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Lecture on Transmission Line

and Antenna Systems
Basic Antenna Theory and Concepts
Engr. Renan John S. Caas
July 2015


An antenna is an electrical conductor or system of conductors

o Transmission -radiates electromagnetic energy into space
o Reception
-collects electromagnetic energy from space
In two-way communication, the same antenna can be used for transmission and reception

Antenna Definition

An antenna is a circuit element that provides a transition from a guided wave on a transmission line to a
free space wave and it provides for the collection of electromagnetic energy


An antenna ability to transfer energy form the atmosphere to its receiver with the same efficiency with
which it transfers energy from the transmitter into the atmosphere
Antenna characteristics are essentially the same regardless of whether an antenna is sending or receiving
electromagnetic energy


Polarization is the direction of the electric field and is the same as the physical attitude of the antenna
o A vertical antenna will transmit a vertically polarized wave
The receive and transmit antennas need to possess the same polarization

Types of Antennas

Isotropic antenna (idealized)

o Radiates power equally in all directions
Dipole antennas
o Half-wave dipole antenna (or Hertz antenna)
o Quarter-wave vertical antenna (or Marconi antenna)
Parabolic Reflective Antenna

Antenna Array

Antenna array is a group of antennas or antenna elements arranged to provide the desired directional
characteristics. Generally any combination of elements can form an array. However, equal elements in a
regular geometry are usually used.

Yagi-Uda Antenna

The Yagi-Uda antenna is a simple form of a directional antenna based off of a reflector placed /4 from
the dipole antennas placement. Complex analysis to define the radiated patterns are experimental rather
than theoretical calculations

The Antenna Formula

Radiation & Induction Fields

The mechanics launching radio frequencies from an antenna are not fully understood. The RF fields that
are created around the antenna have specific properties that affect the signals transmission. The radiated
field is known as the radiation field

Radiation Resistance is the portion of the antennas impedance that results in power radiated into space
(i.e., the effective resistance that is related to the power radiated by the antenna. Radiation resistance varies
with antenna length. Resistance increases as the increases

Effective Radiated Power (ERP) is the power input value and the gain of the antenna multiplied together

dBi= isotropic radiator gain

dBd= dipole antenna gain

Radiation pattern is an indication of radiated field strength around the antenna. Power radiated from a /2 dipole
occurs at right angles to the antenna with no power emitting from the ends of the antenna. Optimum signal
strength occurs at right angles or 180from opposite the antenna

Radiation pattern
o Graphical representation of radiation properties of an antenna
o Depicted as two-dimensional cross section
Beam width (or half-power beam width)
o Measure of directivity of antenna
Reception pattern
o Receiving antennas equivalent to radiation pattern

Antenna Gain
Antenna gain

Power output, in a particular direction, compared to that produced in any direction by a perfect
omnidirectional antenna (isotropic antenna)

Effective area

Related to physical size and shape of antenna

Relationship between antenna gain and effective area

G = antenna gain
Ae= effective area
f = carrier frequency
c = speed of light (3 x10^8m/s)
= carrier wavelength
Propagation Modes

Ground-wave propagation
o Follows contour of the earth
o Can Propagate considerable distances
o Frequencies up to 2 MHz
Example AM radio
Sky-wave propagation
o Signal reflected from ionized layer of atmosphere back down to earth


Signal can travel a number of hops, back and forth between ionosphere and earths surface
Reflection effect caused by refraction
Amateur radio
CB radio
Line-of-sight propagation

LOS Wireless Transmission Impairments

Attenuation and attenuation distortion

Free space loss
Atmospheric absorption
Thermal noise

Types of Fading

Fast fading
Slow fading
Flat fading
Selective fading
Rayleigh fading
Rician fading