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CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM
Introduction
A practical test of achievement and success is the ability to survive
the impending events and phenomena. So with the knowledge learned, skills
possessed, and the behaviour developed reflective of the confidence to sustain
life threatening situation and preserve property and the environment. These
are some thoughts to reckon with in mainstreaming the implementation of
disaster risk reduction education worldwide and in the Philippines.
Perry for instance cited the United States of America the most severe
weather prone country on the planet and deadly weather events. 1 In a related
development the Philippines ranked third out of 173 countries in susceptibility
to disasters and is significantly exposed to storms, flooding, earthquakes, and
volcanic activity but overall risk is exacerbated by vulnerability due to under
development.2
In a more conspicuous scenario was the statement uttered by Dufty.
And to paraphrase, he said -- A critical success factor for the uptake of natural
hazard activities in schools is the ability to embed these activities in existing
school programs that are already linked to learning outcomes in curriculums
and syllabuses.3 A challenging remark was posed by Director Briceo of the
UN/ISDRA secretariat during the 2006-07 World Disaster Reduction Campaign.
Making further the statement and expectation that the Children will be one day
the mayors, the architects and the decision makers of the world of tomorrow.

If we teach them what they can do from the early age they will build a safer
world.4 This is a challenging message to prepare them to deteriorating climate in
their respective environment.
In the Australian setting, there is the presence of the National Strategy
for Disaster Resilience citing four common characteristics of disaster resilient
communities, individuals and organizations. Characteristics means functioning
well while under stress, successful adaptation, self-reliance, and social capacity.
Similarly manifested the expectation where the resilient communities also share
the importance of social support systems such as neighbourhoods, family and
kinship networks, social cohesion, mutual interest groups, and mutual self-help
groups.5 Consistent with this observation implies that a resilient community
requires resilient leadership. For Professor Klein -- Resilient leadership means
handling adversity with greater skill, reducing stress across your organization
and uniting your team.6
With a similar perspective was the observation of Baumwoll7 where
the risk posed by natural disasters is escalating and the amount of work in the
field of disaster management has been increasing particularly in disaster risk
reduction. Likewise, she highlighted pre-disaster activities including prevention,
mitigation and preparedness. Notwithstanding the shift to indigenous knowledge
where she defined as the approaches and practices of a culture develop from
an advanced understanding of its specific environment which has formed over
numerous generations of habitation.
The Philippines like the other countries of the world categorically support
the same agenda as shown by available documents and issuances of the

Department of Education (DepEd). DepEd Order No. 55 of 2007 8 for example


specifically directed the mainstreaming and implementation of disaster risk
reduction in all schools under its administration and supervision. This is the
government comprehensive response initiative and commitment to the ten-year
(2005-2015) Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). HFA is a global blueprint for
disaster risk reduction efforts aim to reduce disaster losses in lives, properties,
social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries by
year 2015.9 Consistently premised on building schools, nations and communities
resilient to disaster entails non-structural and structural components of the safe
school programs.
The coming up of the nationally prepared non-structured components
Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual (DRRRM) speaks of the government
compliance to its commitment. The manual is a source of information for the
school administrators, heads/principals, supervisors, and teachers as regards
the implementation and management of disaster risk reduction projects. The
officially released material for example identified six major concerns. These
are: (i) Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction Concepts in the Elementary
and Secondary School Curricula; (ii) School Mapping Exercise; (iii) School
Water and Electrical Facilities Assessment Project; (iv) Preparation of Disaster
Preparedness Modules Through Multi-media; (v) Quarterly Conduct of Earthquake and Fire Drills; and (vi) Road Safety Education for Children. 10
.

Construction of Hazards Resilient School buildings is the single feature

under structural component consisting of three concerns. These are: (1) Learning
and Public Use Schoolbuilding, (2) Be Better, Build Better International Design

Competition, and (3) Assessment of Schoolbuildings Structural Integrity and


Stability (ASSIST).
Furthermore highlighted and re-iterated the instruction to intensify
Information Dissemination Campaign for Energy and Water Conservation. 11
Flyers on the advocacies shall be distributed to all schools to create heightened
awareness among the school-children, teachers and the general public on
the impending dry spell and in preparation for the coming of the rainy season
are clearly spell out in the manual.
Part I of Enclosure 1 likewise identified the topics and chapters for
discussion in seven learning subjects. These are English, Filipino, Science,
Mathematics, HeKaSi, MAPEH, GMRC, and EPP. Under part III, the duties
and responsibilities of the school head/principals, head teachers and teachers
among others are defined.
Very briefly, the selected schools identified for this study are located in
barangays Cabagan, Quirangay, and Tumpa (Plate 1). 12 Records show that
Cabagan has an enrolment of 1,019 while Quirangay and Tumpa Elementary
Schools with 478 and 343 or a total of 1,840 pupils for school year 2013-2014.
Of this number, the grade 5 pupils consisted of 151 in Cabagan Elementary
School. Quirangay and Tumpa Elementary Schools have 57 and 66 pupils. The
total enrolment of the three schools is 284 with 50 teaching and non-teaching
personnel.13
The current population of the barangays per School Improvement Plan
(SIP) is 7,183 individuals distributed as follow: Cabagan -- 2,799; Quirangay -3,040; and Tumpa -- 1,343, respectively. Quirangay has a land area of 692.4752

Plate 1. Map of Camalig showing the locale of the study.

hectares while the other barangays (Sua and Salugan) have not indicated
the data in their SIP.
From the perspectives of the researcher, the Department of Education
should not only provide space and accommodation for temporary occupancy
of evacuees. It should rather be the knowledge to survive before, during and
post disasters resulting from the hazard and vulnerabilities. The personnel
implementers should demonstrate strongly familiarity and the leadership in
their respective schools and communities making use of the concepts, skills and
attitudes (behaviours) stated in the manual. Knowledge as regard the
implementation of DepEd Order No. 55 series of 2007 in the typical schools and
communities within the permanent danger zone 14 in Camalig, Albay would
good test case to begin with.

be a

Hence, justifies the urgency of this research

undertaking.
Statement of the Problem
This study determined the implementation of DepEd Order No. 55 series
of 2007 among mayon unit schools in Camalig, Albay.

More specifically

answered the following sub-problems:


1. What is the status of implementation of DepEd Order No. 55 series
of 2007 among the mayon unit schools along:
a. Use of Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual
b. Implementation of Safe Schools Program
c. IEC campaign for energy and water conservation
d. Monitoring of DDR projects and other activities

2. What are the experiences of pupils, teachers, and residents on natural


hazards in terms of:
a. frequency of occurrence
b. months when natural hazards are prevalent
3. What are the activities undertaken by respondents before, during, and
after occurrence of natural hazards?
4. What program of action may be proposed to enhance the implementation of DepEd Order No. 55 series of 2007?
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study focused on the implementation of DepEd Order No. 55 series
of 2007 in the mayon unit schools in Camalig, Albay. It specifically identified
the status of implementation along the use of disaster risk reduction resource
manual, implementation of safe schools program, information, education and
communication campaign for energy and water conservation, and monitoring
of disaster risk reduction projects and other activities. Likewise determined
the experiences of teachers, pupils, and residents in terms of frequency of
occurrence and months when natural hazards were prevalent. The activities
undertaken by the same respondents before, during, and after occurrence of
natural hazards formed part of the analysis. Thereby utilized in preparation of
the propose program of action to further enhance the implementation of DepEd
Order No. 55 series of 2007.
This was descriptive study that made use of survey and quantitativequalitative mix method analysis. Data and information requirements were

generated through questionnaire checklists, narratives, and document(ary)


analysis. It included all the 51 grade school personnel, selected 150 residents,
and 114 grade 5 pupils of barangays Cabagan, Quirangay, Tumpa, Sua

and

Salugan.
Excluded in the study were the schools and communities outside the
declared permanent danger zones of the municipality. All the pupils, teachers,
personnel, and other than the grade five in the identified schools were excluded.
Similarly, the school heads, teachers, pupils and residents of the barangays
outside the declared permanent danger zone by the local government. Finally,
the man-made disasters form part of the exclusion in this undertaking.
Significance of the Study
The experiences and insights coming from the pupils, teachers, and
residents on natural hazards referring to knowledge and preparedness will be
significant manifestations to further enhance the competence and confidence
in dealing emergency situations. These are lessons learned which would
validate and update the existing policies and practices in print and non-print
materials. Thereby the basis for prioritizing the resources and undertakings of
various sectors such as the:
Department of Education (DepEd). Knowledge on natural hazards and
preparedness of the pupils, teachers and residents generated by this study
would provide the department with baseline data and information for policy
setting. Likewise, strengthen the curricular reforms and priorities mainstreaming
the enclosure of disaster education.

Local government units (LGUs). The local government units shall be


provided with feedback describing the natural hazards level of knowledge and
preparedness status of their constituents.

Likewise consider the significant

findings in the development of plans and programs to further enhance the


competence and confidence of people and the community. More important
is support the zero casualty objective of the government in times of disasters.
This does not preclude the involvement of other institutions of government and
the private sectors of international, national and local in scope.
Pupils. They should know, develop and possess the ability and skills
to live with nature. This study would be learning opportunity for them to re-visit
and reflect on the before, during, and after the occurrence of natural hazards.
On the other hand learned and document from the experiences of others.
Teachers. In the course of their teaching-learning activities, they might
use some lessons learned in dealing with natural hazards. Also share and
learned from co-workers, pupils and other significant sectors their before,
during, and after occurrence of natural hazards (storms, flashfloods, landslides,
earthquakes, volcanic activities, and lightning) in real times with and without
external assistance.
Residents. They should know, develop and possess the ability and skills to
live with nature. They must have a better understanding of the basic terms
related to disasters and of how disasters take place. This study will help them
to know their new role in disaster preparedness since they are the once most
vulnerable and affected with or without prior notice given by local and national
authorities.

10

Legislators. The findings and perspectives drawn by the study might


encourage them to go over and introduce amendments to make the existing
laws more responsive and relevant to contain the effect of natural hazards,
vulnerability and disaster. This shall include the sharing arrangement using the
special education fund (RA 7160) 15 to support trainings for disaster education.
Similarly encourage reasonable utilization of funds for training and instructional
materials to address natural hazards concerns. This holds true with Republic
Act No. 10121 otherwise known the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and
Management Act of 2010 particularly in the allocation of five percent of the
department budget.
Non-government organizations. Better understanding and support from
non-government organizations or institutions both foreign and local would be
realized by providing them what really the situation is all about. In this way,
they shall be in the best position that will deliberately provide assistance as
in the recent past. In fact, they are one of the regular sponsors for training
and relief operations.
Field of Education. The extent of natural hazards on knowledge and
level of preparedness of school teachers and pupils would definitely affect
the teaching-learning continuum. Some of the findings would be a good
case instructional material for academic and case analysis by professionals
and practitioners in the fields of educational administration, management and
supervision; similarly, in upgrading instructional materials for classroom as
well as training guide for the various sectors or institutions. So with the lessons
provided by the manual.

11

Researchers. Experiences and insights along natural hazards knowledge


and preparedness of some sectors may be re-visited by researchers to establish
validity and consistency of results. Future researchers may gain insights and
firm decision in the final selection of topics that would warrant further analysis
and study.

