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Chapter 1 * Chapter 2 * Chapter 3 * Chapter 4 * Chapter 5 * Chapter 6 * Chapter 7 * Chapter 8 *

Chapter 9 * Chapter 10 * Chapter 11 * Chapter 12 * Chapter 13 * Chapter 14

Any sustained cyclic load will produce a sustained cyclic response (a harmonic response) in a structural

system. Harmonic response analysis gives you the ability to predict the sustained dynamic behavior of

your structures, thus enabling you to verify whether or not your designs will successfully overcome

resonance, fatigue, and other harmful effects of forced vibrations.

Harmonic response analysis is a technique used to determine the steady-state response of a linear

structure to loads that vary sinusoidally (harmonically) with time. The idea is to calculate the structure's

response at several frequencies and obtain a graph of some response quantity (usually displacements)

versus frequency. "Peak" responses are then identified on the graph and stresses reviewed at those peak

frequencies.

This analysis technique calculates only the steady-state, forced vibrations of a structure. The transient

vibrations, which occur at the beginning of the excitation, are not accounted for in a harmonic response

analysis (see Figure 4-1).

Figure 4-1 (a) Typical harmonic response system. Fo and

are known. uo and

unknown. (b) Transient and steady-state dynamic response of a structural system.

are

Harmonic response analysis is a linear analysis. Any nonlinearities, such as plasticity and contact (gap)

elements, will be ignored, even if they are defined. You can, however, have unsymmetric system

matrices such as those encountered in a fluid-structure interaction problem (see Chapter 4 of the ANSYS

Coupled-Field Analysis Guide). Harmonic analysis can also be performed on a prestressed structure,

such as a violin string (assuming the harmonic stresses are much smaller than the pre-tension stress).

Analysis

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You use the same set of commands to build a model and perform a harmonic response analysis that you

use to do any other type of finite element analysis. Likewise, you choose similar options from the

graphical user interface (GUI) to build and solve models no matter what type of analysis you are doing.

Section 4.7, "Sample Harmonic Response Analysis (Command or Batch Method)," shows you the

sequence of commands you would issue (either manually or while running ANSYS as a batch job) to

perform an example harmonic response analysis. Section 4.6 "Sample Harmonic Response Analysis

(GUI Method)," shows you how to execute the same sample analysis using menu choices from the

ANSYS GUI. (To learn how to use the commands and GUI selections for building models, read the

ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide.)

For detailed, alphabetized descriptions of the ANSYS commands, see the ANSYS Commands Reference.

Three harmonic response analysis methods are available: full, reduced, and mode superposition. (A

fourth, relatively expensive method is to do a transient dynamic analysis with the harmonic loads

specified as time-history loading functions; see Chapter 5 for details.) The ANSYS/LinearPlus program

allows only the mode superposition method. Before we study the details of how to implement each of

these methods, let's explore the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

The full method is the easiest of the three methods. It uses the full system matrices to calculate the

harmonic response (no matrix reduction). The matrices may be symmetric or unsymmetric. The

advantages of the full method are:

It is easy to use, because you don't have to worry about choosing master degrees of freedom or

mode shapes.

It uses full matrices, so no mass matrix approximation is involved.

It allows unsymmetric matrices, which are typical of such applications as acoustics and bearing

problems.

It calculates all displacements and stresses in a single pass.

It accepts all types of loads: nodal forces, imposed (non-zero) displacements, and element loads

(pressures and temperatures).

It allows effective use of solid-model loads.

A disadvantage of the full method is that no prestressed option is available. Another disadvantage is that

this method usually is more expensive than either of the other methods when you use the frontal solver.

However, when you use the JCG solver or the ICCG solver, the full method can be very efficient.

The reduced method enables you to condense the problem size by using master degrees of freedom and

reduced matrices. After the displacements at the master DOF have been calculated, the solution can be

expanded to the original full DOF set. (See Section 3.12, "Matrix Reduction," for a more detailed

discussion of the reduction procedure.) The advantages of this method are:

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It is faster and less expensive compared to the full method when you are using the frontal solver.

Prestressing effects can be included.

The initial solution calculates only the displacements at the master DOF. A second step, known as

the expansion pass, is required for a complete displacement, stress, and force solution. (However,

the expansion pass might be optional for some applications.)

Element loads (pressures, temperatures, etc.) cannot be applied.

All loads must be applied at user-defined master degrees of freedom. (This limits the use of solidmodel loads.)

The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (eigenvectors) from a modal analysis to

calculate the structure's response. Its advantages are:

It is faster and less expensive than either the reduced or the full method for many problems.

Element loads applied in the preceding modal analysis can be applied in the harmonic response

analysis via the LVSCALE command.

It allows solutions to be clustered about the structure's natural frequencies. This results in a

smoother, more accurate tracing of the response curve.

Prestressing effects can be included.

It accepts modal damping (damping ratio as a function of frequency).

When you are using PowerDynamics for the modal analysis, initial conditions cannot have

previously-applied loads.

All three methods are subject to certain common restrictions:

All loads must have the same frequency.

No nonlinearities are permitted.

Transient effects are not calculated.

You can overcome any of these restrictions by performing a transient dynamic analysis, with harmonic

loads expressed as time-history loading functions. Chapter 5 describes the procedure for a transient

dynamic analysis.

We will first describe how to do a harmonic response analysis using the full method, and then list the

steps that are different for the reduced and mode superposition methods.

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The procedure for a full harmonic response analysis consists of three main steps:

1. Build the model.

2. Apply loads and obtain the solution.

3. Review the results.

In this step, you specify the jobname and analysis title and then use PREP7 to define the element types,

element real constants, material properties, and the model geometry. These tasks are common to most

analyses. The ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide explains them in detail.

Only linear behavior is valid in a harmonic response analysis. Nonlinear elements, if any, will be

treated as linear elements. If you include contact elements, for example, their stiffnesses are

calculated based on their initial status and are never changed.

Both Young's modulus (EX) (or stiffness in some form) and density (DENS) (or mass in some

form) must be defined. Material properties may be linear, isotropic or orthotropic, and constant or

temperature-dependent. Nonlinear material properties, if any, are ignored.

