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Introduction

Motor vehicles are all kinds of vehicles where the movement system using a machine. The main
function of the vehicle is as a means of transportation. The types of vehicles used on land,
namely motorcycles and cars. Both of motorcycles and car are divided by two based on
transmission system, there are manual transmission and automatic transmission. Transmission,
in mechanical engineering, a device interposed between a source of power and a specific
application for the purpose of adapting one to the other. A transmission is the part of an engine
assembly that connects the engine to the wheels. It's within this piece of machinery that the
power produced by the engine is transferred into the wheels. A level of precision is needed while
doing this because each engine operates at its own optimum RPM (revolutions per minute) range
and it's the transmission that keeps everything in balance.

Manual Transmission
The diagram below shows a very simple two-speed transmission in neutral:

The green shaft comes from the engine through the clutch. The green shaft and green gear are
connected as a single unit. (The clutch is a device that lets you connect and disconnect the engine
and the transmission. When you push in the clutch pedal, the engine and the transmission are
disconnected so the engine can run even if the car is standing still. When you release the clutch
pedal, the engine and the green shaft are directly connected to one another. The green shaft and gear
turn at the same rpm as the engine.)

The red shaft and gears are called the layshaft. These are also connected as a single piece, so all of
the gears on the layshaft and the layshaft itself spin as one unit. The green shaft and the red shaft are
directly connected through their meshed gears so that if the green shaft is spinning, so is the red
shaft. In this way, the layshaft receives its power directly from the engine whenever the clutch is
engaged.
The yellow shaft is a splined shaft that connects directly to the drive shaft through the differential to
the drive wheels of the car. If the wheels are spinning, the yellow shaft is spinning.
The blue gears ride on bearings, so they spin on the yellow shaft. If the engine is off but the car is
coasting, the yellow shaft can turn inside the blue gears while the blue gears and the layshaft are
motionless.
The purpose of the collar is to connect one of the two blue gears to the yellow drive shaft. The collar
is connected, through the splines, directly to the yellow shaft and spins with the yellow shaft.
However, the collar can slide left or right along the yellow shaft to engage either of the blue gears.
Teeth on the collar, called dog teeth, fit into holes on the sides of the blue gears to engage them.

Automatic Transmission
Automatic transmissions they're pretty much black magic. The sheer number of moving parts
makes them very difficult to comprehend. Let's simplify it a bit to get a basic understanding of how
it all works in a traditional, torque converter-based system.
Your engine connects to your transmission at a place called a bell housing. The bell housing contains
a torque converter for automatic transmission-equipped vehicles as opposed to a clutch on manual
vehicles. The torque converter is a fluid coupling whose job it is to connect your engine to your
transmission and thus to your driven wheels. The transmission contains planetary gearsets which are
in charge of providing different gear ratios. To get a good understanding of how the whole automatic
transmission system works, let's have a look at torque converters and planetary gearsets.
First and foremost, your engine's flex plate (basically a flywheel for an automatic) connects directly
to a torque converter. So when the crankshaft rotates, so does the torque converter housing. The goal
of the torque converter is to provide a means by which to connect and disconnect the engine's power
to the driven load. The torque converter takes the place of a clutch on a conventional manual
transmission. How does the torque converter work? Well, have a look at the video above. It explains
the basic principles behind a fluid coupling. Once you've watched that, continue reading to see how a
torque converter differs from a standard fluid coupling.

The major components of a torque converter are: the impeller, the turbine, the stator, and the
lock-up clutch. The impeller is part of the torque converter housing, which is connected to the
engine. It drives the turbine via viscous forces. The turbine is connected to the transmission input
shaft. In essence, the engine turns the impeller which imparts forces on a fluid, which then
rotates the turbine, sending torque to the transmission.

On a conventional transmission, changing gears is the job of a compound planetary gear set.
Understanding how planetary gear sets work is a bit tricky, so let's have a look at a basic
planetary gear set.

A planetary gearset (also known as an epicyclic gear set) consists of a sun gear in the center,
planet gears that rotate around the sun gear, a planet carrier that connects the planet gears, and a
ring gear on the outside that meshes with the planet gears. The basic idea behind a planetary gear
set is this: using clutches and brakes, you can prevent certain components from moving. In doing
so, you can alter the input and output of the system and thus change the overall gear ratio. Think
of it this way: a planetary gear set lets you change gear ratios without having to engage different
gears. They're all already engaged. All you have to do is use clutches and brakes to change which
components rotate and which stay stationary. Omega simply represents the angular speed of the
gears, and N is the tooth count.

Advantage and Disadvantage


Manual Transmission

Advantages
Besides being fun to drive (for those who know how!), stick shift vehicles benefit drivers in a
few ways:
Easier to maintain. Since they are less complex than automatics, there is less of a chance
for something to go wrong. The clutch is the only item that generally needs repair, but for the
most part that isnt needed for hundreds of thousands of miles.
Use of gear or engine oil. This fluid deteriorates less quickly and doesnt require frequent
changes.
Better fuel economy. Automatic vehicles have a torque converter and hydraulic pump,
which robs the car of a percentage of its fuel efficiency. Those who drive manual vehicles can
increase fuel economy by as much as 15 percent.
More control. Braking is easier without the torque converter found in automatic vehicles.
Cheaper. In general, brand-new stick shift vehicles are cheaper than their automatic
counterparts.
Disadvantages
Learning curve. Those learning to drive a manual can expect the first few rides to involve
jerking and stalling while becoming accustomed to the clutch and shift timing.
Difficulty on hills. Stopping on a hill and starting again can be inconvenient as well as
scary. Since the vehicle rolls back, drivers have rolled into traffic or stalled.

Pain from the clutch. Your left leg will be in constant use when driving a stick shift car.
Over time, it can mess with the joints in the leg.

Automatic Transmission
Advantages of A-transmission
The advantages are that (depending on the type) there is no clutch to wear out. There is less
work to do when in slow moving traffic. Theyre very handy if you are less than perfectly
able.
Disadvantages of A-transmission
The disadvantages are that they are more expensive to buy in the first place (although the
gaps getting smaller), the use more fuel (most auto boxes have a lockup clutch in the torque
converter to reduce losses and aid motorway driving), and they weight slightly more.