12

NOTES
Samantha Jo Perry, Human Resources and Natural Disaster
Preparedness: Is Your Workplace Prepared? (Thesis, Iowa State University,
Ames, Iowa, 2013). http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4506&
context=etd. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
2
World Risk Report cited by Ralph S. Brower, Francisco A. Magno, and
Janet Dilling, Evolving and Implementing a New Disaster Management
Paradigm:
The
Case
of
the
Philippines.
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007 /978-3-319-04468-2_17.
3
Neil Dufty, Opportunities for Disaster Resilience Learning in the
Australian Curriculum. http://www.em.gov.au/Publications/Australianjournalof
emergencymanagement/PastIssues/Pages/AJEM29ONE/Opportunitiesfordisaste
rresiliencelearningintheAustraliancurriculum.aspx.
1

Council of Australian Governments, National Strategy for Disaster


Resilience: Building our Nations Resilience to Disasters (Australian Government, 2011), p. 4. Cited by Neil Dufty.
5

Professor Jill Klein, http://mteliza.mbs.edu/our-programs/focused/resilie


nt-leadership.
6

Jennifer Baumwoll, The Value of Indigenous Knowledge for Disaster


Risk Reduction: A Unique Assessment Tool for Reducing Community
Vulner-ability to Natural Disasters (Thesis, Webster University, 2008).
http://gradworks. umi.com/14/52/1452475.html.
7

DepEd No. 55 series of 2007 entitled Prioritizing the Mainstreaming of


Disaster Risk Reduction Management in the School System Implementation of
Programs and Projects Relatives Therefor dated August 10, 2007.
8

Item 1 of DepEd Order 55 series of 2007.

Item 1 of DepEd Order 55 series of 2007.

10

Item c of DepEd Order 55 series of 2007.

11

DepEd Manual

12

Municipal Development Profile of Camalig, Albay.

13

Enrollment Profile of the DepEd School.

13
14

Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) refers to the physical distance of the


barangay within the five kilometres radius from the volcano per issuance of
the provincial local government authorities.
15

RA 7160, An Act Providing for the Local Government Code of the


Philippines.

14

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Presented in this chapter are the literature and studies utilized in the
preparation of the research manuscript. There is also the synthesis of the stateof-the-art, gap bridged, theoretical framework, conceptual framework, and the
definition of terms used in this undertaking.
Related Literature
To begin with, Perry made mentioned of the United States of America
as the most severe weather prone country on the planet and deadly weather
events.1

In a related development the Philippines ranked third out of 173

countries in susceptibility to disasters and is significantly exposed to storms,


flooding, earthquakes, and volcanic activity but overall risk is exacerbated
by vulnerability due to under development. 2 In a more conspicuous scenario
Dufty emphasized that A critical success factor for the uptake of natural
hazard activities schools is the ability to embed these activities in existing
school programs that are already linked to learning outcomes in curriculums
and syllabuses.3
Schools from the viewpoint of Kumar et al., are effective institutions for
disaster awareness and preparedness using the potential of children as
communicators.4

Citing Iran as an example, the education of children and

young people in disaster preparedness takes place at nursery, elementary,


secondary and high school levels on a national scale covering both urban and
rural areas according to Petal and Izadkhah. Formal and informal means

15

included special materials in the textbooks, standalone texts, films, nationwide


safety drills for children of all ages are held. There are writing and drawing
competitions and exhibitions, paintings and posters in educational environments
resort to songs, games, and puzzles.5
In Turkey, there is a non-government organization that launched a One
Million Children, One Million Families disaster-awareness project. Volunteer
university students give lessons to primary-school students to teach them
what to do in the event of a quake whether they are at home or at school.
Lessons are reinforced by the distribution of books on disaster preparation
and disaster awareness; thereby, making it an integral component of the disaster
preparedness plan.6
In the Australian setting, there is the presence of the National Strategy
for Disaster Resilience citing four common characteristics of disaster resilient
communities, individuals and organizations. Characteristics is functioning well
while under stress, successful adaptation, self-reliance, and social capacity. A
similar manifestation is the expectation where the resilient communities also
share the importance of social support systems such as neighbourhoods,
family and kinship networks, social cohesion, mutual interest groups, and mutual
self-help groups.7 Consistent with this observation implies that a resilient
community requires resilient leadership. For Professor Klein -- Resilient
leadership means handling adversity with greater skill, reducing stress across
your organization and uniting your team.8
The aforementioned piecemeal scenarios are some concerns that may
illustrate the importance of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). HFA is

16

a 10-year plan to make the world safer from natural hazards endorsed by the
UN General Assembly under Resolution A/RES/60/195 following the 2005 World
Disaster Reduction Conference. The framework document adopted in January
2005 by 168 states or countries highlighted the concerns how risks can be
reduced using five priorities for action (PA). 9
PA1 -- Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local
priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation. This expected the
countries to develop policy, legislative and institutional frameworks for disaster
risk reduction. And, able to develop and track progress through specific and
measurable indicators have greater capacity to manage risks and to achieve
widespread consensus for engagement in and compliance with disaster risk
reduction measures across all sectors of society.
PA 2 -- Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early
warning. Emphasis is that the starting point in reducing disaster risk and the
promoting a culture of disaster resilience lies in the knowledge of the hazards.
Also the physical, social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities to disasters
that most societies face, and of the ways in which hazards and vulnerabilities
are changing in the short and long term followed by action taken on the basis
of that knowledge.
PA 3 -- Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of
safety and resilience at all levels. This upheld the proposition that disasters
can be substantially reduced if people are well informed and motivated
towards a culture of disaster prevention and resilience.

But it requires the

collection, compilation and dissemination of relevant knowledge and information

17

on hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities.


PA 4 -- Reduce the underlying risk factors. Sector development planning, programmes, and post-disaster situations should address the
changing social, economic, environmental conditions and land use, and
the impact of hazards associated with geological events, weather, water,
climate variability and climate change.
PA 5 -- Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all
levels.
disaster

Impacts and losses can be substantially reduced at times of


if the authorities, individuals and communities in hazard-prone

areas are well prepared, ready to act, and are equipped with the
knowledge and capacities

for effective disaster management.

In other words, the five priority areas (PAs) are meant to make disaster
risk reduction a priority (PA1), know the risks and take action (PA 2), build
understanding and awareness (PA 3), reduce risk (PA4) and be prepared
and ready to act (PA 5). The Philippines like the other countries of the world
categorically support the same agenda based on available documents of the
Department of Education (DepEd). DepEd Order No. 55 series of 2007 10 for
example specifically directs the mainstreaming and implementation of disaster
risk reduction in all schools under its administration and supervision. This is
the government comprehensive response initiative and commitment to the
ten-year (2005-2015) Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). HFA is a global
blueprint for disaster risk reduction efforts aim to reduce disaster losses in
lives, properties, social, economic and environmental assets of communities
and countries by year 2015.11 Consistently premised on building schools,

18

nations and communities resilient to disaster entails non-structural and structural


components of the safe school programs.
Coming up with the nationally prepared non-structured components
Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual (DRRRM) speaks of the government
compliance to world commitment. The manual is a source of information school
administrators, heads, supervisors, and teachers as regards the implementation
and management of disaster risk reduction projects. The officially released
material identified six major concerns. These are: (i) Mainstreaming Disaster
Risk Reduction Concepts in the Elementary and Secondary School Curricula;
(ii) School Mapping Exercise; (iii) School Water and Electrical Facilities
Assessment Project; (iv) Preparation of Disaster Preparedness Modules Through
Multi- Media; (v) Quarterly Conduct of Earthquake and Fire Drills; and (vi) Road
Safety Education for Children.12
.

Construction of Hazards Resilient School buildings is the only feature of

structural component giving emphasis on three concerns. These are (1) Learning
and Public Use Schoolbuilding, (2) Be Better, Build Better International Design
Competition, and (3) Assessment of Schoolbuildings Structural Integrity and
Stability (ASSIST).
Notwithstanding the emphasis with the instruction to intensify Information
Dissemination Campaign for Energy and Water Conservation. 13 Flyers on the
advocacies will be distributed to all schools to create heightened awareness
among the schoolchildren, teachers and the general public on the impending
dry spell and in preparation for the coming of the rainy season are clearly spell
out in the manual.

19

Nonetheless, Part I of Enclosure 1 identified the topics and chapters


for discussion in seven learning subjects. These are English, Filipino, Science,
Mathematics, HeKaSi, MAPEH, GMRC, and EPP. Under part III, the duties
and responsibilities of the school head/principals, head teachers, and teachers
among others are defined.
These are some of the readings that provided strong basis in coming
with this study. Real and deadly events are extremely challenging the ability
of the individual and institution to surpass the effects of disasters.
Related Studies
A study that explored, compared, and analyzed the process of learning
and the importance of adaptation and resilience in a continuously evolving
environment amidst natural disasters in two earthquake-prone communities in
southern Peru was conducted by Coronado. 14 The complex adaptive systems
framework guided the study as it offers insight on understanding human
limitations to control an environment that is constantly far from equilibrium.
Similarly, the complexity science theory supports the study and the selforganization of communities in coping with a disaster. Results of informal
interviews and participatory techniques explained the co-evolution process
particularly the collaboration and involvement of victims, local, state, and
national organizations. Likewise the co-evolution process may derive from
previous experiences, preparedness, education, the development of previous
relationships, and capacity of improvisation. So with solidarity, self-organization
and adaptation to further influence the ability to deal effectively with unexpected

20

adversity. It can be observed that both studies are pursuing a viable framework
to ascertain risk reduction efforts. Nevertheless, there is difference in some
identified variables using their own locale.
There is also the dissertation of Haase15 on administrative resilience in
evaluating adaptive capacity of administrative systems in dynamic and uncertain
conditions offers some important insights. The study argues in contrast to
conventional administrative systems citing the resilient administrative systems
capacity to successfully respond to disruptive events. This he attributed to
the organizational stability to maintain the effectiveness of the community
where it operates and the organizational flexibility needed to adapt to
uncertainties and rapidly changing conditions. Thereby advances a framework
for administrative resilience to evaluate the resilience of administrative
systems. Through the use of a nested case study that resorted to a mixedmethods design, the framework was used to investigate the administrative
response system that operated in Indonesia after the December 26, 2004
Great Sumatran Earthquake and Tsunami. Based on the findings, a statement
was made that policy makers can promote the development of administrative
resilience through the development and implementation of sociotechnical
infrastructures that facilitate administrative action. Apparent similarity by both
studies is the administrative capability inherent in their own settings such as
the presence of committee or advisory council. Notwithstanding the resilience
it has demonstrated for the whole duration of disaster risk reduction events.
That includes handling of unexpected changes caused by natural events
especially the locale of the study belongs to a country that experience on

