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Emotional Intelligence Assignment

Ashish Pathak
Emotional Intelligence What does it mean?

Emotional intelligence (EI) or emotional quotient (EQ) is the capability of individuals to

recognize their own, and other people's emotions, to discriminate between different feelings and
label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior.
Emotional Intelligence is the ability to identify and manage your own emotions and the emotions
of others. It is generally said to include 3 skills:
1. Emotional awareness, including the ability to identify your own emotions and those of others;
2. The ability to harness emotions and apply them to tasks like thinking and problems solving;
3. The ability to manage emotions, including the ability to regulate your own emotions, and the
ability to cheer up or calm down another person.

Studies have shown that people with high EI have greater mental health, exemplary job
performance, and more potent leadership skills. For example, Golemans research in his book,
Working with Emotional Intelligence, indicated that EI accounted for 67% of the abilities
deemed necessary for superior performance in leaders, and mattered twice as much as technical
expertise or IQ.Other research finds that the effect of EI on leadership and managerial
performance is non-significant when ability and personality are controlled for, and that general
intelligence correlates very closely with leadership. Markers of EI and methods of developing it
have become more widely coveted in the past few decades. In addition, studies have begun to
provide evidence to help characterize the neural mechanisms of emotional intelligence.

Emotional Intelligence Is the Other Kind of Smart.

When emotional intelligence first appeared to the masses in 1995, it served as the missing link in
a peculiar finding: people with average IQs outperform those with the highest IQs 70% of the
time. This anomaly threw a massive wrench into what many people had always assumed was the
sole source of successIQ. Decades of research now point to emotional intelligence as the
critical factor that sets star performers apart from the rest of the pack.
Emotional intelligence is the something in each of us that is a bit intangible. It affects how we
manage behavior, navigate social complexities, and make personal decisions that achieve
positive results. Emotional intelligence is made up of four core skills that pair up under two
primary competencies: personal competence and social competence.Personal competence is
made up of your self-awareness and self-management skills, which focus more on you
individually than on your interactions with other people. Personal competence is your ability to
stay aware of your emotions and manage your behavior and tendencies.

Self-Awareness is your ability to accurately perceive your emotions and stay aware of them as
they happen.
Self-Management is your ability to use awareness of your emotions to stay flexible and
positively direct your behavior.
Social competence is made up of your social awareness and relationship management skills;
social competence is your ability to understand other peoples moods, behavior, and motives in
order to improve the quality of your relationships.

Emotional intelligence model:

Key Skills for Raising Emotional Intelligence.

When it comes to happiness and success in life, emotional intelligence (EQ) matters just as much
as intellectual ability (IQ). Emotional intelligence helps you build stronger relationships, succeed
at work, and achieve your career and personal goals. Learn more about why emotional
intelligence is so important and how you can boost your own EQ by mastering a few key skills.
What is emotional intelligence?
Emotional intelligence (EQ) is the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions in
positive ways to relieve stress, communicate effectively, empathize with others, overcome

challenges, and defuse conflict. Emotional intelligence impacts many different aspects of your
daily life, such as the way you behave and the way you interact with others.
If you have high emotional intelligence you are able to recognize your own emotional state and
the emotional states of others, and engage with people in a way that draws them to you. You can
use this understanding of emotions to relate better to other people, form healthier relationships,
achieve greater success at work, and lead a more fulfilling life.
Emotional intelligence consists of four attributes:

Self-awareness You recognize your own emotions and how they affect your thoughts
and behavior, know your strengths and weaknesses, and have self-confidence.
Self-management Youre able to control impulsive feelings and behaviors, manage
your emotions in healthy ways, take initiative, follow through on commitments, and
adapt to changing circumstances.
Social awareness You can understand the emotions, needs, and concerns of other
people, pick up on emotional cues, feel comfortable socially, and recognize the power
dynamics in a group or organization.
Relationship management You know how to develop and maintain good
relationships, communicate clearly, inspire and influence others, work well in a team, and
manage conflict.

