design of building
systems. Frame
structures have
economical designs.
Disadvantages:
In frames structures,
span lengths are
usually restricted to
40 ft when normal
reinforced concrete.
Otherwise spans
greater than that, can
cause lateral
deflections.

BUILDING SAMPLE

Burj Al Arab, Dubai

RIGID CORE
STRUCTURES

The core structure


form is the form in
which the gravity
and horizontal
loading are carried
by a single core and
in this form, the
slab are supported
either at each level
by cantilevers form
the core or
between the core
and perimeter
columns.

This system is a useful


method of creating
open floor plans in a
very tall building, which
might otherwise require
columns between the
core and perimeter.

Lower Floors

Upper Floors
Arrangement of cores
for the scheme design
of a 75-storey
building.

Advantages:
-Effectively resists
lateral loads by
producing interior
shear core exterior
framed tube
interacting system.
-Interior columns are
comparatively few
and located at the
core. The distance
between the exterior
and the core frames
is spanned with
beams or trusses and
intentionally left
column-free.
-Serves as the major
load taking element
and to provide
rigidity to resist
deflection caused by
lateral load (wind).
Disadvantages:
-Interior planning
limitations due to
shear core.
-Outrigger structure
does not add shear
resistance.
-As building height
increases, the core, if
kept consistent with
the elevator, stair

Cheung Kong Center,


Hong Kong

BRACED CORE
WITH HAT
TRUSSES
STRUCTURE

Top Hat trusses are


used when a roof
truss would be too
tall if made in one
piece. This can be
due to a large span
or a steep pitch or a
combination of
both. The system
employed is to
make up
truncated trusses of
a manageable
height, and then a
secondary truss is
placed on top

Hat trusses involve the


perimeter columns of
the building in resisting
lateral loads, thus
improving the overall
performance of the
building.

Plan

Section

well and other


mechanical
equipments does not
have sufficient
stiffness to keep wind
drift at acceptable
level.
Advantages:
-The interior framing
is designed
sufficiently strong to
resist gravity and
lateral load on the
building, while the
hat truss deflect wind
load.
-Serves as the major
load taking element
and to provide
rigidity to resist
deflection caused by
lateral load especially
wind.
Disadvantages:
-Limited only for 60
storey, unless other
advance structural
systems are
incorporated in
construction.

Shanghai World
Financial Center,
Shanghai, China

RIGID FRAME
TUBE
STRUCTURES

A construction
principle and
method wherein
the building is
designed in such a
way like a hollow
tube in order to
help resist lateral
loads.

Central Core

Perforated Tube

-The tube system


concept is based on the
idea that a building can
be designed to resist
lateral loads by
designing it as a hollow
cantilever perpendicular
to the ground.
-This assembly of
columns and beams
forms a rigid frame that
amounts to a dense and
strong structural wall
along the exterior of the
building.
-This exterior framing is
designed sufficiently
strong to resist all
lateral loads on the
building, thereby
allowing the interior of
the building to be
simply framed for
gravity loads. Interior
columns are
comparatively few and
located at the core.

Advantages:
-Exterior framing is
designed sufficiently
strong to resist all
lateral loads on the
building, thereby
allowing the interior
of the building to be
simply framed for
gravity loads.
-Interior columns are
comparatively few
and located at the
core.
-The distance
between the exterior
and the core frames
is spanned with
beams or trusses and
intentionally left
column-free.
-Maximum efficiency
for lateral strength
and stiffness.
-Can be combined
with the rigid core
framing concept.
Disadvantages:
-Prone to shear lag
-Additional braces
may alter window
design complexity.
-Strict informality of
columns.

Sears Tower, Chicago

BRACED
FRAME TUBE
STRUCTURES

-A structural system
which is designed
primarily to resist
wind and
earthquake forces.
Members in a
braced frame are
designed to work in
tension and
compression,
similar to a truss.
-It is a structural
frame of linear
members made
rigid by a system of
diagonal members
and a central tube.

-To resist lateral forces


without sliding,
overturning, buckling,
or collapsing using a
system of diagonal
members.
-Simple tube but with
comparatively fewer
and farther-spaced
exterior columns. Steel
bracings or concrete
shear walls are
introduced along the
exterior walls to
compensate for the
fewer columns by tying
them together.

Advantages:
-Maximum use of
interior space.
-Fewer perimeter
columns.
-Uses far less steel
than the traditional
rigid steel frame
structure.
-More natural lighting
inside the building.
-Provides maximum
lateral stability.
-Economic to
construct and simple
to analyze.
-Environmental
friendly.
Disadvantages:
-Steel bracing may
affect the location of
windows
-Affect the exterior
faade of the
building.
-Adaptability is
limited.

Alcoa Building,
Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania

RIGID FRAME
TUBE WITH
BELT TRUSSES

The outrigger and


belt truss system is
one of the lateral
load resisting
system in which the
external columns
are tied to the
central core wall
with very stiff
outriggers and belt
truss at one or
more levels. When
the lateral
load acts on the
building, the
bending of the core
rotates the stiff
outrigger arms,
which is
connected to the
core and induces
tension and
compression in the
columns

The outrigger and belt


truss system is
commonly used as one
of the structural system
to effectively control
the excessive drift due
to lateral load, so that,
during small or medium
lateral load due to
either wind or
earthquake load, the
risk of structural and
non-structural damage
can be minimized.
For high-rise buildings,
particularly in seismic
active zone or wind load
dominant, this system
can be chosen as an
appropriate structure.

Advantages:
- The use of outrigger
and belt truss system in
high-rise buildings
increase the stiffness
and makes the
structural form efficient
under lateral load.
- Exterior framing can
consist of simple beam
and column framing
without the need for
rigid-frame-type
connection, thus
reducing the overall
cost.
Disadvantages:
- The space occupied by
the outrigger trusses
places constraints on
the use of floors at
which the outriggers
are located. Even in
mechanical equipment
floors, the presence of
outrigger truss
members can be a
major problem.
- Architectural and
functional constraints
may prevent placement
of large outrigger
columns where they
could mostly
conveniently be
engaged by outrigger
trusses extending out
from the core

Chifley Tower,
Sydney, Australia