In this step, you define the analysis type and options, apply loads, specify load step options, and initiate

the finite element solution. Details of how to do these tasks are explained below.

Note-Peak harmonic response occurs at forcing frequencies that match the natural frequencies of your

structure. Before obtaining the harmonic solution, you should first determine the natural frequencies of

your structure by obtaining a modal solution (as explained in Chapter 3).

1. Enter the ANSYS solution processor.

Command(s):

/SOLU

GUI:

Main Menu>Solution

2. Define the analysis type and analysis options. ANSYS offers these options for a harmonic response

analysis:

Table 4-1 Analysis types and analysis options

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Option

New Analysis

Analysis Type: Harmonic

Response

Solution Method

Solution Listing Format

Mass Matrix Formulation

Equation Solver

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ANTYPE Main Menu>Solution>-Analysis Type-New Analysis

ANTYPE Main Menu>Solution>-Analysis Type-New

Analysis>Harmonic Response

HROPT Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options

HROUT Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options

LUMPM Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options

EQSLV Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options

Choose New Analysis. Restarts are not valid in a harmonic response analysis; if you need to apply

additional harmonic loads, do a new analysis each time.

Choose Harmonic Response as the analysis type.

Choose one of the following solution methods:

Full method

Reduced method

Mode superposition method

This option determines how the harmonic displacement solution is listed in the printed output

(Jobname.OUT). You can choose between real and imaginary parts (default), and amplitudes and phase

angles.

Use this option to specify the default formulation (which is element dependent) or lumped mass

approximation. We recommend the default formulation for most applications. However, for some

problems involving "skinny" structures such as slender beams or very thin shells, the lumped mass

approximation often yields better results. Also, the lumped mass approximation can result in a shorter

run time and lower memory requirements.

After you complete the fields on the Harmonic Analysis Options dialog box, click on OK to reach a

second Harmonic Analysis dialog box, where you choose an equation solver.

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You can choose the frontal solver (default), the Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver, or the

Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver. The frontal solver is recommended for most

structural models.

3. Apply loads on the model.

A harmonic analysis, by definition, assumes that any applied load varies harmonically

(sinusoidally) with time. To completely specify a harmonic load, three pieces of information are

usually required: the amplitude, the phase angle, and the forcing frequency range (see Figure 4-2).

Figure 4-2 Relationship between real / imaginary components and amplitude/phase angle

The amplitude is the maximum value of the load, which you specify using the commands shown

in Table 4-2.

The phase angle is a measure of the time by which the load lags (or leads) a frame of reference.

On the complex plane (see Figure 4-2), it is the angle measured from the real axis. The phase

angle is required only if you have multiple loads that are out of phase with each other. For

example, the unbalanced rotating antenna shown in Figure 4-3 will produce out-of-phase vertical

loads at its four support points. The phase angle cannot be specified directly; instead, you specify

the real and imaginary components of the out-of-phase loads using the VALUE and VALUE2

fields of the appropriate load commands. Figure 4-2 shows how to calculate the real and

imaginary components.

The forcing frequency range is the frequency range of the harmonic load (in cycles/time). It is

specified later as a load step option with the HARFRQ command.

Figure 4-3 An unbalanced rotating antenna will produce out-of-phase vertical loads at its four

support points

Note-A harmonic analysis cannot calculate the response to multiple forcing functions acting

simultaneously with different frequencies. An example of this is two machines with different rotating

speeds running at the same time. However, POST1 can be used to superimpose these two load cases for

the total response.

Table 4-2 summarizes the loads applicable to a static analysis. Except for inertia loads, you can define

loads either on the solid model (keypoints, lines, and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and

elements). For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite element loads, see Chapter 2 of the

ANSYS Basic Analysis Procedures Guide.

Table 4-2 Loads applicable in a harmonic response analysis

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Cmd

Family

Load Type

Category

ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ)

Force, Moment (FX, FY, FZ,

MX, MY, MZ)

Constraints D

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GUI Path

Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>Forces

F

Structural- Force/Moment

Surface

Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>Pressure (PRES)

SF

Loads

Structural- Pressure

Temperature (TEMP)

Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>Body Loads BF

Fluence (FLUE)

Structural- Temperature

Inertia

Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>Gravity, Spinning, etc.

Loads

Structural -Other

In an analysis, loads can be applied, removed, operated on, or listed.

Applying Loads Using Commands

Table 4-3 lists all the commands you can use to apply loads in a harmonic response analysis.

Table 4-3 Load commands for a harmonic response analysis

Load Type

Solid Model

Entity

or FE

Displacement

Solid Model

Keypoints DK

Solid Model

Solid Model

Lines

Areas

DL

DA

DADELE DALIST DTRAN

Finite Elem

Nodes

DDELE

DLIST

DSCALE

Solid Model

Finite Elem

Solid Model

Solid Model

Keypoints

Nodes

Lines

Areas

FK

F

SFL

SFA

FKDELE

FDELE

SFLDELE

SFADELE

FKLIST

FLIST

SFLLIST

SFALIST

FTRAN

FSCALE

SFTRAN

SFTRAN

Finite Elem

Nodes

SF

SFDELE

SFLIST

SFSCALE

Finite Elem

Elements SFE

DSYM

DCUM

FCUM

SFGRAD

SFGRAD

SFGRAD

SFCUM

SFGRAD

SFBEAM

SFFUN

SFCUM

Keypoints BFK

Lines

BFL

Areas

BFA

Volumes BFV

Force

Pressure

Temperature

Solid Model

Fluence

Solid Model

Solid Model

Solid Model

Apply

Delete

List

Operate

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Apply

Settings

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Finite Elem

Finite Elem

Inertia

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Nodes

BF

BFDELE BFLIST BFSCALE BFCUM

Elements BFE

BFEDELE BFELIST BFSCALE BFCUM

ACEL

OMEGA

DOMEGA

CGLOC

CGOMGA

DCGOM

All loading operations (except List; see below) are accessed through a series of cascading menus. From

the Solution menu, you select the operation (apply, delete, etc.), then the load type (displacement, force,

etc.), and then the object to which you are applying the load (keypoint, line, node, etc.).