Why is emotional intelligence (EQ) so important?

As we know, its not the smartest people that are the most successful or the most fulfilled in life.
You probably know people who are academically brilliant and yet are socially inept and
unsuccessful at work or in their personal relationships. Intellectual intelligence (IQ) isnt enough
on its own to be successful in life. Yes, your IQ can help you get into college, but its your EQ
that will help you manage the stress and emotions when facing your final exams.

Emotional intelligence affects:

Your performance at work. Emotional intelligence can help you navigate the social
complexities of the workplace, lead and motivate others, and excel in your career. In fact, when
it comes to gauging job candidates, many companies now view emotional intelligence as being
as important as technical ability and require EQ testing before hiring.
Your physical health. If youre unable to manage your stress levels, it can lead to serious health
problems. Uncontrolled stress can raise blood pressure, suppress the immune system, increase
the risk of heart attack and stroke, contribute to infertility, and speed up the aging process. The
first step to improving emotional intelligence is to learn how to relieve stress.
Your mental health. Uncontrolled stress can also impact your mental health, making you
vulnerable to anxiety and depression. If you are unable to understand and manage your emotions,
youll also be open to mood swings, while an inability to form strong relationships can leave you
feeling lonely and isolated.
Your relationships. By understanding your emotions and how to control them, youre better
able to express how you feel and understand how others are feeling. This allows you to
communicate more effectively and forge stronger relationships, both at work and in your
personal life.

Emotional intelligence means knowing how and others feel and what to do about it. According to
Jeanne Segal, emotion and intellect are two halves of a whole. Thats why the term recently
coined to describe the intelligence reminiscent of the standard measure of brainpower, IQ. IQ
and EQ are synergistic resources, without one the other is incomplete and ineffectual.
EIs domain is personal and interpersonal relationships; it is responsible for our self-esteem, self
awareness, social sensitivity and social adaptability.
Emotional Intelligence - EQ - is a relatively recent behavioral model, rising to prominence with
Daniel Goleman's 1995 Book called 'Emotional Intelligence'. The early Emotional Intelligence
theory was originally developed during the 1970s and 80s by the work and writings of
psychologists Howard Gardner (Harvard), Peter Salovey (Yale) and John 'Jack' Mayer (New
Hampshire). Emotional Intelligence is increasingly relevant to organizational development and
developing people, because the EQ principles provide a new way to understand and assess
people's behaviors, management styles, attitudes, interpersonal skills, and potential. Emotional
Intelligence is an important consideration in human resources planning, job profiling,
recruitment interviewing and selection, management development, customer relations and
customer service, and more. Emotional Intelligence links strongly with concepts of love and
spirituality: bringing compassion and humanity to work, and also to 'Multiple Intelligence' theory

which illustrates and measures the range of capabilities people possess, and the fact that
everybody has a value.
Components of EI

The following includes a brief overview of the 5 main components (as stated by Goleman ) of
Emotional Intelligence. The main identifying characteristics of Emotional Maturity are made
possible by the Emotional Intelligence component.
1. Self-awareness: Recognize and understand your own moods and motivations and their effect
on others. To achieve this state, you must be able to monitor your own emotional state and
identify your own emotions. Emotional Maturity in this trait shows:

Sense of humor (can laugh at self)
Aware of your impression on others (can read the reactions of others to know how you
are perceived)

2. Self-Regulation: Controlling your impulsesinstead of being quick to react rashly, you can
reign in your emotions and think before responding. You express yourself appropriately.
Emotional Maturity in this trait shows:

Conscientious and take personal responsibility for your own work/deeds.

Adaptable (and favorable) to change
When someone is complaining or is rude to you, you do not respond in kind. You
respond in a manner which would not escalate the situation. (At this point, you will also
realize that when someone expresses anger at you, theyre not always angry at you;
theyre often just angry and want to take it out on someone.)