21

the average 20 typhoons/tropical storms in a year and regular volcanic activities


including occasion landslides.
A research on the effectiveness of Safe Routes to School (SRTS) infrastructure investments in improving the safety of school-age children as they
walk to school caught the attention of Fernandez. 16 The quasi-experimental
research design was utilized in observing and recording the pedestrian behaviors
during school dismissal periods. Safe pedestrian behaviors referring to the
pedestrians crossing on green, crossing while light turns red, and looking
both ways before entering a crosswalk. Unsafe pedestrian behaviors included
pedestrians jaywalking against a red light, entering a crosswalk without looking,
running or hurrying to avoid cars, and entering a crosswalk on a flashing
hand. Results indicated "jaywalking against the red light" and "running or
hurrying to avoid cars the two unsafe pedestrian behaviors. Movement of
people include the use of roads. Both studies considered the behaviour of the
respondents. Thereby the previous and this study have an environment and
culture of their own to contain with.
Still on behaviour was the assessment of Liu17 on household pick-up
in no-notice evacuations incidence. Proof of a no-notice incident occurs with
no advance notice of time and place is set where family members may be
separated as it strikes during daytime. A remark was made that women are more
responsible for picking up children from school than men. But both women and
men are more likely to pick up children under emergency conditions compared to
a normal situation. Significant finding indicated that the safe evacuation time
threshold was quite important for the relocation strategy. When it is adequate,

22

relocating dependents benefits both those picking up dependents and the other
vehicles in the network. It is safe to claim that both study considered the
behaviour and/or experience of the respondents resulting from the unannounced
pick-up activity in times of movement. Nevertheless, this study provided the
knowledge from the perspective of the grade five pupils, teachers and residents.
Another inquiry on evacuation behaviour was conducted by Horney. 18

In

a nutshell, there was the manifestation that existing research of evacuation


behavior during hurricanes and flooding has focused primarily on individual
demographic characteristics. Likewise understanding why some households
evacuate at higher rates than others. But seem to set aside social factors
(access to social capital, levels of social control, and the extent of social
cohesion) which also play a role in evacuation behavior. Manifesting further
that awareness of the role of social factors and other variable in predicting
evacuation failure is a major step. Social vulnerability to natural hazards
and the ability to respond should also address factors the characteristics of
social groups. While it is possible that improved planning, forecasting models,
and educational messages can ease evacuations for many, these changes
may not be robust enough to counteract the strength of social factors, it
stressed. As shown in the presentation, both undertaking focused on evacuation
scenarios specifically the factors and resulting behaviour. However, a major
concern of this study dealt with the before, during and after experiences of
the pupils, teachers and residents based on the manual of the department.
So with previous knowledge and policies of the government.

23

In the opening statement in the paper of Maferetlhane, 19 emphasized


on the importance and role of indigenous knowledge systems has been
recognized by international organizations (UN and WB) in disaster risk
reduction. Little is known it said about how South Africas indigenous
communities use indigenous. Hence the conduct of the study revealed that
indigenous knowledge was mainly possessed by older people in the community
and this has implications for it possibly becoming extinct when they pass on.
Regrettably it said the people possess indigenous knowledge and use it every
day but they are not aware that it is indigenous knowledge. They are using it for
the purposes of disaster risk reduction, a very important and has vital role to play
to avoid, prevent and deal with disasters.

Admittedly both studies share a

common intention of incorporating indigenous knowledge tried and practiced by


the local residents long before the manual on disaster risk reduction
management.
Dado20 analyzed the status of mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in
the secondary schools in Camarines Norte Division. Based on her analysis,
she noted that majority of the schools vision and mission does not adhere to
the vision and mission set by the Disaster Risk Reduction Management Office
of Department of Education. There was the very limited relevant training on
disaster risk reduction. So with the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes
related to disaster risk reduction in the school curriculum. Instructional materials,
and library resources and facilities were not sufficiently available. Community
involvement and extra/co-curricular activities registered a negative and poor
participation of some stakeholders.

24

Moreover, the students views and sources of knowledge about disaster


in terms of integration, preparedness and mitigation, response and rehabilitation
were very low. They have inadequate scientific knowledge and skills in dealing
with disaster risk reduction measures in terms of integration, preparedness and
mitigation, response and rehabilitation. Such scenario in mainstreaming disaster
risk reduction in the secondary schools needs to be improved and the students
scientific literacy of the students be enhanced. The previous and this inquiry
made use of the DepEd manual but differed in terms of coverage. So much
that the undertaking was conducted using the elementary rather secondary
schools represented by the personnel and selected grade 5 pupils including
residents of barangays within the permanent danger zones of an active volcano;
Mayon Volcano in the province of Albay.
A similar inquiry on the value of indigenous knowledge for disaster risk
as tool to reduce community vulnerability to natural disasters was conducted by
Baumwoll.21 The undertaking noted the risk posed by natural disasters is
escalating and the amount of work in the field of disaster management has
been increasing particularly in disaster risk reduction. Likewise the giving of
much emphasis on pre-disaster activities included prevention, mitigation and
preparedness. Noting further the shift to indigenous knowledge was defined
as the approaches and practices of a culture develop from an advanced
understanding of its specific environment which has formed over numerous
generations of habitation.
Arela22 analyzed the community-based health emergency preparedness
of selected barangays in La Union province. Results showed that there was

25

no planning or emergency plan before Typhoon Pepeng. Barangay officials


reacted to whatever happens, did the necessary, and appropriate actions during
the situation. They relied on the available equipment like internet, generator
and landline telephone but did not have a rubber boat. Some officials and
health workers have trainings on first aid, disaster management, basic life
support and drills. Networking and partnership building among agencies of
the government, social organization, institutions and business associations
was evidently noted in the three barangays of the province. Public awareness
was carried on through Information Dissemination and Early Warning Systems
implemented during barangay assembly and home visits. Thus the barangays
are faced with the challenge of implementing the provisions of RA 10121.
Notably, both study deals with community-based assessment. But worth to
underscore the inclusion of getting to know the academic reflected on actual
experiences of the pupils, teachers, and residents as this might validate the
efforts of the previous research.
Rabacal23 identified the awareness on climate change of high school
students. Admittedly, the analysis showed the high level of awareness at
home and in school. However, the extent of integration of climate change
in the curriculum was very low. The test results in social studies and science
subjects showed positive findings but not much encouraging in the English,
Mathematics, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Filipino, and
MAPEH (Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health) subjects. This and the
previous work involved the teaching and analysis of climate change integration
in the academic subjects. What makes this study different appears to be

26

based on the manual issued by the department which reflected the shared
experience of different respondent groups.
Locaba24 on the other hand, analyzed the family-based and community
managed disaster risk reduction for resiliency in barangay Lamba, Legazpi
City. Important findings of the assessment made by the residents, Heifer
colleagues, and barangay council members yielded several information.
For instance, there was very effective to effective family-based undertaking
along capacity building (2.55), organization (2.48) and resource provision
(2.33). MSDRM learning was highly effective (2.52.) while the level of resiliency
of the people in the community was moderate (2.33). Hence, the statement
that the DRR strategies (organization, capacity building and resource provision)
are very effective to capacitate the people though the level of resiliency to
typhoon was moderate.
A study on awareness and resiliency on climate change in the vulnerable
areas in Camarines Sur was completed by Menes. 25 A salient finding showed
the greenhouse gases emission and forest degradation yielded the weighted
mean of 2.34 or highest level of awareness. Nitrous oxide (1.32) and chlorofluorocarbon (1.12) were found the least level of awareness. On awareness
along global warming, droughts got the highest mean (2.20) while least aware
on meltdown of ice caps (1.37). Along awareness on environmental laws and
policies, RA 10121 otherwise known as the Disaster Risk Reduction Management obtained the highest (2.22) while RA 9003 or Solid Waste Management Act
the least (1.55) awareness to almost no awareness at all. Moreover,
peoples behavior on natural calamities, response to typhoon ranked

along
first

27

(2.70) while landslide (2.20) the least. Mass media obtained the highest rating
(2.48) while the public assembly, flyers, and streamers tied (2.00) or the lowest
awareness along information, education and campaign component.
It can be gleaned from the discussion that Locaba, Menes and this
study touched on the issue of resiliency and climate changes with reference
to the disaster risk reduction efforts. However, this work was more inclined
on status of implementation of disaster risk reduction per DepEd Order No. 55
series of 2007.
An inquiry on the status of disaster preparedness involving the selected
thirty-seven public schools in Luzon (Philippines) was by Guevara et al. 26
The analysis revealed that almost all (95%) the schools have successfully
organized their disaster committee and conducted drills especially fire and
earthquake once a year. Less than one-third (30%) have disaster preparedness
plan. Fifty-one percent (51%) of the schools served as evacuation centers
in times of disasters in the past five years. And majority (95%) of the key
personnel are aware of the national local disaster management programs
and all of them the disaster-related DepEd policies. Incidentally both studies
were intended to provide the status of disaster preparedness using a school
setting but made used of different instructional guide. This study was more
on the status of implementation of DepEd Order No. 55 issued in 2007 affecting
elementary school.
Another inquiry on the disaster management program in selected
higher education institutions in Legazpi City, province of Albay was initiated
by Colasito.27 Utmost the program objectives obtained a weighted mean rating

28

of 4.06 while the activities and special projects were rated 4.13 and 4.15.
The level of implementation as regards planning yielded a rating of 4.13
followed by leading (4.09), organizing (4.05), directing (3.99) and controlling
(3.97). It also identified the internal (3.98) and external (3.80) factors affected
program implementation. The status and implementation registered a very
high positive extent of association (r of 0.822). Thereby the initial outcomes
of the programs were manifested on the school constituents awareness on
the disaster preparedness, conduct of safety measures on anticipated disaster
or calamity, and concerted actions of policy makers to lessen the effects of
disasters and calamities. It appeared that both work dealt with status of
implementation particularly the management of risk reduction program viewed
in different perspectives. For example, the previous research made used of
college students but the present study considered the pupils and teachers of
grade five classes coming from the mayon unit schools in the selected barangays
of the municipality of Camalig, province of Albay. Though there were similarities
and differences, the barangays in his study are exposed to disasters being
within the permanent danger zone declared by government authorities (Philippine
Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical
and Astronomical Services Administration, Department of the Interior and
Local Government and others).
Still on implementation along hazard and vulnerability analysis was
the study of Luna28 in the municipality of Bula in Camarines Sur being a
flood-prone area. It specifically looked into the endogenous systems of response
of people, communities, and local institutions to flooding as well as the local

29

development planning processes for integrating disaster management. Notable


result showed that despite the magnitude of flooding to a height of 20 feet
in the field and could last for two and half months, the people developed a
system of response that enabled them to prepare and cope with disaster
events. Another finding was on the inadequacies of endogenous responses
by people and the local institutions for innovations and practices that would
help cushion the impact of flooding. Hence, the conceptualization of the planning
framework known as Appropriate and Integrated Development and Disaster
Management Planning (AIDMAP) taking into consideration experience and
the lessons gained in flood(ing). The previous and this research dealt with
flooding experience and lesson learned in their respective settings. Site of
the previous undertaking was the low-lying/flood-prone area while this study
involved high ground at the foot of an active volcano as their physical location.
Experiences in the proposed work described before, during, and after the
occurrence of flood and other natural hazards/disasters.
An investigation focused on the establishment of procedure for postdisaster needs assessment as a vital component of disaster preparedness
was conducted by Rodil.29 Also the possibility to disaster preparedness by
developing a method for client needs assessment along land and housing,
livelihood, and access to services. Results acknowledged the need to improve
the government capability in the adaptation and implementation of the client
needs assessment procedure. Emphasis should include allotting resources,
prior preparation, gaining support from key decision makers and stakeholders,
training and updating of data management capability, and involvement of the

30

planning office. The previous work and this undertaking both utilized needs
assessment in identifying the experiences on disaster preparedness. However
this research determined the implementation of DepEd Order No. 55 series of
2007 specifically the identified lessons in mainstreaming disaster risk reduction.
The studies conducted by different individuals support the importance
of (mainstreaming) disaster risk reduction. The DepEd manual would be good
curriculum source but need to have knowledge how it is implemented in the
field at school-community level.
Synthesis of the State-of-the-Art
To summarize the literature, there was the information given by Perry
where the United States of America the most severe weather prone country
on the planet and deadly weather events. An article cited the Philippines third
out of 173 countries in susceptibility to disasters. Dufty and Kumar et al., upheld
the importance of school/curriculums and syllabuses in disaster risk reduction
efforts. Petal and Izadkhah reported the practices in Iran and in Turkey there
is the non-government organization initiative. Likewise the National Strategy
for Disaster Resilience in Australia and the remark of Professor Klein on
resilient leadership. More importantly is the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA).
This framework drew the support of many countries like the Philippines. More
specifically the subject of this inquiry which is the implementation of DepEd
Order No. 55 series of 2007.
Studies were similar conducted on learning, importance of adaptation
and resilience in earthquake-prone communities by Coronado and Haase on

31

administrative resilience. Fernandez identified the effectiveness of Safe Routes


to school infrastructure and behavior of school-age children while Liu on
household pick-up in no-notice evacuations incidence.

