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VSAT stands for Very Small Aperture Terminal and refers to receive/transmit terminals
installed at dispersed sites connecting to a central hub via satellite using small diameter antenna
dishes (0.6 to 3.8 meter). Generally, these systems operate in the Ku-band and C-band

Frequency Bands

Generally VSAT operates on either Ku-band, or C-band.

Ku-band based networks, are used primarily in Europe and North America.

C-band, used extensively in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

Ku-band generally requires a smaller antenna diameter than C-band which generally
requires a larger diameter antenna

Types of Operations
Bi-Directional Operation - The dish both spends (uplinks) and receives (downlinks) information.
Receive-Only Operation - The dish receives (downlinks) information only.

VSAT Networks
There are basically five types of networks employed in VSAT operations.
Multipoint Network
The Multipoint Network Structure is used in data oriented networks that require voice. The
network structure provides for two-way data, voice and multi-media operations. The network
configuration is a star type network that connects one or more main sites to various remote sites.
It employs a central hub station and a communication satellite. Each main site uplinks and
downlinks from the central hub through terrestrial (land) links. Each remote site can only uplink
to the hub. If a remote site has data to send to any other location, it must first pass the
information to the hub, and then it can be routed to its final destination.
This type of network is very flexible, supporting multiple interfaces available for LAN, Voice
and Data connections and can support numerous transport protocols. The network employs
TDMS (Time Division Multiple Access) as the means to send data to each remote site. This

provides a secure means of transporting data, as each data packet contains the specific address of
the station that it is addressed to and only that station can receive the data and pass it on to its
Full-Meshed Network
For Voice oriented networks a Full-Meshed Designed Network is utilized. In a Full-Meshed there
is no central hub and each site can communicate directly with all network nodes. It employs
single satellite hops between each network nodes, which enables superior voice quality, and
efficient fast-response data connections. Since the network does not employ a central hub, each
station requires increased processing and transmission power. Each remote must uplink and
downlink with other remote sites with exactly the same size antenna over the same radio
In this network one site on the network must provide a Network Control System. It is responsible
for setting up calls between the sites and monitors the traffic and bandwidth use. From this site
all operating statistics are generated and billing information is produced. The Network Control
System established the allocation of bandwidth as each connection is established through
bandwidth-on-demand, that is as one node initiates a call to another node, the Network Control
System demands a certain amount of bandwidth from the bandwidth pool and then assigns it to
the two nodes for the duration of the communication . Once a call is terminated, the bandwidth is
then free, and is back available from the bandwidth pool. This type of network is capable of
providing interconnection of dissimilar communication devices. It provides the capability of
providing connections between must all currently available communication devices. The system
can provide a connection for an individual handset, PBX (Public Branch Exchange) or can
provide a gateway system.
Hybrid Voice and Data Network
This type of network is a hybrid between the Multipoint and Full-Meshed network. Like the FullMeshed Network it does not contain a central hub, though it provides all remote sites with the
capability to communicate direct with all other sites . It provides the ability to offer voice, fax,
and videoconferencing opportunities between the sites. Data and video can be broadcast is bidirectional between the central hub and the remote site. This system takes separate voice and
data interfaces at the remote site and then processes this and combines them onto a single cable
connecting to the antenna. The remote HES VSAT acts as a switch routing all connections to
their appropriate destination. The system is capable of a wide-range of advance telephony and
PBX voice services and provides an efficient LAN/WAN network service.
Single Channel Per Carrier (SCPC) - Point-to-Point
SCPC circuits are point-to-point circuits that provide two-way communication between VSAT
terminals located at two sites. It is a very flexible system and has the capability to handle
multiple data types over multiple protocols. The system can handle voice, fax, and video
application. the data rates range from 9.6 kbps up to 8.4 Mbs. It is ideally suited for bringing

