Rotor is an very important part in the machines,especially in the rotating machines like gas and steam turbines. In this papersteam turbine rotor is analysed by using finite elements. In the complexsystems, many of the engineering problems, it is difficult to solve the problemby closed form or exact solution method. Then we have to go for somenumerical/approximate method for solving the problem. There are lot ofnumerical/approximate methods available.

© All Rights Reserved

78 tayangan

Rotor is an very important part in the machines,especially in the rotating machines like gas and steam turbines. In this papersteam turbine rotor is analysed by using finite elements. In the complexsystems, many of the engineering problems, it is difficult to solve the problemby closed form or exact solution method. Then we have to go for somenumerical/approximate method for solving the problem. There are lot ofnumerical/approximate methods available.

© All Rights Reserved

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Volume 6, Issue 11, Nov 2015, pp. 195-201, Article ID: IJMET_06_11_022

Available online at

http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=6&IType=11

ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359

IAEME Publication

TURBINE ROTOR

M. Chandra Sekhar Reddy

Department of Mechanical Engineering

University College of Engineering

Osmania University

Hyderabad 500 007, India

ABSTRACT

Rotor is an very important part in the machines, especially in the rotating

machines like gas and steam turbines. In this paper steam turbine rotor is

analysed by using finite elements. In the complex systems, many of the

engineering problems, it is difficult to solve the problem by closed form or

exact solution method. Then we have to go for some numerical/approximate

method for solving the problem. There are lot of numerical/approximate

methods available. Finite element technique is an numerical method used for

many engineering applications very widely. We have analyzed the rotors acted

by different mechanical & thermo-mechanical loads, and analysed to find out

the behaviour of the rotors. In the analysis results it is seen that the solid rotor

is better than the hollow rotor.

Cite this Article: M. Chandra Sekhar Reddy. Design and Analysis of Steam

Turbine Rotor. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and

Technology, 6(11), 2015, pp. 195-201.

http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=6&IType=11

1. INTRODUCTION

Steam Turbine is a very sophisticated machinery. Its each and every component is

designed by doing a lot of calculations & experiments. The main component of a

steam turbine is its rotor, it is the part which is both under thermal & mechanical

stresses. The shafts used in steam turbines can be both hollow or solid. Previously

shafts were made hollow due to forging defects. During forging all the impurities

collected in the core of the shaft, due to this there was chance of crack formation &

failure of shaft. But nowdays due to improvement in forging techniques & fault

detection methods the impurities in the core can be made very little ie within tolerable

limit.

It has reduced a lot of issues such as machining cost & time, scrap, stiffness &

stress in the rotor shaft. So in the current times industries started using solid forged

shafts for their turbine rotors & in this paper we will compare the two shafts on

various aspects using finite element analysis. With the firm establishment of the

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characteristics will follow a prescribed path once the shape functions have been

chosen. For instance in the analysis of plane stress or strain once the functions

describing the displacements within the element in terms of the nodal values are

known, standard expressions can be used and the element properties are uniquely

defined. The possibilities of improvement of approximation are thus confined to

devising alternative element configurations and developing new shape functions.

The difficulty in analysis of stress and strain in structural engineering depends on

the structure involved. As the structure grows in complexity, so does the analysis.

Many of the more commonly used structures in engineering have simplified

calculations to approximate stress and strain. However, these calculations often

provide solutions only for the maximum stress and strain at certain points in the

structure. Furthermore, these calculations are usually only applicable given specific

conditions applied to the structure.