Nonetheless, there

was evacuation behaviour by Horney while importance and role of indigenous


knowledge systems by Maferetlhane and Baumwoll. Dado on mainstreaming
disaster risk reduction and Rabacal on awareness of climate change of
high school students. Arela worked on community-based health emergency
preparedness.

Locaba analyzed the family-based and community managed

disaster risk reduction for resiliency and Menes on awareness and resiliency
on climate change in the vulnerable areas. Nonetheless, Guevara et al., made
an inquiry on the status of disaster preparedness in public schools in Luzon
whereas Colasito on the disaster management program in selected higher
education institutions. Implementation along hazard and vulnerability analysis
was successfully completed by Luna and procedure for post-disaster needs
assessment by Rodil.
Gaps Bridged by the Study
The mere issuance of an order was a display of commitment such as
the mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction management in elementary schools.
There should rather be the continuing and sustain monitoring of the status,
lessons, and experiences including the utilization of resources. Consequently
identified what other program of action was necessarily to further enhance
the attainment of desired goals and objectives.
research undertaking aimed to bridge.

These were the gaps this

32

Theoretical Framework
This study was anchored on the Theory of Implementation of Mary Ann
Scheirer.30 It is primarily interested with the what and why of program delivery
such as the implementation of DepEd Order No. 55 series of 2007 or the
mainstreaming disaster risk reduction program in this public undertaking.
Implementation in this case of this research of the lessons in teaching the
concepts before, during and after the occurrence of hazards/disasters in the
manual issued to schools.
The study was guided by the Social Judgment Theory (SJT) of Carolyn
Sherif, Muzafer Sherif, and Carl Hovland.31 SJT, they said is a persuasion
theory defined by Sherif and Sherif as the perception and evaluation of an
idea by comparing it with current attitudes. This theory allows an individual
weighs every new idea, comparing it with the individual's present point of view
to determine where it should be placed on the attitude scale in an individual's
mind according to Griffin.32 SJT is the subconscious sorting out of ideas that
occurs at the instant of perception.33 Figure 1 which is the theoretical paradigm
illustrates the working of the said theories.
A fundamental objective of persuasive communication is attitude change is
forwarded by Mallard. And this theory seeks to specify the conditions under
which this change takes place. Similarly, predicts the direction and extent of
the attitude change while attempting to explain how likely a person might
be to change his or her opinion, the probable direction of that change, their
tolerance toward the opinion of others, and their level of commitment to their
position.34

33

A practical test of DepEd


Order 55 series of 2007
is the ability
to survive
impending events
and phenomena.
Research Theory

The primary interest


is the what and why
of program delivery.
Theory of Implementation
Scheirer

Perception and
evaluation of an
idea by comparing it
with current attitudes.
The subconscious
sorting out of ideas.
Persuasive communication
is attitude change.
Social Judgment/
Persuasion Theory
Sherif et al.

Figure 1. Theoretical Paradigm

34

From the perspective of the proponent, a practical test of achievement


and successful implementation of DepEd Order No. 55 series of 2007 is the
ability to survive impending events and phenomena. So with the knowledge
learned, skills possessed, and the resilient behaviour developed reflected in the
confidence and capacity to sustain life threatening situation, preserve property
and the environment.
Conceptual Framework
Figure 2 which was the conceptual paradigm of the study. It illustrates
the research flow as regards the implementation of DepEd Order No. 55 series of
2007 among the mayon unit schools in the selected barangays (Cabagan,
Quirangay, Tumpa, Sua and Salugan) in the municipality of Camalig in the
province of Albay. The assessment included the status of implementation along
the use of Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual, Safe Schools Program,
IEC campaign for energy and water conservation, and monitoring of disaster risk
reduction projects and other activities.
The second component of the inquiry was to generate the experiences
of the pupils, teachers, and residents preferably the parents on natural
hazards in terms of frequency of occurrence and months when natural
hazards were prevalent. These were guided by the lessons in the manual issued
by the department.
Moreover, determine the activities undertaken by respondents before,
during, and after the occurrence of natural hazards. The participant respondents
as earlier described pertains to the selected pupils, teachers and residents

35

Enhanced Implementation
Status of Implementation of`
DepEd Order 55 of 2007 among
the Mayon Unit Schools along:
a. Use of Disaster Risk
Reduction Resource Manual
Propose
b. Safe Schools Program
Program of Action
c. IEC campaign for energy
and water conservation
d. Monitoring of DRR projects
and other activities

to Enhance the
Implementation of
DepEd Order 55 of 2007.

Experiences of Pupils,
Teachers and Residents
on natural hazards in
terms of:
a. frequency of occurrence

Activities Undertaken
by the Respondents
Before, During,

b. months when natural


hazards are prevalent

and After Occurrence


of Natural Hazards.

Figure 2. Conceptual Paradigm

36

preferably the parents of the grade five children.


Based on the analysis and knowledge of the researcher, a program
of action further enhance the implementation of DepEd Order No. 55 series of
2007 shall be propose for consideration by the department. Precisely, to provide
and succeed in disaster risk reduction education campaign initiatives.
Definition of Terms
The following terms are conceptually and/or operationally defined to
better understand the manuscript.
Status (Latin plural: stats) is a state, condition, or situation. 35 In this
study, this refers to the status of implementation of selected provisions of
DepEd Order 55 series of 2007 in the elementary level.
Hazard is an event or occurrence that has the potential to cause harm
to life and damage property and the environment.
Natural hazard is an unpredictable naturally occurring event, arising
within the physical, climatic or biotic environment that will have a negative
effect on people or the environment. 36 In this study, this shall refers to storms,
flooding, earthquakes, lightning, and volcanic activity.
Disaster risk reduction is the concept and practice of reducing
disaster risks through systematic efforts to analyze and manage the causal
factors of disasters including through reduced exposure to hazards, lessened
vulnerability of people and property, wise management of land and the
environment, and improved preparedness for adverse events. 27 This shall
be adopted in the study.

37

Disaster risk management is the systematic process of using


administrative decisions, organization, operational skills and capacities to
implement policies, strategies and coping capacities of the society and
communities to lessen the impacts of natural hazards and related environmental
and technological disasters. It comprises all forms of activities including
structural and non-structural measures to avoid (prevention) or to limit (mitigation
and preparedness) adverse effects of hazards.
Curriculum mapping is a technique for exploring the primary elements
of curriculum: what is taught; how instruction occurs; and, when instruction is
delivered.38 This shall be adopted in the study.
Hazard mapping is the process of establishing geographically where
and to what extent particular hazards are likely to pose a threat to people,
property, infrastructure, and economic activities. Hazard mapping is one of
the steps to identify risk.39 This shall be adopted in the study.
Resilience is the capacity of a system, community or society potentially
expose to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and
maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined
by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to
increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection
and to improve risk reduction measures." 40 This shall be adopted in the study.

38

NOTES
Samantha Jo Perry, Human Resources and Natural Disaster
Preparedness: Is Your Workplace Prepared? (Thesis, Iowa State University,
Ames, Iowa, 2013). http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4506&
context=etd. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
2
World Risk Report cited by Ralph S. Brower, Francisco A. Magno, and
Janet Dilling, Evolving and Implementing a New Disaster Management
Paradigm:
The
Case
of
the
Philippines.
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007 /978-3-319-04468-2_17.
3
Neil Dufty, Opportunities for Disaster Resilience Learning in the
Australian Curriculum. http://www.em.gov.au/Publications/Australianjournalof
emergencymanagement/PastIssues/Pages/AJEM29ONE/Opportunitiesfordisaste
rresiliencelearningintheAustraliancurriculum.aspx.
4
Avanish Kumar, Meena Raghunathan and Yoigit Nandawar, http://www.
proventionconsortium.org/themes/default/pdfs/know_risk/Avanish115.pdf. August
15, 2011.
1

Marla A. Petal and Yasamin O. Izadkhah, Formal and Informal Education


for Disaster Risk Reduction. http://www.riskred.org/activities/ddredislamabad.
pdf. Retrieved August 15, 2011.
6

Turkish Children Taught Disaster Awareness Through NGO Project,


Istanbul-Hrriyet Daily News (Tuesday, August 17, 2010). http://www.hurriyet
dailynews.com/n.php?n=children-are-trained-on-catastrophe-consciousness-t heproject-says-2010-08-17. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
23

Mary Ann Scheirer, Program Theory and Implementation Theory,


Implications for Evaluation (Wiley Periodicals, Inc., 1987).
14
Aurea Gabriela Zegarra-Coronado, Adaptive Capacity and Resilience
to Natural Disasters in Latin America: A Case Study on the 2007 Ica, Peru
Earthquake. http://ph.search.yahoo.com/search;_ylt=A2oKmKrRlOtR5AEAV7Kz
Rwx.?
p=theses+and+dissertations+abstracts+on+natural+disasters+readiness&rd=r1&f
r=yfp-t-711&fr2=sb-top&xargs=0&pstart=1&b=71. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
15

Thomas William Haase, Administrative Resilience: Evaluating the


Adaptive Capacity of Administrative Systems that Operate in Dynamic and
Uncertain Conditions (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of
Pittsburgh, 2010). http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/6314/. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
16

Gabriela Fernandez, Examining Pedestrian Safety Effects of Safe


Routes to School Investments in Chula Vista and National City (Dissertation,
2012). http://sdsu-dspace.calstate.edu/handle/10211.10/2598. Retrieved July 21,
2014.