For example, to apply a displacement load to a line, follow this GUI path:

GUI:

Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural-Displacement>

On lines

To list existing loads, follow this GUI path:

GUI:

Utility Menu>List>Loads>load type

4. Specify load step options. The following options are available for a harmonic response analysis:

Table 4-4 Load step options

Option

General Options

Number of Harmonic

Solutions

Stepped or Ramped

Loads

Dynamics Options

Forcing Frequency

Range

Damping

NSUBST

KBC

HARFRQ

Main Menu>Solution>-Load Step OptsTime/Frequenc>Time & Time Step/Freq & Substeps

Main Menu>Solution>-Load Step OptsTime/Frequenc>Freq & Substeps

ALPHAD

Main Menu>Solution>-Load Step Opts- Time/Frequenc>

BETAD

Damping

DMPRAT

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Main Menu>Solution>-Load Step Opts-Output Ctrls>Solu

Printout

Database and Results

Main Menu>Solution>-Load Step Opts-Output Ctrls>DB/

OUTRES

File Output

Results File

Main Menu>Solution>-Load Step Opts-Output

Extrapolation of Results ERESX

Ctrls>Integration Pt

Printed Output

OUTPR

General options include the following:

You can request any number of harmonic solutions to be calculated. The solutions (or substeps)

will be evenly spaced within the specified frequency range [HARFRQ]. For example, if you

specify 10 solutions in the range 30 to 40 Hz, the program will calculate the response at 31, 32,

33, ..., 39, and 40 Hz. No response is calculated at the lower end of the frequency range.

The loads may be stepped or ramped. By default, they are ramped, that is, the load amplitude is

gradually increased with each substep. By stepping the loads [KBC,1], the same load amplitude

will be maintained for all substeps in the frequency range.

Note-Surface and body loads do not ramp from their previous load step values, except for those applied

to PLANE2, SOLID45, SOLID92, and SOLID95 element types. The remaining element types always

ramp from zero or from the value specified via BFUNIF.

Dynamics options include the following:

The forcing frequency range must be defined (in cycles/time) for a harmonic analysis. Within this

range, you then specify the number of solutions to be calculated.

Damping

Damping in some form should be specified; otherwise, the response will be infinity at the resonant

frequencies. ALPHAD and BETAD result in a frequency-dependent damping ratio, whereas

DMPRAT specifies a constant damping ratio to be used at all frequencies. See Section 5.12.3,

"Damping," for further details.

Note-If no damping is specified in a direct harmonic analysis (full or reduced), the program uses zero

damping by default.

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Beta (Stiffness) Damping [BETAD]

Constant Damping Ratio [DMPRAT]

Output control options include the following:

Use this option to include any results data on the output file (Jobname.OUT).

This option controls the data on the results file (Jobname.RST).

Use this option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of

extrapolating them (default).

5. Save a back-up copy of the database to a named file. You can then retrieve your model by re-entering

the ANSYS program and issuing RESUME.

Command(s):

SAVE

GUI:

Utility Menu>File>Save as

6. Start solution calculations.

Command(s):

SOLVE

GUI:

Main Menu>Solution>-Solve-Current LS

7. Repeat steps 3 to 6 for any additional loads and frequency ranges (that is, for additional load steps). If

you plan to do time-history postprocessing (POST26), the frequency ranges should not overlap from one

load step to the next. Another method for multiple load steps, which allows you to store the load steps

on files and then solve them at once using a macro, is described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis

Procedures Guide.

8. Leave SOLUTION.

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Command(s):

FINISH

GUI:

Close the Solution menu.

Results from a harmonic analysis are written to the structural results file, Jobname.RST. They consist of

the following data, all of which vary harmonically at each forcing frequency for which the solution was

calculated:

Primary data

Nodal displacements (UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ)

Derived data

Nodal and element stresses

Nodal and element strains

Element forces

Nodal reaction forces

etc.

If you defined damping in the structure, the response will be out-of-phase with the loads. All results are

then complex in nature and are stored in terms of real and imaginary parts. Complex results will also be

produced if out-of-phase loads were applied.

4.5.4.1 Postprocessors

You can review these results using either POST26 or POST1. The normal procedure is to first use

POST26 to identify critical forcing frequencies-frequencies at which the highest displacements (or

stresses) occur at points of interest in the model-and to then use POST1 to postprocess the entire model

at these critical forcing frequencies.

POST1 is used to review results over the entire model at specific frequencies.

POST26 allows you to review results at specific points in the model over the entire frequency

range.

Some typical postprocessing operations for a harmonic response analysis are explained below. For a

complete description of all postprocessing functions, see Chapter 3 of the ANSYS Basic Analysis

Procedures Guide.

To review results in POST1 or POST26, the database must contain the same model for which the

solution was calculated.

The results file (Jobname.RST) must be available.

Using POST26

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POST26 works with tables of result item versus frequency, known as variables. Each variable is

assigned a reference number, with variable number 1 reserved for frequency.

1. Define the variables using these options:

Command(s):

NSOL for primary data (nodal displacements)

ESOL for derived data (element solution data, such as stresses)

RFORCE for reaction force data

GUI:

Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Define Variables

Note-The FORCE command allows you to choose the total force, static component of the total force,

damping component, or the inertia component.

2. Graph the variables (versus frequency or any other variable). Then use PLCPLX to work with just

the amplitude, phase angle, real part, or imaginary part.

Command(s):

PLVAR, PLCPLX

GUI:

Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Graph Variables

Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Settings>Graph

3. Get a listing of the variable. To list just the extreme values, use the EXTREM command. Then use

the PRCPLX command to work with amplitude and phase angle or real and imaginary part.

Command(s):

PRVAR, EXTREM, PRCPLX

GUI:

Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>List Variables/List Extremes

Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Settings>List

Many other functions, such as performing math operations among variables (in complex arithmetic),

moving variables into array parameters, moving array parameters into variables, etc., are available in

POST26; see Chapter 6 of the ANSYS Basic Analysis Procedures Guide for details.

