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Materials

Science and Engineering 2

Tutorial 1

Short questions
These are representative of the questions in the first section of the exam

1. Define density.
2. Define Youngs modulus.
3. Give the approximate densities of iron, rubber, wood and ice.
4. Rank the following materials in order of stiffness (Youngs modulus). Start
with the lowest: aluminium, aluminium oxide (alumina), cast iron, iron,
polyethylene.
5. Rank the following materials in order of melting temperature, or melting
aluminium, aluminium oxide (alumina), cast iron, iron, polyethylene.
6. Define thermal expansivity.
7. Give approximate values for the thermal expansion coefficient for the
following materials: concrete, polyethylene and steel.
8. Rank the following materials in order of thermal conductivity:
ice, snow, eider duck down, stainless steel, steel, copper.
9. What are the main classes of engineering materials?

(cast iron = iron + 2-4weight% carbon)

Longer questions

10. Density
(a) How can you determine the density of an irregular shaped metallic object?
(b) Concrete = aggregate + cement. Estimate how large a piece of concrete you
need to get a reliable measurement of density? Explain your reasoning.

11. As an engineer you need to know approximate values of key engineering
properties e.g. density, stiffness etc, for the different classes of materials. How
can you know values for density without mindlessly memorizing the values for
all materials? How can you extend this approach to other properties? Begin to
create a list of property values for typical materials (e.g. the materials used in the
density experiment in the first lecture on properties).

12. What relationships, or patterns, can you find between density and other
engineering material properties in Ashbys materials selection charts?

13. (a) Sketch a stress-strain curve for steel, label the features and mark on key
values (property values can be found in Ashby 1989).
(b) On your sketch draw sketches to show how the shape of the sample alters at
selected points in the test (you choose which values of strain make sense).
(c) What is the length of a specimen just before it fails; and just after it fails?
They are different explain why.

14. Poissons ratio

(a) Define Poissons ratio.
(b) Give typical values of Poissons ratio for metals and ceramics, and elastomers.
(c) Draw sketches to show the behaviour of materials when loaded elastically in
tension for Poissons ratio of 0, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.

Deeper & open-ended questions
These are intended to make you and apply your knowledge of materials to
engineering

15. Ceramics, in contrast to metals and polymers, are not typically tested in
tension to determine their mechanical properties, why is this? We have not yet
done this in lectures though we have covered enough to enable you to work this
out.

16. Consider mechanical and thermal properties. Give applications in chemical,
civil and mechanical engineering where one mechanical and one thermal
property is important and explain why (attempt this for all three engineering
subjects whatever discipline youre studying). An example: in chemical
engineering strength is important in design of pressure vessels.

17. How can you identify materials?
Look around the room find five items, what material are they made from, and
how do you know? This question can be answered on many levels from trivial to
sophisticated.

An experimental investigation
18. Do an experiment on the tensile behaviour of for polyethylene (the material
thats used for supermarket plastic bags). Cut strips from a bag and do a tensile
test yourself. Things you may want to consider: does it matter what direction
you cut the strips from the bag (e.g. vertical, horizontal or at an angle)? If yes
what happens, and can you suggest why? What effect does straining the material
at different rates have (i.e. if you pull it fast or slow)? Do you notice any other
effects?

JRB January 2016