As FE models should meet the quality criteria stipulated[1-3], element quality

checks ensure least model errors and sanity checks verify the robustness or integrity

of structural models. Babu et al.[4], studied the determination of Stress Concentration

Factors of a Steam Turbine Rotor. Thermal gradients developed during thermal

transients[5] are the key source of stress generation in the rotor. Under such

conditions there is the probability of failure of turbine rotor if the turbine rotor is not

designed taking into consideration the transient effect. There are many Finite element

packages available for conducting the transient thermal analysis. Kolhe[6] presented

how to vary the ambient temperature with time, vary the convective heat transfer

coefficients and heat flux with time/temperature. The temperature gradients that can

be established in the transient state are generally higher than those that occur in the

steady-state and hencethermal shock is important factor to be considered relative to

ordinary thermal stress. The heart of these versatile machines is made by the blades

and vanes , which are subjected during operation to very high thermal and mechanical

stresses (combined effects of centrifugal force and thermal gradient), in aggressive

environment. The turbine rotor is subjected to temperature variations in short periods

of time due to the start and stop cycles of the turbine.

2. METHODOLOGY

To replace the existing hollow rotor shaft with a solid shaft & find out the advantage/

disadvantage of doing so. We have to perform various calculations on centrifugal

loads, torsional loads Thermal loads &core defects for the comparison. When a Steam

turbine rotor rotates at 3000 rpm the blades exert a centrifugal pull on the rotor discs.

If the discs are integrated to the shaft of rotor then there is a reduction in length of the

rotor & expansion in the rotor discs. Now the turbine is a very sophisticated machine

in which the clearances between the blades & casing is very low to avoid steam

leakage & efficiency loss. In order to properly design such fine clearances the

mechanical as well as thermal expansion of the blades & rotor must be calculated

accurately. Theoritical calculations can give a value for expansion/contraction, We

have to verify this value by FEM analysis in which all the real constraints are defined.

The result of the analysis must give the results within acceptable range of theoretical

result. Since the rotor is symmetric about its rotational axis we use axisymmetric

modelling technique to create the model. After modelling meshing has to be done

with proper element shapes &size to get the desired results. The FE model of IP Rotor

of Steam turbine is shown in Fig. 1.

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IP ROTOR

3. SOLUTION METHOD

The preferences were chosen as structural & h-Method was used for elements with

plane 183. Plane183 is a higher order 2-D, 8-node or 6-node element. PLANE183 has

quadratic displacement behavior and is well suited to modeling irregular meshes (such

as those produced by various CAD/CAM systems). The simplest type of element has

a linear shape function. This means that the function for displacement across the

element is linear. With the h-method, the shape function of the element will usually be

linear. In an actual part, it is quite uncommon for the displacement to vary linearly.

The h-method accounts for this by increasing the number of elements. More accurate

information is obtained by increasing the number of elements. The element behaviour

is taken as axisymmetric.

Material Properties: The properties of element are defined which are the properties

of the material of the rotor. The youngs modulus is taken as-2.11x1011 & poissons

ratio is taken as 0.3. Density of material taken as 7850 kg/m3. Length of rotor as 5.34

m

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FEM Modelling: The rotor modelling was done by studying the manufacturing

drawing. Keypoint diagram of the turbine rotor is shown in Fig.2. Keypoints were

generated keeping the Y axis as the axis of rotation. The model was then generated by

joining the keypoints by straight lines. After the line model was made areas were

created to form the mesh. Fig. 3 shows the FE model filled with area for meshing.

Both the solid & hollow rotor were modelled separately. Inner radius of hollow rotor

was kept 60 mm & outer 300mm.

Meshing: The mesh was created by using quad elements the mesh type used was free

meshing. The size of elements was decided by global element size.The mesh was

distorted at many places with some quads not forming a perfect square,but it was due

to the shape of the rotor and the places where sudden geometry change had occoured.

But still quads were defined & mesh was acceptable

Quad Element- Refers in general to any four-sided, 2D element. Plane 183 is a

higher order 2-D, 8-node Plane183 has quadratic displacement behavior and is well

suited to modeling irregular meshes. This element is defined by 8 nodes , having two

degrees of freedom at each node: translations in the nodal x and y directions. The

elementmay be used as a plane element (plane stress, plane strain and generalized

plane strain) or as an axisymmetric element. This element has plasticity,

hyperelasticity, creep, stress stiffening, large deflection and large strain capabilities. It

also has mixed formulation capability for simulating deformations of nearly

incompressible elastoplastic materials and fully incompressible hyperelastic materials.