By reviewing the time-history results at strategic points throughout the model, you can identify the

critical frequencies for further POST1 postprocessing.

Using POST1

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1. Read in results for the desired harmonic solution. You can use the SET command for this purpose,

but it will read in either the real component or the imaginary component, not both at the same time. The

true magnitude of the results is given by an SRSS (square-root-of-sum-of-squares) combination of the

real and imaginary components (see Figure 4-2) and can be done for specific points in the model in

POST26.

2. Display the deformed shape of the structure, contours of stresses, strains, etc., or vector plots of vector

items [PLVECT]. To obtain tabular listings of data, use PRNSOL, PRESOL, PRRSOL, etc.

Command(s):

PLDISP

GUI:

Main Menu>General Postproc>Plot Results>Deformed Shape

Command(s):

PLNSOL or PLESOL

GUI:

Main Menu>General Postproc>Plot Results>-Contour Plot-Nodal Solu or Element Solu

Use these options to contour almost any result item, such as stresses (SX, SY, SZ...), strains

(EPELX, EPELY, EPELZ...), and displacements (UX, UY, UZ...).

The KUND field on PLNSOL and PLESOL gives you the option of overlaying the undeformed

shape on the display.

Command(s):

PLVECT

GUI:

Main Menu>General Postproc>Plot Results>-Vector Plot-Predefined

Use PLNSOL or PLESOL to contour almost any result item, such as stresses (SX, SY, SZ...),

strains (EPELX, EPELY, EPELZ...), and displacements (UX, UY, UZ...).

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Command(s):

PRNSOL (nodal results)

PRESOL (element-by-element results)

PRRSOL (reaction data) etc.

NSORT, ESORT

GUI:

Main Menu>General Postproc>List Results>Nodal Solution

Main Menu>General Postproc>List Results>Element Solution

Main Menu>General Postproc>List Results>Reaction Solution

Use the NSORT and ESORT commands to sort the data before listing them.

Many other functions, such as mapping results on to a path, transforming results to different coordinate

systems, load case combinations, etc., are available in POST1; see Chapter 3 of the ANSYS Basic

Analysis Procedures Guide for details.

See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE, HROPT, HROUT, HARFRQ,

DMPRAT, NSUBST, KBC, NSOL, ESOL, RFORCE, PLCPLX, PLVAR, PRCPLX, PRVAR,

PLDISP, PRRSOL, and PLNSOL commands.

Method)

In this sample problem, you will determine the harmonic response of a two-mass-spring system.

Determine the response amplitude (Xi) and phase angle (

below when excited by a harmonic force (F1sin

Material properties for this problem are:

m1 = m2 = 0.5 lb-sec2/in

k1 = k2 = kc = 200 lb/in

Loading for this problem is:

F1 = 200 lb

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The spring lengths are arbitrarily selected and are used only to define the spring direction. Two master

degrees of freedom are selected at the masses in the spring direction. A frequency range from zero to 7.5

Hz with a solution at 7.5/30 = 0.25 Hz intervals is chosen to give an adequate response curve. POST26

is used to get an amplitude versus frequency display.

Figure 4-4 Two-Mass-Spring-System Diagram

1. Choose menu path Utility Menu>File>Change Title.

2. Type the text "Harmonic Response of Two-Mass-Spring System" and click on OK.

1. Choose menu path Main Menu>Preprocessor>Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete.

2. Click on Add. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears.

3. Scroll down the list on the left to "Combination" and select it.

4. Click once on "Spring-damper 14" in the list on the right.

5. Click on Apply.

6. Scroll up the list on the left to "Structural Mass" and select it.

7. Click once on "3D mass 21" in the list on the right.

8. Click on OK. The Library of Element Types dialog box closes.

9. Click on Close in the Element Types dialog box.

1. Choose menu path Main Menu>Preprocessor>Real Constants.

2. Click on Add. The Element Type for Real Constants dialog box appears.

3. Click once on Type 1 to highlight it.

4. Click on OK. The Real Constants for COMBIN14 dialog box appears.

5. Enter 200 for the spring constant (K) and 0.1 for the damping coefficient (CV1). Click on OK.

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7. Enter .5 for mass in X direction and click on OK.

8. Click on Close to close the Real Constants dialog box.

1. Choose menu path Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling-Create> Nodes>In Active CS.

2. Enter 1 for node number.

3. Enter 0, 0, 0 for the X, Y, and Z coordinates, respectively.

4. Click on Apply.

5. Enter 4 for node number.

6. Enter 1, 0, 0 for the X, Y, and Z coordinates, respectively.

7. Click on OK.

8. Choose menu path Utility Menu>PlotCtrls>Numbering. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box

appears.

9. Click once on "Node numbers" to turn node numbers on.

10. Click on OK.

11. Choose menu path Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling-Create> Nodes>Fill between Nds. A

picking menu appears.

12. In the ANSYS Graphics window, click once on nodes 1 and 4 (on the left and right sides of the

screen). A small box appears around each node.

13. Click on OK on the picking menu. The Create Nodes Between 2 Nodes dialog box appears.

14. Click on OK to accept the default of 2 nodes to fill. Nodes 2 and 3 appear in the graphics window.

1. Choose menu path Main Menu:Preprocessor>-Modeling-Create> Elements>-Auto NumberedThru Nodes. A picking menu appears.

2. In the graphics window, click once on nodes 1 and 2.

3. Click on Apply. A line appears between the selected nodes.

4. Click once on nodes 2 and 3.

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6. Click once on nodes 3 and 4.

7. Click on OK. A line appears between the selected nodes.

1. Choose menu path Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling-Create> Elements>Elem Attributes.

2. Enter 2 for element type number.

3. Enter 2 for real constant set number and click on OK.

4. Choose menu path Main Menu>Preprocessor>-Modeling-Create>

Elements>-Auto Numbered-Thru Nodes. A picking menu appears.