3. Internal Motivation: Internal motivation is marked by an interest in learning. It is also selfimprovement vs. a pursuit of wealth and status (as a pursuit of wealth and status is an external
motivator). Emotional Maturity in this trait shows:

Initiative and the commitment to complete a task

Perseverance in the face of adversity

4. Empathy: The ability to understand another persons emotional reaction. This is only possible
when one has achieved self-awarenessas one cannot understand others until they understand
themselves. Emotional Maturity in this trait shows:

Perceptive of others emotions and taking an active interest in their concerns.

Proactiveable to anticipate someones needs and the appropriate reaction.
Social Situations such as office politics do not phase one who has a firm grasp of

5. Social Skills: Identifying social cues to establish common ground, manage relationships and
build networks. Emotional Maturity in this trait shows:

Communication: Listening and responding appropriately

Influence and Leadership: The ability to guide and inspire others
Conflict Management: The ability to diffuse difficult situations using persuasion and

Theories and Models

Ability model
Salovey and Mayer's conception of EI strives to define EI within the confines of the standard
criteria for a new intelligence. Following their continuing research, their initial definition of EI
was revised to "The ability to perceive emotion, integrate emotion to facilitate thought,
understand emotions and to regulate emotions to promote personal growth." However, after
pursuing further research, their definition of EI evolved into "the capacity to reason about
emotions, and of emotions, to enhance thinking. It includes the abilities to accurately perceive
emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and
emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and
intellectual growth."
The ability-based model views emotions as useful sources of information that help one to make
sense of and navigate the social environment.The model proposes that individuals vary in their
ability to process information of an emotional nature and in their ability to relate emotional
processing to a wider cognition. This ability is seen to manifest itself in certain adaptive
behaviors. The model claims that EI includes four types of abilities:
1. Perceiving emotions the ability to detect and decipher emotions in faces, pictures, voices, and
cultural artifactsincluding the ability to identify one's own emotions. Perceiving emotions
represents a basic aspect of emotional intelligence, as it makes all other processing of emotional
information possible.
2. Using emotions the ability to harness emotions to facilitate various cognitive activities, such as
thinking and problem solving. The emotionally intelligent person can capitalize fully upon his or
her changing moods in order to best fit the task at hand.
3. Understanding emotions the ability to comprehend emotion language and to appreciate
complicated relationships among emotions. For example, understanding emotions encompasses
the ability to be sensitive to slight variations between emotions, and the ability to recognize and
describe how emotions evolve over time.
4. Managing emotions the ability to regulate emotions in both ourselves and in others.
Therefore, the emotionally intelligent person can harness emotions, even negative ones, and
manage them to achieve intended goals.

The ability EI model has been criticized in the research for lacking face and predictive validity in
the workplace. However, in terms of construct validity, ability EI tests have great advantage over
self-report scales of EI because they compare individual maximal performance to standard

performance scales and do not rely on individuals' endorsement of descriptive statements about

Mixed model
The model introduced by Daniel Goleman focuses on EI as a wide array of competencies and
skills that drive leadership performance. Goleman's model outlines five main EI constructs.
1. Self-awareness the ability to know one's emotions, strengths, weaknesses, drives, values and
goals and recognize their impact on others while using gut feelings to guide decisions.
2. Self-regulation involves controlling or redirecting one's disruptive emotions and impulses and
adapting to changing circumstances.
3. Social skill managing relationships to move people in the desired direction
4. Empathy - considering other people's feelings especially when making decision
5. Motivation - being driven to achieve for the sake of achievement.