39
16

Sirui Liu, Analysis and Evaluation of Household Pick-up and Gathering


Behavior in No-Notice Evacuations (Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University, 2011). http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-0601
2011-164838/ unrestricted/Liu_S_D_2011.pdf. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
17

Jennifer A Horney, Hurricane Evacuation Failure: The Role of Social


Cohesion, Social Capital, and Social Control (Dissertation, The University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2009), 200 pages; 3352720. http://gradworks.umi.
com/33/52/3352720.html. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
18

Oageng Ivan Maferetlhane, The Role of Indigenous Knowledge in


Disaster Risk Reduction: A Critical Analysis (Thesis, North-West University
Potchefstroom Campus, 2013). Retrieved November 19, 2013). http://dspace.
nwu.ac.za/handle/10394/8767?show=full
21
Cherrie Ann P. Arela, Community-Based Emergency Preparedness
of Selected Barangays in La Union Province Unpublished Master Thesis,
Graduate School Program, Professional School, Bicol University of Legazpi).
22

Rene N. Rabacal, Awareness of High School Students on Climate


Change (Unpublished Masters Thesis, Central Bicol State University on
Agriculture, March 2012).
23

Rico V. Locaba, Family-Based and Community Managed Disaster


Risk Reduction for Resiliency: Field Application of Master of Science in Disaster
Management (Unpublished Masters Thesis, Central Bicol State University of
Agriculture, 2012).
24

William P. Menes, Awareness and Resiliency on Climate Change


in Vulnerable Areas in Camarines Sur (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation,
University of Nueva Caceres, Naga City, 2013).
25

Jonathan P. Guevara et al., Assessment of Disaster Preparedness in


Selected Public Schools in Luzon, Philippines (Dissertation, University of the
Philippines, Manila).
26
Richard B. Colasito, Disaster Management Program of Selected HEIs in
Legazpi City: Status, Implementation and Outcome (Unpublished Master Thesis,
University of Nueva Caceres, City of Naga).
26

Rochelle Joseph, Disaster Preparedness, Precautions for Natural


Disasters.
http://www.suite101.com/content/disaster-preparedness-a195580.
Retrieved August 12, 2011.
28

Emmanuel M. Luna, A Case Study on the Endogenous Systems of


Response to River Flooding in Bula, Camarines Sur: Towards An Appropriate and
Integrated Development and Disaster Management Planning (AIDMAP)
(Thesis/Dissertation, UP School of Urban and Regional Planning, April 2000).

40

http://www.upd.edu.ph/~surp/about_surp/2000-luna.pdf. Retrieved August 12,


2011.
29
Amillah S. Rodil, Client Needs Assessment in Post-Disaster Settlement
Policy and Planning: The Case of Daraga, Albay (Thesis/Dissertation, U.P.
School of Urban and Regional Planning, March 2009). http://www.upd.edu.ph/
~surp/about_surp/2009-Rodil.pdf. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
HM

Carl I. Hovland and Muzafer Sherif, Social Judgment: Assimilation and


Contrast Effects in Communication and Attitude Change (Westport: Greenwood,
1980). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_judgment_theory. Retrieved July 30,
2014.
EF

Em Griffin, A First Look at Communication Theory (New York, NY:


McGraw-Hill, 2012), p. 195. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_judgment_theory.
Retrieved July 30, 2014.
JM

Jessica Mallard, "Engaging students in Social Judgment Theory",


Communication Teacher, 24; 4 (October 2010), 197-202. http://en.wikipedia.
org/wiki/Social_judgment_theory. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
IS

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction 2005, p. 4. as cited by


Haase.TH
SP

Samantha Jo Perry, Human Resources and Natural Disaster


Preparedness: Is Your Workplace Prepared? (Thesis, Iowa State University,
Ames, Iowa, 2013). http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4506&
context=etd. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
DR
Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual (Safer Schools Resource
Manual)
ht

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Status.

http://www.unisdr.org/we/coordinate/hfa.

http://www.unisdr.org/we/coordinate/hfa.

ra

Rubicon Atlas 2013. www.rubicon.com/[28 August 2013].

UN

(UN ISDR) may have fallen into this trap (though to be fair its definitions
of most other disaster terms are neater):
SB

Salvano Briceo, Director, UN/ISDR secretariat. http://www.unisdr.org/


2007/campaign/iddr/2007-iddr.htm. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
ISDR

International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), a United Nations


framework.

41
T

he status of implemention of mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in


secondary schools in the division of camarines norte

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
The research method, sources of data and respondents of the study
in the implementation of DepEd Order No. 55 series of 2007 among mayon unit

42

schools in Camalig, Albay are presented in this chapter. A discussion on the


research instrument, procedure and statistical treatment of data and information
is also shown in this chapter.
Research Method
As earlier explained, this study aimed to determine the implementation
of the department order and generate knowledge on status, experiences and
activities to come up with program of action to further enhance mainstreaming
disaster risk reduction management in school. With this premise was the decision
for to consider the descriptive methods through survey and document(ary)
analysis. Thereby afforded the researcher described what was going on and
should be based on the Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual issued
by the department. Necessarily upheld the appropriateness and strengthen
quantitative-qualitative techniques of the assessment.
Descriptive research method is one of the specific types of quantitative
research design involving the description of phenomena. Oftentimes provides
basic information, actions, behaviours and changes of phenomena through the
perspective of the researcher or the participants in the research. 1 It usually
makes use of the natural setting and capability of describing the past, present
and future occurrence of the event. 2 In this undertaking pertains to assessment
by the pupils, teachers and residents regarding natural hazards.
Sources of Data
The main source of data and information were the school personnel
and grade 5 pupils of Cabagan, Quirangay and Tumpa Elementary Schools for

43

school year 2014 to 2015. Likewise, the selected residents of the barangays
Cabagan, Quirangay, Tumpa, Salugan and Sua in the municipality of Camalig,
province of Albay. Other sources or references were taken from the records of
schools, records of the barangay, books theses and dissertations, issuances of
the DepEd, magazines and other print and non-print materials.
Respondents
The respondents in this research undertaking consisted of 51 personnel
and 114 grade five pupils from Cabagan, Quirangay and Tumpa Elementary
Schools. There were also the 150 residents of barangays Cabagan, Quirangay,
Tumpa, Salugan and Sua in the municipality of Camalig, province of Albay. This
brings the total of 315.
The Research Instrument
The main instrument of this study on natural hazards knowledge and
preparedness of teachers, pupils and residents is the questionnaire checklist
school personnel and residents (Appendix B1) and pupils (Appendix B2). The
questionnaire checklist for the school personnel and residents consisted of
five parts. Part I is on profile of the respondents to include age, sex, civil status,
and educational attainment. Part II is the on status of implementation of DepEd
Order No. 55 series of 2007 based on (a) use of the disaster risk reduction
management, (b) implementation of safe school program, (c) campaign for
energy and water consumption, and (d) monitoring of disaster risk reduction
project and activities. Each item has specific activities that would be rated by
the respondents. Part III concentrated with the experiences of school personnel

44

and residents on natural hazards in terms of frequency of occurrence and


month when hazards are prevalent. Part IV includes the activities undertaken
by the respondents before, during and after occurrence of natural hazards.
And the last part on the proposed program of action to further enhanced the
implementation of DepEd Order No. 55 series of 2007.
The questionnaire checklist for the pupils (Appendix B2) consisted of
four parts. Part I was on profile of the pupils (age and sex). Part II was about
the status of implementation of DepEd Order No. 55 series of 2007 focused
on campaign for energy and water conservation. Part III dealt with experiences
on natural hazards. It specifically identified the frequency of occurrence and
month when hazards are prevalent. Part IV described the activities undertaken
by the pupils before, during and after occurrence of natural hazards.
After the preliminary administration of the questionnaire-checklist and
test on level of knowledge and preparedness in responding natural hazards,
interview guide was prepared to further ascertain the availability of data and
information requirement in crafting of the intervention activities/ material. The
research instrument was dry-run in a nearby barangays.
Other data and information requirements of the study were generated
through document(ary) analysis and narratives of respondents.
Procedure
Prior to the actual conduct of the study, the proposal was submitted to
the Dissertation Committee and Bicol University Graduate School for approval
and acceptance. The researcher then requested the authority to conduct the

45

study from the Department of Education officials using the letter-request shown
in Appendix A. With the written approval and permission granted by the Schools
Division Superintendent, a schedule of visit with the heads of schools was made.
Appointment with the barangay chairmen for the purpose of conducting the
said study in their communities was requested and finalized.
Schedule for the administration of questionnaire-checklist and interview
was set to allow the availability of the respondents. Worth to mention in this
regard was the regular consultation with the adviser during the actual conduct
and writing of the manuscript.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The numerical responses of the respondents were consolidated and
presented using the frequency count, range, mean/weighted mean, percentage,
ratio, and rank statistics.3 Computation was done using MS Excel program.
Nonetheless, the status of implementation was described using 4-point scale
with the following ratings and the corresponding quantitative and qualitative
equivalent.4

These are: 4 (3.50-4.00) for Very Much Implemented (VMI);

3 (2.51-3.50) for Much Implemented (MIP);

2 (1.51-2.50) for Implemented

(IMP); and 1 (1.00-1.50) for Not Implemented (NIP), respectively.


Assessment of the activities similarly made used of the 4-point rating
scale. These are: 4 (3.51-4.00) for Always; 3 (2.51-3.50) for Sometimes; 2 (1.512.50) for Seldom; and 1 (1.00-1.50) for Never, respectively.
Overall assessment5 was discussed utilizing tables and/or graphs to
strengthen the presentation, analysis, and interpretation of the findings. In a

46

way, allow better and meaningful understanding of the research manuscript


among potential users.

NOTES
1

Fred C. Lunenburg and Beverly J. Irby, Writing a Successful Thesis


or Dissertation (Corwin Press Inc., 2008), pp. 30.
2
Victoria A. Bautista, Research and Public Management (Diliman, Quezon
City: University of the Philippines Open University, 2002), pp. 198-116.
3

Cristina P. Parel et al., Social Survey Research Design (Quezon City:


Philippine Social Science Council, Inc., 1992), p. 2.

47
4

Consuelo G. Sevilla et al., Research Methods (Manila: National Bookstore, 2001), p. 60


5

Jack F. Fraenkel, et al., How to Design and Evaluate Research in


Education, 5th Ed. (New York; McGraw Hill, 2003), p. 15.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. BOOKS
Bautista, Victoria A. Research and Public Management. Diliman, Quezon City:
University of the Philippines Open University, 2002.
DepEd. Seeds of Safety: Integrating DIsaster Risk Reduction into the Public
Elementary Curriculum. 2010.