5. In the graphics window, click once on node 2.

6. Click on Apply.

7. Click once on node 3 and click on OK.

4.6.3.7 Specify the Analysis Type, MDOF, and Load Step Specifications

1. Choose menu path Main Menu>Solution>-Analysis Type-New Analysis.

2. Click once on "Harmonic" and click on OK.

3. Choose menu path Main Menu>Solution>Analysis Options.

4. Click once on "Full" to select the solution method.

5. Click once on "Amplitud + phase" to select the DOF printout format and click on OK.

6. Click OK in the Full Harmonic Analysis dialog box.

7. Choose menu path Main Menu>Solution>-Load Step Opts-Output Ctrls>Solu Printout.

8. Click on "Last substep" to set the print frequency and click on OK.

9. Choose menu path Main Menu>Solution>-Load Step Opts- Time/Frequenc>Freq & Substeps.

10. Enter 0 and 7.5 for the harmonic frequency range.

11. Enter 30 for the number of substeps.

12. Click once on "Stepped" to specify stepped boundary conditions.

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1. Choose menu path Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural- Displacement>On Nodes. A

picking menu appears.

2. Click on Pick All. The Apply U, ROT on Nodes dialog box appears.

3. In the scroll box for DOFs to be constrained, click once on "UY" to highlight it (make sure no other

selections are highlighted).

4. Click on OK.

5. Choose menu path Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural- Displacement>On Nodes. A

picking menu appears.

6. In the graphics window, click once on nodes 1 and 4.

7. Click on OK. The Apply U, ROT on Nodes dialog box appears.

8. In the scroll box for DOFs to be constrained, click once on "UX" to highlight it and click once on

"UY" to de-select it.

9. Click on OK.

10. Choose menu path Main Menu>Solution>-Loads-Apply>-Structural -Force/ Moment>On

Nodes. A picking menu appears.

11. In the graphics window, click once on node 2.

12. Click on OK. The Apply F/M on Nodes dialog box appears.

13. In the scroll box for direction of force/moment, click once on "FX."

14. Enter 200 for the real part of force/moment and click on OK.

1. Choose menu path Main Menu>Solution>-Solve-Current LS.

2. Review the information in the status window and click on Close.

3. Click on OK on the Solve Current Load Step dialog box to begin the solution.

4. When the solution is finished, a dialog box stating "Solution is done!" appears. Click on Close.

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For this sample, you will review the time-history results of nodes 2 and 3.

1. Choose menu path Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Define Variables. The Defined Time-History

Variables dialog box appears.

2. Click on Add. The Add Time-History Variable dialog box appears.

3. Click on OK to accept the default of Nodal DOF result. The Define Nodal Data dialog box appears.

4. Enter 2 for reference number of variable.

5. Enter 2 for node number.

6. Enter 2UX for the user-specified label.

7. In the scroll box on the right, click once on "Translation UX" to highlight it.

8. Click on OK.

9. Click on Add in the Defined Time-History Variables dialog box. The Add Time-History Variable

dialog box appears.

10. Click on OK to accept the default of Nodal DOF result. The Define Nodal Data dialog box appears.

11. Enter 3 for reference number of variable.

12. Enter 3 for node number.

13. Enter 3UX for the user-specified label.

14. In the scroll box on the right, click once on "Translation UX" to highlight it.

15. Click on OK.

16. Click on Close.

17. Choose menu path Utility Menu>PlotCtrls>Style>Graphs. The Graph Controls dialog box

appears.

18. In the scroll box for type of grid, scroll to "X and Y lines" to select it.

19. Click on OK.

20. Choose menu path Main Menu>TimeHist Postpro>Graph Variables. The Graph Time-History

Variables dialog box appears. Your graph should look like this:

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23. Click on OK. A graph appears in the graphic window.

You are now finished with this sample problem.

1. In the ANSYS Toolbar, click on Quit.

2. Choose the save option you want and click on OK.

(Command or Batch Method)

You can perform the example harmonic response analysis of a two-mass-spring system by using the

following ANSYS commands instead of the GUI.

/PREP7

/TITLE, Harmonic response of a two-mass-spring system

ET,1,COMBIN14,,,2

ET,2,MASS21,,,4

R,1,200 ! Spring constant = 200

R,2,.5 ! Mass = 0.5

N,1

N,4,1

FILL

E,1,2

E,2,3

! Spring element

E,3,4

! Spring element

TYPE,2

REAL,2

E,2

! Mass element

E,3

! Mass element

FINISH

/SOLU

ANTYPE,HARMIC

! Harmonic response analysis

HROPT,FULL

! Full harmonic response

HROUT,OFF

! Print results as amplitudes and phase angles

OUTPR,BASIC,1

NSUBST,30

! 30 Intervals within freq. range

HARFRQ,,7.5

! Frequency range from 0 to 7.5 HZ

KBC,1

! Step boundary condition

D,1,UY,,,4

! Constrain all 44 DOF

D,1,UX,,,4,3

! Constrain nodes 1 and 4 in UX

F,2,FX,200

SOLVE

FINISH

/POST26

NSOL,2,2,U,X,2UX! Store UX Displacements

NSOL,3,3,U,X,3UX

/GRID,1 ! Turn grid on

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/AXLAB,Y,DISP

PLVAR,2,3

FINISH

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! Display variables 2 and 3

Several ANSYS publications, particularly the ANSYS Verification Manual, describe additional harmonic

analyses.

The ANSYS Verification Manual consists of test case analyses demonstrating the analysis capabilities of

the ANSYS family of products. While these test cases demonstrate solutions to realistic analysis

problems, the ANSYS Verification Manual does not present them as step-by-step examples with lengthy

data input instructions and printouts. However, most ANSYS users who have at least limited finite

element experience should be able to fill in the missing details by reviewing each test case's finite

element model and input data with accompanying comments.