Trait model
Konstantinos Vasilis Petrides ("K. V. Petrides") proposed a conceptual distinction between the
ability based model and a trait based model of EI and has been developing the latter over many
years in numerous publications.[30][45] Trait EI is "a constellation of emotional self-perceptions
located at the lower levels of personality. In lay terms, trait EI refers to an individual's selfperceptions of their emotional abilities. This definition of EI encompasses behavioral
dispositions and self-perceived abilities and is measured by self report, as opposed to the ability
based model which refers to actual abilities, which have proven highly resistant to scientific
measurement. Trait EI should be investigated within a personality framework.[An alternative
label for the same construct is trait emotional self-efficacy.
The trait EI model is general and subsumes the Goleman model discussed above. The
conceptualization of EI as a personality trait leads to a construct that lies outside the taxonomy of
human cognitive ability. This is an important distinction in as much as it bears directly on the
operationalization of the construct and the theories and hypotheses that are formulated about it.

Describe the applications of EI in personal and professional life with examples?

Personal life
It helps you tremendously in the following areas:

Be less impulsive

Control your temper better

Cope more effectively with stress

Speak up for yourself with confidence

Let someone know when youre feeling uncomfortable

Set clear boundaries with bullies

Be more positive about yourself

Make better decisions

Get yourself motivated and maintain momentum

Interact better with others

Positively influence people

Be emotionally resilient

High EQ will enhance your professional and your personal life. No matter what challenges you
have faced in the past, no matter what mistakes you may have made up to this point, nor how
long you have waited to cultivate a higher level of EQ, you can start right now, from wherever
you are in life, and begin building high EQ.
When it comes to one's personal life, there are certainly going to be a wide range of views
regarding what is, and is not, appropriate. The fact is that social interaction, to some degree, not
only impacts, but actually determines the success or failure of most (if not all) of our personal
relationships. Although there are some relationships that may be sustained without any
expectations on one side or another, these are very rare and usually limited to parent-child
relationships (and are certainly not always applicable then, either). Sustaining ongoing
relationships with our family members, friends, and romantic partners requires some amount of
Emotional Intelligence. In fact, some of what determines if a romantic relationship or friendship
is going to be successful may actually be determined largely by the compatibility of two
individuals' levels of Emotional Intelligence. While background experiences, values, and other
characteristics are extremely important when determining compatibility, the level of each
person's EQ is likewise important in determining whether a relationship will be successful.
Professional life
How Does Emotional Intelligence Affect Your Professional Life?
Emotional intelligence is typically factored into the everyday decisions employers make, such as
hiring, firing and promoting employees. Many hiring managers study candidates emotional
intelligence by asking specific questions during the hiring process, in order to identify those who
have a higher degree of emotional intelligence. They also analyze the emotional intelligence of
their current employees to determine leadership potential. In addition, when promotions and pay
raises are being considered, emotional intelligence is typically factored into the decision.

The right academic background, professional experience and certifications are obviously
necessary to land a higher position. Emotional intelligence, however, can be the key to further
success, particularly when moving into management positions. Employers say emotionally
intelligent managers rate higher in job satisfaction and lower in levels of turnover. If your career
plans include a leadership position, emotional intelligence can help you develop teams who are
happier and more productive in their work, and more likely to stay in their positions.
How Can a Lack of Emotional Intelligence Disrupt Your Career?
Its clear that emotional intelligence can be an asset to your professional life. Unfortunately,
though, a lack of emotional intelligence can also have an effect on your career. Here are five
ways it can be detrimental.
1. Insensitivity: People who are insensitive are often perceived to be uncaring. Their coworkers are less likely to want to work with them or offer help. If youre insensitive, you
may not make a good leader, and can be much less likely to be promoted.
2. Arrogance: Arrogant people can sometimes seem to think they know it all and that no one
can teach them anything. Arrogance is not a quality employers seek.
3. Volatility: Tapping into the emotions you feel is good; however, acting out in anger can
derail your career. Volatile people can cause dysfunction in teams, upset co-workers and
doom projects and initiatives to failure.
4. Rigidity: If you are inflexible in your thinking and approach, or believe that your way is
the only way, youre not a team player. In todays professional environment, being a
team player is absolutely necessary.
5. Selfishness: If your agenda is the only one that matters, you could be perceived as being
selfish. Being professional means aiming for a win-win situation whenever possible.
The business world is always changing and emotions are becoming a much more important
aspect of working relationships. Having emotional intelligence increases your chances of being
more accepted on teams and considered for leadership positions. It can also set you apart from
the competition when seeking a new position or promotion.
What do Employers seek in the Hiring Process?
According to a study by the U.S. Department of Labor, employers are looking for candidates
who know how to listen and communicate well both important aspects of emotional
intelligence. They also prefer employees who are adaptable to changing work environments, not
rigid and inflexible. Other attributes employers seek in people during the hiring process include
self-management, the ability to work in teams and strong leadership potential. All of these
competencies are intertwined in emotional intelligence.
Developing your emotional intelligence is a sound career strategy. In todays global business
world, where teamwork is essential to success, emotional intelligence can make you an asset to
any employer.