48

DepEd. Nurturing Safe Schools: A Teachers Guide to Child-centered Disaster


Risk Reduction. n.d.
DepEd. Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual. 2008.
Fraenkel, Jack F., et al. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education,
5th Ed. New York; McGraw Hill, 2003.
Griffin, Em. A First Look at Communication Theory. New York, NY: McGrawHill, 2012, p. 195. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_judgment_theory.
Retrieved July 30, 2014.
Hovland, Carl I. and Muzafer Sherif. Social Judgment: Assimilation and Contrast
Effects in Communication and Attitude Change. Westport: Greenwood,
1980). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_judgment_theory. Retrieved July
30, 2014.
Lunenburg, Fred C. and Beverly J. Irby. Writing a Successful Thesis or
Dissertation. Corwin Press Inc., 2008.
Parel, Cristina P., et al. Social Survey Research Design. Quezon City: Philippine
Social Science Council, Inc., 1992.
Sevilla, Consuelo G., et al. Research Methods. Manila: National Bookstore,
2001.
B. THESES / DISSERTATIONS
Arela, Cherrie Ann P. Community-Based Emergency Preparedness of
Selected Barangays in La Union Province. Unpublished Master Thesis,
Graduate School Program, Professional School, Bicol University of
Legazpi.
Baumwoll, Jennifer. The Value of Indigenous Knowledge for Disaster Risk
Reduction: A Unique Assessment Tool for Reducing Community
Vulnerability to Natural Disasters. Thesis, Webster University,
2008.
http://gradworks. umi.com/14/52/1452475.html.
Colasito, Richard B. Disaster Management Program of Selected HEIs in
Legazpi City: Status, Implementation and Outcome. Unpublished Master
Thesis, University of Nueva Caceres, City of Naga.
Coronado, Aurea Gabriela Zegarra. Adaptive Capacity and Resilience to Natural
Disasters in Latin America: A Case Study on the 2007 Ica, Peru Earthquake. http://ph.search.yahoo.com/search;_ylt=A2oKmKrRlOtR5AEAV7

49

KzRwx.?p=theses+and+dissertations+abstracts+on+natural+disasters+
readiness&rd=r1&fr=yfp-t-711&fr2=sb-top&xargs=0&pstart=1&b=71.
Retrieved July 21, 2014.
Fernandez, Gabriela. Examining Pedestrian Safety Effects of Safe Routes to
School Investments in Chula Vista and National City. Dissertation, 2012.
http://sdsu-dspace.calstate.edu/handle/10211.10/2598. Retrieved July 21,
2014.
Guevara, Jonathan P., et al. Assessment of Disaster Preparedness in Selected
Public Schools in Luzon, Philippines. Dissertation, University of the
Philippines, Manila.
Haase, Thomas William. Administrative Resilience: Evaluating the Adaptive
Capacity of Administrative Systems that Operate in Dynamic and Uncertain Conditions. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh,
2010. http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/6314/. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
Horney, Jennifer A. Hurricane Evacuation Failure: The Role of Social
Cohesion, Social Capital, and Social Control. Dissertation, The University
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2009), 200 pages; 3352720. http://
gradworks.umi. com/33/52/3352720.html. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
Joseph, Rochelle. Disaster Preparedness, Precautions for Natural Disasters.
http://www.suite101.com/content/disaster-preparedness-a195580. Retrieved August 12, 2011.
Liu, Sirui. Analysis and Evaluation of Household Pick-up and Gathering
Behavior in No-Notice Evacuations. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University, 2011. http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/avail
able/etd-0601 2011-164838/unrestricted/Liu_S_D_2011.pdf. Retrieved
July 21, 2014.

Locaba, Rico V. Family-Based and Community Managed Disaster Risk


Reduction for Resiliency: Field Application of Master of Science in
Disaster Management. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Central Bicol State
University of Agriculture, 2012.
Luna, Emmanuel M. A Case Study on the Endogenous Systems of Response
to River Flooding in Bula, Camarines Sur: Towards An Appropriate and
Integrated Development and Disaster Management Planning (AIDMAP).
Thesis/Dissertation, UP School of Urban and Regional Planning, April
2000. http://www.upd.edu.ph/~surp/about_surp/2000-luna.pdf. Retrieved
August 12, 2011.

50

Maferetlhane, Oageng Ivan. The Role of Indigenous Knowledge in Disaster


Risk Reduction: A Critical Analysis. Thesis, North-West University
Potchefstroom Campus, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013). http://
dspace. nwu.ac.za/handle/10394/8767?show=full.
Menes, William P. Awareness and Resiliency on Climate Change in Vulnerable
Areas in Camarines Sur. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of
Nueva Caceres, Naga City, 2013.
Rabacal, Rene N. Awareness of High School Students on Climate Change.
Unpublished Masters Thesis, Central Bicol State University on griculture, March 2012.
Rodil, Amillah S. Client Needs Assessment in Post-Disaster Settlement Policy
and Planning: The Case of Daraga, Albay. Thesis/Dissertation, U.P.
School of Urban and Regional Planning, March 2009. http://www.upd.
edu.ph/~surp/about_surp/2009-Rodil.pdf. Retrieved 12, 2011.

C. JOURNALS AND OTHERS


Briceo, Salvano Director, UN/ISDR secretariat. http://www.unisdr.org/ 2007/
campaign/iddr/2007-iddr.htm. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
Council of Australian Governments, National Strategy for Disaster Resilience:
Building our Nations Resilience to Disasters. Australian Government,
2011.
DepEd No. 55 series of 2007 entitled Prioritizing the Mainstreaming of Disaster
Risk Reduction Management in the School System Implementation of
Programs and Projects Relatives Therefor dated August 10, 2007.

Dufty, Neil. Opportunities for Disaster Resilience Learning in the Australian


Curriculum. http://www.em.gov.au/Publications/Australianjournalofemer
gencymanagement/PastIssues/Pages/AJEM29ONE/Opportunitiesfordisas
terresiliencelearningintheAustraliancurriculum.aspx.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Status.
http://www.unisdr.org/we/coordinate/hfa.
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR), a United Nations ramework.
Kumar, Avanish; Meena Raghunathan and Yoigit Nandawar. http://www.
proventionconsortium.org/themes/default/pdfs/know_risk/Avanish115.pdf.
August 15, 2011.

51

Mallard, Jessica. "Engaging Students in Social Judgment Theory", Communication Teacher, 24; 4 (October 2010), 197-202. http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/
Social_judgment_theory. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
Perry, Samantha Jo. Human Resources and Natural Disaster Preparedness: Is
Your Workplace Prepared? Thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa,
2013).http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4506&context=
etd. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
Petal, Marla A. and Yasamin O. Izadkhah. Formal and Informal Education for
Disaster Risk Reduction. http://www.riskred.org/activities/ddredislama
bad. pdf. Retrieved August 15, 2011.
Professor Jill Klein. http://mteliza.mbs.edu/our-programs/focused/resilient-leadership.
Rubicon Atlas 2013. www.rubicon.com/[28 August 2013].
Turkish Children Taught Disaster Awareness Through NGO Project, IstanbulHrriyet Daily News (Tuesday, August 17, 2010). http://www.hurriyet
dailynews.com/n.php?n=children-are-trained-on-catastrophe-consciousne
ss-the-project-says-2010-08-17. Retrieved August 13, 2011.
World Risk Report cited by Ralph S. Brower, Francisco A. Magno, and Janet
Dilling, Evolving and Implementing a New Disaster Management
Paradigm: The Case of the Philippines. http://link.springer.com/chapter/
10.1007 /978-3-319-04468-2_17.

APPENDIX A

LETTER OF REQUEST TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

52

APPENDIX B
QUESTIONNAIRE CHECKLIST
Part I. Background Information
1. Name of Respondent

__________________________________

2. Group

3. Sex

[]
[]
[]
[]
[]

Teacher
Pupil
Resident
Male
Female

Part II. Level of Hazard Preparedness of the Respondents .

53
1. Kindly indicate the usual time you are aware and prepared for the impeding
calamities?
a. Storms
-__________________________________________________
b. Flashfloods - ________________________________________________
c. Landslides - _________________________________________________
d. Earthquakes - _______________________________________________
e. Volcanic activities - ___________________________________________
f. Lightning - __________________________________________________
2. What are the lessons learned resulting from the natural hazards?
a. Storms
-__________________________________________________
b. Flashfloods - ________________________________________________
c. Landslides - _________________________________________________
d. Earthquakes - _______________________________________________
e. Volcanic activities - ___________________________________________
f. Lightning - __________________________________________________
3. Which of the following concepts are you aware?
To be derived by preliminary interview/documentary analysis.
Direction: This is a self-assessment activity describing the level of disaster
preparedness. Please check [] or provide the information
requested using the scale of Very High (3), High (2) and
Not (1) prepared.

54

55

APPENDIX D
Evaluate Learning of Disaster Risk Reduction
Concepts and Principles in terms of
Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor

ENGLISH EVALUATION / TEST


Name:_______________________________

Date:___________

a. Save from a dangerous place (5 items)


Instruction: Read the paragraph below and answer the questions that
follow. Draw a circle around the most appropriate answer.
Two boys were missing. The whole village was searching every corner,
including the hill beyond the swamps. No one found any sign of the boys. Finally,
an old man came forward and said he had seen the boys going up the river. People
never went to the area because it was dangerous. A slip on the banks made
of loose rocks could mean death in the stony riverbed. The searchers had to cut

56
the thick bush to be able to pass through them. Then suddenly, they saw a small
waterfall and pool. There, the boys were swimming merrily, unmindful of the world
and the worries of the whole village.

1. Why were people searching every corner of the village?


a. An old man was killed.
b. Two boys were missing.
c. A baby drowned in the river.
2. What happened after the old man revealed where the boys were?
a. They found the missing boys.
b. They didnt find the two boys.
c. They went to another place to look for the boys.
3. Why dont people go up the river?
a. It is far from the village.
b. It is private property.
c. It is a dangerous place.
4. Why were the two boys happy?
a. They were alone.
b. They had found a place where they could swim.
c. They were away from their parents.
5. What did the boys feel upon finding the waterfall?
a. They felt happy.
b. They became afraid.
c. They felt uneasy.
b. Dangerous and deadly eruption (5 items)
Instruction: Re-read the sentences in (a) Identify the cause and effect in each.
Underline once the part of the sentences below that describe the
cause. Underline twice the part that describes the effect.

1. Take your family to a safer place before a volcano nearby erupts.


2. We are thankful because the typhoon didnt hit our place.
3. The plants died due to lack of water.
4. Many cases of accidental poisoning occur because people are careless with
insecticides.
5. People should keep their surroundings clean to prevent the breeding of flies and
pests.
c. Disaster Mitigation (Rain)

(7 items)

Disaster Mitigation
Instruction: Fill in the blank with the correct answer

Bringing an ______ before it ______s is an example of a measure of


disaster mitigation. An ______ reduces the impact of the ______ on people.

57
Being wet from ______ can make us sick. If we bring ______s, we
help mitigate the impact of ______ wetness and coldness on our heads and
bodies, which can cause colds, coughing and fevers.
d. How typhoons develop (7 items)
Instruction:

Read the sentences below from the reading selection.


Underline the descriptive words in the sentences.
(For example, in 1, what word describes a storm?

1. A typhoon is a very strong storm.


2. The sky turns dark because of the formation of thick dark rain clouds.
3. Cold air brings with it heavy rains.
4. The effects of typhoons can be disastrous.
5. Typhoons are natural phenomena.
6. The presence of warm air in a certain place creates a low pressure area.
7. A typhoon affects the coastline, land and the atmosphere severely.
e. Earthquake (8 items)
Instruction: For each pair of sentences below, identify which is the cause
and which is the effect.

1. ________
________

We must learn how to observe preventive measure.


The Philippines is an earthquake-prone country.

2. ________

The people acted properly before, during and after the


earthquake.
Loss of property and lives was lessened.

________
3. ________
________
4. ________
________
5. ________
________

People were aware of the disastrous effects of earthquakes.