The following list shows you the variety of harmonic analysis test cases that the ANSYS Verification

Manual includes:

VM19 Random Vibration Analysis of a Deep Simply-Supported Beam

VM76 Harmonic Response of a Guitar String

VM86 Harmonic Response of a Dynamic System

VM87 Equivalent Structural Damping

VM88 Response of an Eccentric Weight Exciter

VM90 Harmonic Response of a Two-Mass-Spring System

VM176 Frequency Response of Electrical Input Admittance for a Piezoelectric Transducer

VM177 Natural Frequency of a Submerged Ring

VM183 Harmonic Response of a Spring-Mass System

VM203 Dynamic Load Effect on Simply-Supported Thick Square Plate

The reduced method, as its name implies, uses reduced matrices to calculate the harmonic solution. The

procedure for a reduced harmonic analysis consists of five main steps:

1. Build the model.

2. Apply the loads and obtain the reduced solution.

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4. Expand the solution (expansion pass).

5. Review the results of the expanded solution.

Of these, the first step is the same as for the full method. Details of the other steps are explained below.

By reduced solution, we mean the degree of freedom solution calculated at the master DOF. The tasks

required to obtain the reduced solution are as follows:

1. Enter the ANSYS solution processor.

Command(s):

/SOLU

GUI:

Main Menu>Solution

2. Define the analysis type and options. Options for the reduced solution are the same as described for

the full method except for the following differences:

You can include prestress effects [PSTRES]. This requires element files from a previous static (or

transient) analysis that also included prestress effects. See "Prestressed Harmonic Response

Analysis" for details.

3. Define master degrees of freedom. Master DOF are essential or dynamic degrees of freedom that

characterize the dynamic behavior of the structure. For a reduced harmonic response dynamic analysis,

master DOF are also required at locations where you want to apply forces or non-zero displacements.

See Section 3.12, "Matrix Reduction," for guidelines to choose master DOF.

4. Apply loads on the model. Harmonic loading is the same as described for the full method, except for

the following restrictions:

Only displacements and forces are valid. Element loads such as pressures, temperatures, and

accelerations are not allowed.

Forces and non-zero displacements must be applied only at master DOF.

5. Specify load step options. These are the same as described for the full method except that the

OUTRES and ERESX commands are not available. The OUTPR command controls the printout of the

nodal solution at the master DOF [OUTPR,NSOL,ALL (or NONE)].

6. Save a copy of the database.

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Command(s):

SAVE

GUI:

Utility Menu>File>Save as

7. Start solution calculations.

Command(s):

SOLVE

GUI:

Main Menu>Solution>-Solve-Current LS

8. Repeat steps 4 through 7 for any additional loads and frequency ranges (that is, for additional load

steps). If you plan to do time-history postprocessing (POST26), the frequency ranges should not overlap

from one load step to the next. Another method for multiple load steps, which allows you to store the

load steps on files and then solve them at once using a macro, is described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis

Procedures Guide.

9. Leave SOLUTION.

Command(s):

FINISH

GUI:

Close the Solution menu.

Results from the reduced harmonic solution are written to the reduced harmonic displacement file,

Jobname.RFRQ. They consist of displacements at the master DOF, which vary harmonically at each

forcing frequency for which the solution was calculated. As with the full method, these displacements

will be complex in nature if damping was defined or if out-of-phase loads were applied. You can review

the master DOF displacements as a function of frequency using POST26. (POST1 cannot be used,

because the complete solution at all DOF is not available.)

The procedure to use POST26 is the same as described for the full method, except for the following

differences:

Before defining the POST26 variables, use the FILE command to specify that data are to be read

from Jobname.RFRQ. For example, if HARMONIC is the jobname, the FILE command would

be: FILE,HARMONIC,RFRQ. (By default, POST26 looks for a results file, which is not written

by a reduced harmonic solution.)

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Only nodal degree of freedom data (at master DOF) are available for processing, so you can use

only the NSOL command to define variables.

The expansion pass starts with the reduced solution and calculates the complete displacement, stress,

and force solution at all degrees of freedom. These calculations are done only at frequencies and phase

angles that you specify. Therefore, before you begin the expansion pass, you should review the results of

the reduced solution (using POST26) and identify the critical frequencies and phase angles.

An expansion pass is not always required. For instance, if you are interested mainly in displacements at

specific points on the structure, then the reduced solution could satisfy your requirements. However, if

you want to determine displacements at non-master DOF, or if you are interested in the stress solution,

then you must perform an expansion pass.

The .RFRQ, .TRI, .EMAT, and .ESAV files from the reduced solution must be available.

The database must contain the same model for which the reduced solution was calculated.

1. Re-enter the ANSYS solution processor.

Command(s):

/SOLU

GUI:

Main Menu>Solution

Note-You must explicitly leave SOLUTION (using the FINISH command) and re-enter (/SOLUTION)

before performing the expansion pass.

2. Activate the expansion pass and its options. ANSYS offers these options for the expansion pass:

Table 4-5 Expansion pass options

Option

Expansion Pass On/Off

No. of Solutions to

Expand

Freq. Range for

Expansion

Phase Angle for

Expansion

EXPASS Main Menu>Solution>-Analysis Type-ExpansionPass

Main Menu>Solution>-Load Step OptsNUMEXP

ExpansionPass>Range of Solu's

NUMEXP Main Menu>Solution>-Load Step OptsExpansionPass>Range of Solu's

Main Menu>Solution>-Load Step OptsHREXP

ExpansionPass>Range of Solu's

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Stress Calculations

On/Off

Nodal Solution Listing

Format

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HROUT

Choose ON.

Specify the number. This number of evenly spaced solutions will be expanded over a frequency range

(specified next). For example, NUMEXP,4,1000,2000 specifies four solutions in the frequency range

1000 to 2000 (that is, expanded solutions at 1250, 1500, 1750, and 2000).

Specify the frequency range. See the example above. If you do not need to expand multiple solutions,

you can use EXPSOL to identify a single solution for expansion (either by its load step and substep

numbers or by its frequency value).

If multiple solutions are to be expanded over a frequency range [NUMEXP], we suggest that you

request both the real and imaginary parts to be expanded [HREXP,ALL]. This way, you can easily

combine the two parts in POST26 to review the peak values of displacements, stresses, and other results.

If, on the other hand, a single solution is to be expanded [EXPSOL], you can specify the phase angle at

which peak displacements occurred using HREXP,angle.

You can turn off stress and force calculations if you are not interested in them. Default is to calculate

stresses and forces.