Internet to remote ISP sites. Internet access is provided through one satellite dish connected to
the Internet through a point-to-point line and transmission is accomplished between it and
another terminal at the remote ISP through the use of a satellite. This system is capable of both
asymmetric and well as symmetric connections.
Broadcast Networks
Broadcast Networks provide for the transmission of data, video and audio files to any number of
users. The system "broadcasts" from the central site to the end user remote sites. This one-way
system provides an uplink from the central site and each remote site downlinks (receives) only. It
provides high speed channel that is capable of up to 24Mbs up linked, providing this information
to numerous units.
ODU (Outdoor Unit): consists of the dish/reflector antenna and Feed horn which contains
either an LNB for receive only systems or a LNA for bi-directional systems, which amplify the
signal received by the unit. Other electronic components consists of a Transmit Reject Filter,
Up/Down Converter (Transceiver), High Frequency Power Amplifier, and Transmit Type N
Transition. These components are either packaged separately or packaged together in a single
unit, depending on the manufacturer.
IDU (Indoor Unit): consists of the electronic interface that allows connection to the network. It
provides the interface.
VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminals)

VSAT or Very Small Aperture Terminals are

small, software-driven earth stations (typically
0.9-2.4 meters, which equates to 3-8 feet, though
larger units are available) used for the reliable
transmission of data, video, or voice via satellite.
It requires no staff or additional technology to
operate it. It simply plugs into existing terminal
Reliable Communications

VSAT satellite communications provide virtually error-free

digital data communications and better than 99.9% network
Remote Communications

No matter how remote or dispersed your operations are,

VSATs provide a link to your headquarters. VSAT can provide

remote diagnostics, remote monitoring, and data streaming services from remote or hazardous
System Integration

Turnkey seamless integration of communications requirements

provide a one point contact for your private data network From
design, implementation, installation and management a turnkey
solution to your communications requirements. These services
are provided in an individualized cost-effective solution.

IP Based Wan Network Services

E-Mail Service

Interface with Telephone PBX

Mobile VSAT Communications System

Data and Voice Connectivity



Installation, Moving And Set-up Services

Broadcast Services

Contract Installation and Service on VSAT Networks

Real-Time Data Acquisition and Broadcast

7/24 Hour Service and Support

Lease-Line, Backhaul Support

CDMS (Code Division Multiple Access) Technology

SCPC (Single Carrier Per Channel) Technology

TDMA (Time-Division Multiple Access) Technology

Multiple Network Configurations

VSAT services are delivered through the use of either C-Band or KU-Band geostationary
satellites for video, voice, fax and data transmissions. VSATs use a star network with the use of

satellite earth stations that rely on a large central hub. Alternatively the use of mesh (hubless)
VSAT networks can provide communication between VSAT terminals directly. They can be
configured in both one-way (receive only) and two-way (interactive) VSAT terminals. Most
VSAT terminals utilize satellite dishes in the 1 to 2.4 meter range, though both smaller and larger
dish configurations are available. The selection of satellite, terminal size and configuration is
based on the specific requirements of the applications for which VSAT will be utilized. H.M.S.
Communications, Inc. can provide the specific solution to your specific communication needs,
through our large array of products, services and provider network. Contact H.M.S.
Communications to learn more.
VSAT is growth compatible, VSAT allows the user to make incremental increases in its network.
The use of VSAT provides the ability to expand capacity and system growth, while maintaining
a handle on costs which are closely associated with the increase in capacity or system growth.
The VSAT network is highly manageable, and allows many options in planning the network with
regards to bandwidth, services and protocols. VSAT can provide a seamless means of integrating
your Wide Area Network (WAN) across the country, or across the world.
H.M.S. Communications, Inc. can provide VSAT solutions globally utilizing a wide selection of
satellites, networks, earth stations and connections to insure that the specific requirement is meet
with the best possible solution, utilizing some of the world's leading VSAT satellite operators and
earth stations. Our network of equipment and service providers enables us to provide a custom
solution anywhere, at a competitive price and with reliable delivery, installation and setup.
H.M.S. Communications, Inc. is selective in its partners, partnering with those firms that have
the same commitment to quality service, reliability and value in providing the communication
solution that meets the needs of our clients, on a global basis.
H.M.S. Communications, Inc.