Guidelines for Promoting Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace - a paper chiefly

constructed by Cary Cherniss and Daniel Goleman featuring 22 guidelines which represent the
best current knowledge relating to the promotion of EQ in the workplace, summarized as:
Paving the way

assessments with care

Doing the work of change

between EQ trainers and learners
-directed change and learning

Encourage transfer and maintenance of change (sustainable change)

Evaluating the change - did it work?

luate individual and organizational effect
Finally the general applications of EI in workplace can be shown as:
Emotional Labour: Work is not only taxing on the physical aspect of human life but also the
emotional and psychological aspects. EI helps in coping with the emotional labour. For example,
when a person is too tired mentally doing the same kind of work day in and day out, then a little
bit of EI would help the person in not getting upset and taking any radical steps. The person
would continue to work and try to find a more meaningful job at the same time.
Job Performance: EI helps a person to have patience and keep up the motivation. Like a
person with pretty good EI would do the work properly because with EI comes a sense of
responsibility and self-awareness which would propel the person to work hard.
Job Satisfaction: EI can help a person to value self-esteem and the satisfaction associated
with a job well done. For example a person would appreciate his own contribution to a particular
job if proper EI is there.

Organization Citizenship Behaviour: EI promotes a sense of loyalty towards the place of

work. EI comes with empathy and compassion. So when a person has proper EI, he has the sense
of attachment towards the work and the workplace. So, the bond is made stronger.
Self-Management and Impression Management: A sense of balance comes with EI. Like a
person would try to find a balance between emotions and reasoning when faced with a certain
situation at a workplace. This would promote how he wants others to perceive him. A bit of
selfmanagement would do justice to the work he does.
Organizational Commitment: Again EI comes with a feeling of responsibility. So at a
workplace,a person with high EI would be loyal to the work and committed to the task at hand.
Employee Health: EI promotes good social behaviour with emotional literacy. So, the
psychological health of an employee working in a team would be looked after as he would be
accepting to the appreciation of his fellows and he would do the same.
Leadership: A person with high EI would be self-aware, empathetic and compassionate. So
that person would look to help others in need at a workplace. He would like to motivate others at
the same time appreciating his own self-worth. He would be a leader with high EI.
Occupational Stress: EI helps in coping with work related stress. A person with high EI
would be sharing his thoughts and not keeping them to himself. Thus, he would be accepting
counsel from others and relieving himself of the stress with their advice.
Emotional intelligence at work is about how people and relationships function:
organization and its customers, stakeholders, suppliers,
competitors, networking contacts, everyone.
It is about leadership, teamwork, management skills and partnership. Founded on excellent
practice and understanding of communication, the emotionally intelligent business consistently
excels in all these areas and has insight into how this happens
An organization which is emotionally intelligent has staff who are:
onfident, likable, happy, and rewarded.
Emotional intelligence is applicable to every human interaction in business: from staff
motivation to customer service, from brainstorming to company presentations. But the subject is
far deeper and wider than these examples, and emotional intelligence must be able to understand
and deal with:

Success, and much more.

A business in which the staff is emotionally intelligent is one which enables them to work
together to maximum effectiveness. This can only increase the organizations success, however