Initial stress import is supported.

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Application of Loads: Model completely meshed with quad elements in free mesh

format and the loads applied are shown in fig. 4. The loads applied on the rotor were

as follows

Inertia- Angular velocity of 314.16 rad/3000rpm was applied on the rotor along y axis

Force- Centrifugal Loads in X direction on the rotor discs were applied.

Solution: After defining all the conditions the FEM analysis was done and the results

were plotted. The stress distribution in the rotor is shown in Fig. 5, and temperature

distribution is shown in Fig.6.

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The result of the FEM analysis using Quad element in free mesh for solid rotor is

0.332 and 0.346 m for hollow rotor. The effect of torsional stress on solid rotor was

found to be 1768 N-m & on hollow rotor it is 1771 N-m. After conducting Von Mises

analysis the maximum stress in both the rotors was 139 Mpa which is lower than the

yield strength of alloy steel ie in the range of 366-1793 Mpa. So the design is safe for

engineering purpose.

The thermal temperature distribution analysis on the two rotors the pattern of

distribution was same for both. The first stage of blades experiences the maximum

thermal shock as the steam impinges on it with max temperature. Thermal expansion

for both rotors in steady state was carried out and it was seen that the hollow rotor

expands by 1 mm more than solid rotor.

5. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper an attempt is made to study the effect of making ID of present shaft to

zero, ie making it into a solid shaft & study the effects of the forces which were

applied on hollow shaft. In the results till now the solid shaft is proving more

advantageous to hollow shaft.

In the solid rotor there is no stress pattern in the center of shaft so the design is

much safe than hollow rotor design.

Thermal expansion of hollow rotor is more than that of solid rotor so it will

expand quickly as compared to the casing which is relatively thick. So chances are

there that the rotor blades may get jammed. In solid rotor the rotor will expand slowly

so that the casing & rotor will expand at nearly same rate & jamming will be avoided

which will prevent damage to the seals & blades.

We have analyzed the rotors on different mechanical & thermal-mechanical

analysis to find out the behaviour of the two rotors. In the analysis result it is seen that

the solid rotor is better than the hollow rotor in both ease of manufacturing & failure

criteria. Till now we have covered steady state thermal analysis of the rotors more

analysis could be done by applying transient conditions ,as after sometime the

temperature distribution changes.

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REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

University of California.

Colin Bradley, Bernadette Currie (2005), Advances in the Field of Reverse

Engineering, Computer Aided Design & Applications, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp 697706.

R.W. Edmonson, Dimensional Changes in Steel during Heat Treatment, Met.

Treat., Vol 20 (No 6), 1969, pp 319.

R. Nagendra Babu, K. V. Ramana, and K. Mallikarjuna Rao (2008 ),

Determination of Stress Concentration Factors of a Steam Turbine Rotor by

FEA World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 39.

Chunlin Zhang, Niansu Hu, Jianmei Wang, Qiping, chen, Feng He,Xiaoli (2010),

Thermal Stress Analysis for Rotor of 600MW Steam Turbine 978-1-42444813-5/10/&25.00c/2010/IEEE.

Kolhe M R, A. D. Pachchhao, H.G. Nagpure (2004), thermal stress analysis in

steam turbine rotor - a review Computer Aided Design & Applications, Vol. 1

(4).

M. Chandra Sekhar Reddy and Talluri Ravi Teja. New Approach to Casting

Defects Classification and Optimization by Magma Soft. International

Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 5(6), 2014, pp. 25-35.

Prof. Nasar A, Dr. N E Jaffar and Sherin A Kochummen. Lyapunov Rule Based

Model Reference Adaptive Controller Designs For Steam Turbine Speed.

International Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 5(6), 2014, pp. 25-35

http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp

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editor@iaeme.com

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