Determines how the harmonic displacement solution is listed in the printed output (Jobname.OUT). You

can choose between real and imaginary parts (default), and amplitudes and phase angles.

3. Specify load step options. The only options valid for a harmonic expansion pass are output controls:

Printed Output

Use this option to include any results data on the printed output file (Jobname.OUT).

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Command(s):

OUTPR

GUI:

Main Menu>Solution>-Load Step Opts-Output Ctrls>Solu Printout

Use this option to control the data on the results file (Jobname.RST).

Command(s):

OUTRES

GUI:

Main Menu>Solution>-Load Step Opts-Output Ctrls>DB/Results File

Extrapolation of Results

Use this option to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes

instead of extrapolating them (default).

Note-The FREQ field on OUTPR and OUTRES can be only ALL or NONE.

Command(s):

ERESX

GUI:

Main Menu>Solution>-Load Step Opts-Output Ctrls>Integration Pt

4. Start expansion pass calculations.

Command(s):

SOLVE

GUI:

Main Menu>Solution>Current LS

5. Repeat steps 2, 3, and 4 for additional solutions to be expanded. Each expansion pass is stored as a

separate load step on the results file.

Caution: Subsequent spectrum analyses expect all expanded modes to be in one load step.

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Command(s):

FINISH

GUI:

Close the Solution menu.

Results from the expansion pass are written to the structural results file, Jobname.RST. They consist of

the following data, calculated at each frequency for which the solution was expanded:

Primary data

Nodal displacements (UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ)

Derived data

Nodal and element stresses

Nodal and element strains

Element forces

Nodal reaction forces

etc.

You can review them using POST1. (If you expanded solutions at several frequencies, you can also use

POST26 to obtain graphs of stress versus frequency, strain versus frequency, etc.)

The procedure to use POST1 (or POST26) is the same as described for the full method, except for one

difference: if you requested expansion at a specific phase angle [HREXP,angle], there is only one

solution available for each frequency. Use the SET command to read in the results.

A sample input listing for a reduced harmonic response analysis is shown below:

! Build the Model

/FILNAM,...

! Jobname

/TITLE,...

! Title

/PREP7

! Enter PREP7

----! Generate model

--FINISH

! Apply Loads and Obtain the Reduced Solution

/SOLU

! Enter SOLUTION

ANTYPE,HARMIC

! Harmonic analysis

HROPT,REDU

! Reduced method

HROUT,...

! Harmonic analysis output options

M,...

! Master DOF

TOTAL,...

D,...

! Constraints

F,...

! Loads (real and imaginary components)

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HARFRQ,...

DMPRAT,...

NSUBST,...

KBC,...

SAVE

SOLVE

FINISH

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! Damping ratio

! Number of harmonic solutions

! Ramped or stepped loads

! Initiate multiple load step solution

/POST26

FILE,,RFRQ

! Postprocessing file is Jobname.RFRQ

NSOL,...

! Store nodal result as a variable

PLCPLX,...

! Define how to plot complex variables

PLVAR,...

! Plot variables

PRCPLX,...

! Define how to list complex variables

PRVAR,...

! List variables

FINISH

! Expand the Solution

/SOLU

! Re-enter SOLUTION

EXPASS,ON

! Expansion pass

EXPSOL,...

! Expand a single solution

HREXP,...

! Phase angle for expanded solution

OUTRES,...

SOLVE

FINISH

! Review the Results of the Expanded Solution

/POST1

SET,...

! Read results for desired frequency

PLDISP,...

! Deformed shape

PRRSOL,...

! List reactions

PLNSOL,...

! Contour plot of nodal results

----! Other postprocessing as desired

--FINISH

See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE, HROPT, HROUT, M,

TOTAL, HARFRQ, DMPRAT, NSUBST, KBC, FILE, NSOL, PLCPLX, PLVAR, PRCPLX,

PRVAR, EXPASS, EXPSOL, HREXP, PLDISP, PRRSOL and PLNSOL commands.

The mode superposition method sums factored mode shapes (obtained from a modal analysis) to

calculate the harmonic response. It is the only method allowed in the ANSYS/LinearPlus program. The

procedure to use the method consists of five main steps:

1. Build the model.

2. Obtain the modal solution.

3. Obtain the mode superposition harmonic solution.

4. Expand the mode superposition solution.

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Of these, the first step is the same as described for the full method. The remaining steps are described

below.

Chapter 3 describes how to obtain a modal solution. You should keep in mind the following additional

points:

The mode extraction method should be subspace, Block Lanczos, reduced, or PowerDynamics.

(The other two methods, unsymmetric and damped, do not apply to mode superposition.)

Note-If PowerDynamics was used for the modal solution, no non-zero loads or displacements are

allowed (that is, only u=0 is valid as the initial condition).

Be sure to extract all modes that may contribute to the harmonic response.

For the reduced mode extraction method, include those master degrees of freedom at which

harmonic loads will be applied.

If you need to apply harmonically varying element loads (pressures, temperatures, accelerations,

etc.), you must specify them in the modal analysis. The loads are ignored for the modal solution,

but a load vector will be calculated and written to the mode shape file (Jobname.MODE). You can

then use this load vector for the harmonic solution.

The modes need not be expanded for the mode superposition solution. (If you want to review

mode shapes, however, you must expand the mode shapes.)

The model data (e.g., nodal rotations) should not be changed between the modal and harmonic

analyses.

In this step, the program uses mode shapes extracted by the modal solution to calculate the harmonic

response. The mode shape file (Jobname.MODE) must be available, and the database must contain the

same model for which the modal solution was obtained. If the modal solution was performed using the

subspace or block Lanczos method using the default mass formulation (not the lumped mass

approximation), the full file (Jobname.FULL) must also be available. The following tasks are involved:

1. Enter SOLUTION.

Command(s):

/SOLU

GUI:

Main Menu>Solution

2. Define the analysis type and analysis options. These are the same as described for the full method,

except for the following differences:

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Specify the modes you want to use for the solution [HROPT]. This determines the accuracy of

the harmonic solution. Generally, the number of modes specified should cover about 50 percent

more than the frequency range of the harmonic loads.