A disaster coordinating brigade was organized.
People were properly informed on what to do before, during and
after an earthquake.
There were less devastating effects due to earthquakes.
Dirt and loose materials on the mountainside can easily be
washed away into lower areas.
It rained heavily last night.

6. ________
________

Rain water mixes with loose materials.


Rain water form mud that moves along the valley floors.

7. ________

The family living near the Payatas dumpsite was advised to


evacuate.
There was a heavy rain.

________
8. ________
________

There was a flash flood.


Many houses were destroyed.

58
f. Fire/Tsunami

(8 items)

Instruction: Identify the mood expressed in the following lines and situations.
Circle the best answer.

1. Now, Lito said to himself, I do not have to prove whether I am brave or not.
I know I can help them.
a. Lito feels uneasy.
b. Lito feels confident.
c. Lito feels relieved.
2. Fire! Fire! Please help me put out the fire! Dindo shouted.
a. Dindo is frightened.
b. Dindo is happy.
c. Dindo is excited.
3. The man rose to his feet and looked out at the sea. The sea was very dark and
strange to see. It seemed to be running away from the land.
a. Curiousity
b. Anxiety
c. Excitement
4. Help! Please help me! Im stuck beneath this rubble! Im dying!
a. Boredom
b. Hopelessness
c. Sympathy
5. He saw no man. No one heard him. The air was mild The woods were dark. No
sunshine came.
a. A feeling of surprise.
b. A feeling of loneliness.
c. A feeling of hatred.
6. The sea is gone!, the boy said.
a. Happiness
b. Fear
c. Sadness
7. Dont worry, Mario. We can make it to the evacuation center. We are brave
boys.
a. Anger
b. Sorrow
c. Determination
8. Look! Not a house was left below the hillside along the shore!, cried the people.
a. Contentment
b. Anger
c. Despair
Summary of Score
a. _____
b. _____
c. _____

59
d. _____
e. _____
f. _____
Total :

_________

Reference
Seeds of Safety: Integrating Disaster Risk-Reduction into the Public Elementary
School Curriculum, Save the Children in the Philippines, May 2010.

Table of Specification
Topic

Numbers of Item

a.

Save from a dangerous place

b.

Dangerous and deadly eruption

c.

Disaster Mitigation (Rain)

d.

How typhoons develop

e.

Earthquake

f.

Fire/Tsunami

8
Total

40

Key to Correction
a.

Save from a dangerous place

1. b

4. b

2. a

5. a

3. c
b.

Dangerous and deadly eruption

1. Take your family to a safer place before a volcano nearby erupts.


2. We are thankful because the typhoon didnt hit our place.
3. The plants died due to lack of water.
4. Many cases of accidental poisoning occure because people are careless
with insecticides.

60
5. People should keep their surroundings clean to prevent the breeding of
flies and pests.
c.

Disaster Mitigation (Rain)


Bringing an umbrella before it rains is an example of a measure of
disaster mitigation. An umbrella reduces the impact of the rain on people.
Being wet from rain can make us sick. If we bring umbrellas, we
help mitigate the impact of rain wetness and coldness on our heads and
bodies, which can cause colds, coughing and fevers.

d.

How typhoons develop

1.
2.
3.
4.
e.

f.

very strong
dark & thick dark
cold & heavy
disastrous

5. natural phenomena
6. warm air & low
7. severely

Earthquake

1. effect
cause

5. effect
cause

2. cause
effect

6. cause
effect

3. effect
cause

7. effect
cause

4. cause
effect

8. cause
effect

Fire/Tsunami

1. b

5. b

2. a

6. b

3. b

7. c

4. b

8. c

APPENDIX E
Republic of the Philippines
Department of Education
Tanggapan ng Kalihim
Office of the Secretary

August 10, 2007

DepEd ORDER
No. 55, s. 2007
PRIORITIZING THE MAINSTREAMING OF DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
MANAGEMENT IN THE SCHOOL SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION OF
PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS RELATIVES THEREFOR
To:

Undersecretaries
Assistant Secretaries

61
Bureau Directors
Directors of Services/ Centers and Heads of Units
Regional Directors
Schools City/ Division Superintendents
Heads, Public and Private Schools

1.

Building schools, nations and communities resilient to disaster is one of the


objectives of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 which is now
considered as a priority policy for implementation by the Department. The
Hyogo Framework for Action is a global blue print for disaster risk reduction
efforts which aims to reduce disaster losses in lives, properties, social,
economic and environmental assets of communities and countries by year
2015.

2.

Under the Non-Structural component of the Safe Schools Program, one of


the activities undertaken by the Department is the preparation of the
Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual (DRRRM) which will serve as
source of information to be used by school administrators, School heads/
principals, supervisors, and teachers relative to the implementation of disaster
risk reduction management projects.

3.

In view hereof, all concerned are enjoined to prioritize the following:


a.

Utilization of the Disaster Risk Reduction Resource Manual (DRRRM)


which was prepared by the Technical Working Group created through
DepED Memorandum No. 175, s. 2007. Guidelines for its utilization are
enclosed as Enclosure No. 1 of this Memorandum which also contain
suggested activities and duties and responsibilities of each stakeholder. An
orientation on the utilization of the DRRRM will be conducted by the
Technical Working Group to all regions starting August 14 to September 5,
2007 as contained in DepED Memorandum No. 291, s. 2007 which was
disseminated earlier to the field.

b.

Implementation of Safe Schools Programs relative to disaster risk


reduction efforts such as:
(1)

Non-Structural Components
(i)

(2)

Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction Concepts


Elementary and Secondary School Curricula;

in

the

(ii)
(iii)

School Mapping Exercise;


School Water and Electrical Facilities Assessment Project;

(iv)

Preparation of Disaster Preparedness Modules Through MultiMedia;

(v)

Quarterly Conduct of Earthquake and Fire Drills; and

(vi)

Road Safety Education for Children.

Structural Components
(i)

Construction of Hazards Resilient Schoolbuildings

- Learning and Public Use Schoolbuilding (Lapus Building)


- Be Better, Build Better International Design Competition
- Assessment of Schoolbuildings Structural Integrity and
Stability (ASSIST)

62

4.

c.

Information Dissemination Campaign for Energy and Water


Conservation Flyers (Enclosure Nos. 2 and 3) on water and energy
conservation will be distribution to the schools and all concerned
are enjoined to use these flyers as advocacy and information
dissemination campaign materials. A Communication Plan was also
developed by the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC)
with the DepED as one of its Member Agencies, with the Sampung
Hakbang on water and energy conservation using an acronym TUBIG
POWER (Enclosure No.4) as tips and ways to conserve these important
resources. Objectives of this are to create heightened awareness
among the schoolchildren, teachers and the general public on the
impending dry spell and in preparation for the coming of the rainy
season.

d.

Monitoring of the implementation of the disaster risk reduction


projects and other activities under this Order shall be done by the
Central Office particularly the Calamity/Disaster and Fire Control Group
(CDFCG) care of the Office of the Director for Administrative Service

Immediate dissemination of and compliance with this Order is directed.

(SGD) VILMA L. LABRADOR


Undersecretary
Officer-In-Charge
EncLs.:
As stated
References: DepED Memorandum: (Nos. 175 and 291, s. 2007)
Allotment: 1- -(D.O. 50-97)
To be indicated in the Perpetual Index
under the following subjects:
CALAMITY
PROGRAMS
PROJECTS
SCHOOLS
Maricar/DO-Mainstreaming of DRRM
08-10-07

Excerpts of Enclosure No. 1 to DepED Order No. 55, s. 2007


ORIENTATION GUIDELINES AND MECHANICS
To ensure a uniform way of orienting the user of the Disaster Risk Reduction
Resource Manual (DRRRM), the following are guidelines and mechanics to be used during
the orientation workshops scheduled for the purpose.
I.

Mainstreaming Assignment
During the classroom simultaneous discussion/integration/mainstreaming
of Disaster Risk Reduction Concepts provided in the resource manual, teachers of
the following learning areas shall be assigned to take up the following in all year
levels. This is to avoid monotony and repetition on concepts.
B.

Elementary:

63

II.

III.

1.

English - The Philippines Risk Profile (Chapter I)

2.

Filipino - The Philippine Risk Reduction Management System(Chapter II)

3.

Science (Grades III-VI) Natural Hazards (Geological Hazards) (Chapter II)

4.

Mathematics - Natural Hazards (Hydrometeorological Hazards (-do-)

5.

HEKASI - Human Made/Induced (Technological Hazards) (Chapter IV)

6.

MAPEH - Human Made/Induced (Environmental Hazards) (-do-)

7.

GMRC - Ensuring Continuity in Instruction (Chapter V)

8.

EPP - Ensuring Safety of DepED Properties (Chapter VI)

Recommended Strategies
1.

The School City/Division Superintendent shall allow a one-week schedule


so that contents of the DRRRM will be taken up simultaneously in all subject
areas and in all grade and year level mentioned above. With due respect
to the Time on Task Policy, schedule of make up classes shall also be
done to ensure that schedule lessons which were postponed giving way
to the contents of the DRRRM shall be taken up. Awareness on disaster risk
reduction can not wait for the point of entries in the LCs. A calamity may come
without warning. Therefore awareness, preparedness and action is a MUST.
The following are suggested activities:

a.

Monday - Wednesday Delivery of the DRRRM Content in the classroom


(Assignment per item I - Mainstreaming Assignment of Teachers in all Areas)

b.

Thursday Organization of the Disaster Risk Reduction Management Group,


Hazards Assessment, Contingency Planning.

c.

Friday Actual Conduct of Basic Life Support/First Aid in the morning and
Earthquake or Fire Drill in the afternoon.

d.

Other suggested activities to be spearheaded by school head.

Duties and Responsibilities


1.

School Level
a.

School Head/Principal shall:


(i)

suspend (per SDS instruction) the regular delivery of LCs to give


way to the simultaneous mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction
concepts and plan for make up classes;

(ii)

initiate the organization of schools Disaster Risk Reduction


Management Group;

(iii)

invite DPWH, BFP, and Local Government Office (Municipal


Engineering Office) representative to conduct site, building
inspection to include water and electrical facilities, structural
integrity and stability of school buildings, and act on their
recommendations and suggestions;

(iv)

conduct school level seminar symposium, program and involve


resource speaker from DOH, Red Cross on First Aid and Basic Life
Support System;

(v)

involve the Student Government Organization, Boy and Girl Scout in


the orientation of Disaster Risk Reduction concepts in the school
and community;

(vi)

call a GPTA meeting as part of Info-dissemination campaign; and

(vii)

other activities she/he may conduct relative to the DRR.

64
b.

Head Teachers shall:


(i)

d.

2.

monitor the topic integration by the classroom teachers;

(ii)

suggest effective teaching strategies to carry out the topic

(iii)

evaluate the mainstreaming/integration process; and

(iv)

report the progress to the principal

Teachers shall:
(i)

read, study carefully the contents of the DRRRM and mainstream


disaster risk reduction concepts in the subject areas assigned in
Item No. 1. Continuously integrate the concepts if these point of
entries are met in the Learning Competencies (LCs). Ex. In Science,
the topic is Environment, integrate the environmental hazards in a
form of review, reminder or commitment.