Optionally, cluster the solutions about the structure's natural frequencies [HROUT] for a

smoother and more accurate tracing of the response curve.

Optionally, at each frequency, print a summary table that lists the contributions of each mode to

the response [HROUT].

3. Apply loads on the model. Harmonic loading is the same as described for the full method, except for

the following restrictions:

Only forces, accelerations, and a load vector created in the modal analysis are valid. Use the

LVSCALE command to apply the load vector from the modal solution.

If mode shapes from a reduced modal solution are being used, forces may be applied only at

master DOF.

4. Specify load step options. These are the same as described for the reduced method except that you can

also specify modal damping [MDAMP]. See Section 5.12.3 for details about damping. The NSUBST

command specifies the number of solutions on each side of a natural frequency if the clustering option

[HROUT] is chosen. The default is to calculate four solutions, but you may specify any number from 2

to 10.

5. If you used either the subspace or the Block Laczos option for the modal analysis (MODOPT,SUBSP

or MODPT,LANB), you may use a nodal component with the OUTRES,NSOL command to limit the

displacement data written to the reduced displacement file Jobname.RFRQ The expansion pass will only

produce valid results for those nodes and for those elements in which all of the nodes of the elements

have been written to the .RFRQ file. To use this option, first suppress all writing by invoking

OUTRES,NSOL,NONE, then specify the item(s) of interest by invoking

OUTRES,NSOL,ALL,component. Repeat the OUTRES command for any additional nodal

components that you want to write to the .RFRQ file.

6. Save a copy of the database.

Command(s):

SAVE

GUI:

Utility Menu>File>Save as

7. Start solution calculations.

Command(s):

SOLVE

GUI:

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Main Menu>Solution>-Solve-Current LS

8. Repeat steps 3 to 6 for any additional loads and frequency ranges (that is, for additional load steps). If

you plan to do time-history postprocessing (POST26), the frequency ranges should not overlap from one

load step to the next.

9. Leave SOLUTION.

Command(s):

FINISH

GUI:

Close the Solution menu.

The mode superposition harmonic solution is written to the reduced displacement file, Jobname.RFRQ,

regardless of whether the subspace, Block Lanczos, reduced, or PowerDynamics method was used for

the modal solution. You will therefore need to expand the solution if you are interested in stress results.

The procedure for the expansion pass is the same as described for the reduced method. Jobname.TRI

from the modal analysis is needed only if the reduced eigenvalue extraction method was used. The

output from the expansion pass includes the structural results file, Jobname.RST, containing expanded

results.

Results consist of harmonically varying displacements, stresses, and reaction forces at each forcing

frequency for which the solution was calculated. You can review these results using POST26 or POST1,

as explained for the reduced method.

A sample input listing for a mode superposition harmonic response analysis is shown below:

! Build the Model

/FILNAM,...

! Jobname

/TITLE,...

! Title

/PREP7

! Enter PREP7

----! Generate model

--FINISH

! Obtain the Modal Solution

/SOLU

! Enter SOLUTION

ANTYPE,MODAL

! Modal analysis

MODOPT,REDU

! Reduced method

M,...

! Masters

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TOTAL,..

D,...

SF,...

SAVE

SOLVE

FINISH

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! Constraints

! Element loads

! Initiate modal solution

/SOLU

! Enter SOLUTION

ANTYPE,HARMIC

! Harmonic analysis

HROPT,MSUP,...

! Mode superposition method; number of modes to use

HROUT,...

! Harmonic analysis output options; cluster option

LVSCALE,...

! Scale factor for element loads

F,...

! Nodal loads

HARFRQ,...

! Forcing frequency range

DMPRAT,...

! Damping ratio

MDAMP,...

! Modal damping ratios

NSUBST,...

! Number of harmonic solutions

KBC,...

! Ramped or stepped loads

SAVE

SOLVE

! Initiate solution

FINISH

! Review the Results of the Mode Superposition Solution

/POST26

FILE,,RFRQ

! Postprocessing file is Jobname.RFRQ

NSOL,...

! Store nodal result as a variable

PLCPLX,...

! Define how to plot complex variables

PLVAR,...

! Plot variables

FINISH

! Expand the Solution (for Stress Results)

/SOLU

! Re-enter SOLUTION

EXPASS,ON

! Expansion pass

EXPSOL,...

! Expand a single solution

HREXP,...

! Phase angle for expanded solution

SOLVE

FINISH

! Review the Results of the Expanded Solution

/POST1

SET,...

! Read results for desired frequency

PLDISP,...

! Deformed shape

PLNSOL,...

! Contour plot of nodal results

--FINISH

See the ANSYS Commands Reference for a discussion of the ANTYPE, MODOPT, M, TOTAL,

HROPT, HROUT, LVSCALE, F, HARFRQ, DMPRAT, MDAMP, NSUBST, KBC, FILE, NSOL,

PLCPLX, PLVAR, EXPASS, EXPSOL, HREXP, SET, and PLNSOL commands.

4.10.1 Prestressed Harmonic Response Analysis

A prestressed harmonic response analysis calculates the dynamic response of a prestressed structure,

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such as a violin string. This capability is available only for the reduced method and for the mode

superposition method. It is assumed that the harmonically varying stresses (which are superimposed on

the prestress) are much smaller than the prestress itself.

The procedure to do a prestressed reduced harmonic analysis is essentially the same as that for any other

reduced harmonic analysis except that you first need to prestress the structure by doing a static analysis:

1. Build the model and obtain a static solution with prestress effects turned on [PSTRES,ON]. The

procedure to obtain the static solution is explained in Chapter 2.

2. Re-enter SOLUTION and obtain the reduced harmonic solution, also with prestress effects turned on

(reissue PSTRES,ON). Files Jobname.EMAT and Jobname.ESAV from the static analysis must be

available.

Analysis

In order to include prestress effects in a mode superposition analysis, you must first do a prestressed

modal analysis. See Chapter 3 for details. Once prestressed modal analysis results are available, proceed

as for any other mode superposition analysis.

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