(ii)

use appropriate/effective teaching strategies;

(iii)

evaluate learning (cognitive, affecting and psychomotor);

(iv)

include in the bulletin board concepts on disaster risk reduction;


and

(v)

let students prepare a collage, poster, jingle, poem, rap or slogan on


disaster risk reduction as part of the evaluation measures.

Division Level
a.

City Schools Division Superintendents/Assistant City Schools Division


Superintendent shall:
(i)

issue a Memorandum allowing School Heads to allocate one-week


activity to simultaneously mainstream disaster risk reduction
concepts in all subject areas and in all grade and year level;

(ii)

conduct monitoring and evaluation of the disaster reduction


program;

(iii)

prepare summary of reports and submit to the Office of the Regional


Directors (Attn: Administrative Service, ES (In Charge of DRR Mgt)

(iv)

monitor the mainstreaming of DRR concepts in the schools;

(v)

suggest effective/appropriate mainstreaming strategies;

(vi)

evaluate the effectiveness of the mainstreaming activities; and

(vii)

consolidate and submit report to the City Schools Division


Superintendent/Assistant City Schools Division Superintendent.
Enclosure No. 2 to DepED Order No. 55, s. 2007
Bata, bata, Tubig ay mahalaga,
Wag mong hayaang ito ay mawala,
Upang Tagtuyo ay Maiwasan ng Madla
Mga Paghahanda:
A. Sa Loob ng Paaralan
Ang silid aralan ay nagsisilbing pangalawang tahanan ng mga mag-aaral kaya dapat
lamang na magkaroon ito ng mga pangunahing pangangailangan ng mga bata tulad ng
tubig at mga pasilidad na kailangan upang patuloy na makapagbigay ng tubig. Ang tubig
ay kailangan sa paghuhugas ng mga gamit, pangdilig ng mga halaman, at higit sa lahat

65
ay upang inumin.
Sa ngayon, nagkukulang tayo sa ulan ng nagbibigay ng tubig sa atin. Ang
kinakailangang ulan ay hindi dumarating kung kayat marami na sa ibang bahagi ng
bansa kayat dapat natin itong gamitin nang maayos at matipid. Ang mga sumusunod
ay mga pamamaraan upang makatipid sa paggamit ng tubig sa loob ng paaralan:
1.

Gumamit ng maliit na palanggana sa paghuhugas ng anumang gamit sa paaralan;

2.

Kapag nag sisipilyo, gumamit ng baso at huwag hayaang nakabukas ang gripo
at tumutulo ang tubig habang nagsisipilyo

3.

Ipunin ang tubig na pinaghugasan o pinagbanlawan at gamitin ito sa pagdidilig ng


mga halaman. Diligan ang mga halaman sa umaga bago sumikat and araw upang
masipsip nang mabuti ng halaman ang tubig at maiwasan ang ebaporason ng tubig
sanhi ng matinding sikat ng araw.

4.

Ipagbigay alam sa Punong Guro o sinuman sa mga guro at tauhan sa paaralan


ang tungkol sa gripo na hindi maisara nang mabuti, mga gripo na may butas o sira,
at tumatagas ang tubig.

5.

Gamitin ang naipong tubig na pinaghugasan o pinagbanlawan sa pagbubuhos ng


kubeta;

6.

Kapag may ulan, sikaping makaipon ng tubig-ulan upang magamit na pandilig ng


halaman o panghugas ng mga gamit sa paaralan.

B. Sa Loob ng Tahanan
1.

Alisin muna ang mga tirang pagkain bago hugasan ang mga pinggan, baso, tasa.
Gumamit ng palanggana sa pagbabanlaw ng pinagkainan at ipunin ang mga
pinagbanlawan upang magamit na pagdilig sa halaman o pambuhos sa kubeta.

2.

Huwag hayaang umapaw ang tubig sa palanggana habang naghuhugas ng mga


pinagkainan;

3.

Gumamit ng timba at tabu sa paliligo at iwasang gumamit ng dutsa o bath tub.


Isara ang gripo kapag magsasabon ng katawan at buksan lang ito kung
magbabanlaw na.

4.

Gumamit din ng palanggana sa pag lalaba at sikaping maipon ang tubig na


pinagbanlawan. Ipunin lahat ng maruming damit at sabay-sabay

5.

Ugaliing maglinis lagi ng bahay upang hindi mahirap ang paglinis nito Gumamit ng
basang basahan at isarang mabuti ang gripo pagkatapos gumamit ng tubig.

Enclosure No. 3 to DepED Order No. 55, s. 2007


ENERTIPID-GAWIN MO KID
Mga Gabay sa Pagtitipid ng Kuryente
A. Sa Loob ng Paaralan
1.

Linisin palagi ang betilador, ilaw at mga kagamitang gumagamit ng kuryente.

2.

Gumamit ng Fluorescent bulbs sa halip na incandescent bulbs;

3.

Taggalin ang plugs ng mga kompyuter sa outlets bago umalis ng paaralan;

4.

Kapag nasa Laboratoryong Pang-Agham, gumamit ng salamin sa mata, at


kasuotang panglaboratoryo lamang;

5.

Ugaliin ang pagsasagawa ng ligtas na paggamit ng laboratoryo gaya ng mga


sumusunod:
a. isa-alang-alang ang sariling kaligtasan kapag gumagawa ng eksperimento;

66
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

huwag pumasok o gumawa ng eksperimento sa laboratoryo nang nag-iisa;


alamin ang mga panganib na maaaring mangyari kapag gumagawa sa
laboratoryo, at kung ano ang tamang gawin upang maiwasan ang mga ito;
ipagbigay-alam ang anumang aksidente o pangyayari sa loob ng laboratoryo.
huwag na huwag kumain, uminom at manigarilyo sa loob ng laboratoryo
laging sumangguni sa guro bago gumawa ng anuman sa loob ng laboratoryo
lagyan ng tamang pangalan ang mga chemicals sa loob ng laboratoryo

B. Kapag Nasa Loob ng Tahanan


a. regular na linisin ang mga kagamitan at kumpunihin ang sira ng mga ito;
b. huwag mamalantsa ng paisa-isa at gawin ito nang sabay-sabay
c. palaging linisin ang fluorescent tube. Ang dumi o alikabok ay nakababawas
ng liwanag hanggang 50 porsiyento.
d. gamitin ang telepono o telebisyon kung kinakailangan lamang;
e. siguruhing may fire extinguishers, first aid kits, fire blankets at fume hoods sa
loob ng laboratoryo
f. suriin palagi ang mga kagamitan at siguruhing lahat ay may grounded plugs
at maglagay ng gound fault interrupters (GFIs) kung saan kailangan
g. maglagay ng pamatay sunog, alisin ang mga sagabal at maglagay ng label sa
mga labasan
SAMPUNG HAKBANG SA TAGTUYOT
T
U
B
I
G

- ipirin ang tubig, pati na kuryente


- galiing isara ang gripo, gumamit ng tabo at balde
- awat patak ng tubig, sahuring palagi
- wasang maglaba ng paisa-isa, sabay-sabay lagi
- amitin sa pagbuhos ng kubeta at pagdilig ng halaman, inipong tubig ulan o
pinagbanlawan

P
O
W
E
R

- lantsang grounded, itabi o itapon na


- ven at refrigerator, linisin sa tuwina
- ag nang gamitin, heater at blower na luma
-ear to ear na tawag, o kayay telebabad
- egular na iwasan, gamitin ito kung kailangan lamang

CURRICULUM VITAE

67

68

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION


ORDER 55 SERIES OF 2007 AMONG MAYON UNIT
SCHOOLS IN CAMALIG, ALBAY

69

A Dissertation
Presented to
the Faculty of the Graduate School
Bicol University
Legazpi City

In Partial Fulfilment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership
and Management

by

Republic of the Philippines


Bicol University
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Legazpi City
RECOMMENDATION FOR PRE-ORAL DEFENSE
This dissertation entitled, THE IMPLEMENTATION OF DEPARTMENT OF
EDUCATION ORDER NO. 55 SERIES OF 2007 AMONG MAYON UNIT
SCHOOLS
IN
CAMALIG,
ALBAY,
prepared
and
submitted
by___________________________, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for

70

the degree, Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership and Management is


hereby submitted to the committee for consideration.
_____________________
Adviser
February , 2015
Date
DISSERTATION COMMITTEE
This dissertation entitled, THE IMPLEMENTATION OF DEPARTMENT OF
EDUCATION ORDER NO. 55 SERIES OF 2007 AMONG MAYON UNIT
SCHOOLS
IN
CAMALIG,
ALBAY,
prepared
and
submitted
by_________________________, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
degree, Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership and Management is
hereby recommended for Pre-Oral Defense.

Chairman

Member

Member

Member

Member
ii
Republic of the Philippines
Bicol University
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Legazpi City

RESULTS OF THE ORAL EXAMINATION


Results of the Oral Examination for_____________________, candidate
for the degree Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership and Management.

71

Dissertation :

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF DEPARTMENT OF


EDUCATION ORDER NO. 55 SERIES OF 2007 AMONG
MAYON UNIT SCHOOLS IN CAMALIG, ALBAY

Date

February __, 2015

Place

Bicol University Graduate School

This is to certify that_______________________, has passed the Oral


Examination with a final rating of ____%.
PANEL MEMBERS

ACTION

_____________
Chairman
_____________
Member
_____________
Member
_____________
Member
_____________
Member
iii
Republic of the Philippines
Bicol University
GRADUATE SCHOOL
Legazpi City

APPROVAL SHEET
Upon recommendation of the Oral Examination Committee, this
dissertation entitled, THE IMPLEMENTATION OF DEPARTMENT OF

72

EDUCATION ORDER NO. 55 SERIES OF 2007 AMONG MAYON UNIT


SCHOOLS
IN
CAMALIG,
ALBAY,
prepared
and
submitted
by___________________________, is hereby approved in partial fulfillment of
the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership
and Management.

LORNA M. MIA, PhD


OIC-Dean

HELEN M. LLENARESAS, EdD


Vice-President for Academic Affairs

FAY LEA PATRIA M. LAURAYA, PhD


President IV
i

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
TITLE PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

RECOMMENDATION FOR PRE-ORAL DEFENSE

..... ..........

ii

...... ................

iii

...... ................... ..............

iv

RESULTS OF THE ORAL EXAMINATION


APPROVAL SHEET

73

ACKNOWLEDGMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AB S TR AC T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xiii

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xiv

LIST OF PLATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xv

CHAPTER
1. THE PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Scope and Delimitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Significance of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

NOTES .......................................

13

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES . . . . . . .

14

Related Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

Related Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

Synthesis of the State-of-the-Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

Gap Bridged by the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

CHAPTER

PAGE
Theoretical Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

Conceptual Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

NOTES .......................................

38

3. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

74

Research Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

Sources of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

Respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

Research Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

Data Gathering Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

Statistical Treatment of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

NOTES ... .................................. .

47

75

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPENDICES
A. Letter of Request to Conduct the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B. Questionnaire Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C. Interview Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D.

Evaluation / Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

E. DepEd Order No. 55 series of 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


CURRICULUM VITAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE

PAGE

1. Theoretical Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

2. Conceptual Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35

76