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Fundamental Physics I

Force and Motion


Sutarto
University of Indonesia
2014

Cross Product

Dot Product

FB = qv B

W = F s
Simbol operasi Dot

Simbol operasi Cross


Cross:
Perintah untuk mencari komponen
v yang TEGAK LURUS B

z (k)

i x i = 0
j x j = 0
k x k = 0
y (j)

x (i)

Dot:
Perintah untuk mencari
komponen F yang SEJAJAR s
z (k)

i x j = +k
i x k = -j

y (j)

j x k = +i
j x i = -k

k x i = +j
k x j = -i

i i = 1
j j = 1
k k = 1

x (i)

i j = 0,
i k = 0,

j k = 0,
j i = 0,

k i = 0
k j = 0

Dahulu Kala

Aristoteles
A moving object needs a force to keep it moving
Galileo
An object at rest will stay at rest, unless a force cause it to start
moving
A moving object will continue to move at a steady speed in a
straight line, unless a force acts on it

Dahulu Kala

Steady speed in a straight line: constant velocity

The conclusion:
Uniform motion is the natural state of motion of an object. Here,
uniform means moving with constant velocity or steady speed in a
straight line

Sir Isaac Newton, The First Law


An object will remain at rest or in a state of uniform
unless it is acted on by a net external force

motion

This statement, in fact, already contained the simple (but cool) equation:
F = ma
No force, no acceleration. No change in the path of motion and its
speed.



Deeper

(Technically)

Kasus 1:

Bola golf dipukul secara mendatar. Untuk sementara


kita abaikan gesekan bola dengan lintasan maupun
dengan udara di sekitarnya.

Pemukul memberikan gaya


(dorongan) ke bola. Terjadi
KONTAK antara pemukul
dan bola.

1.
2.

Kapan (berapa lama) bola golf


mengalami percepatan?
Setelah dipukul, bola golf bergerak
dengan (a) kecepatan konstan, (b)
percepatan konstan

Mula-mula diam (kecepatan = 0). Setelah


dipukul, bergerak (mempunyai
kecepatan)

Akibatnya, bola bergerak searah


dengan arah kerja gaya. Pada
gambar di atas, arah tersebut
ditunjukkan oleh panah to hole

Formulasi Gerak Lurus



Jadi, bola golf mengalami percepatan hanya
saat terjadi kontak antara pemukul dan bola.
Dengan kata lain, percepatan dialami selama
gaya bekerja.




Setelah kontak antara pemukul dan bola


usai, maka bola akan bergerak tanpa
percepatan dengan kecepatan tetap.
Kecepatan tetap berarti perpindahan yang dialami oleh bola tiap detik (Generally,
tiap satu satuan waktu) juga tetap.

Formulasi Gerak Lurus


Ketika benda
bergerak, benda
mengalami
perubahan posisi.

Perubahan posisi
disebut
perpindahan.

Untuk menentukan
perpindahan, kita
harus menentukan
posisi benda
terlebih dahulu,
yaitu posisi awal
dan posisi akhir.
Question!
Mana yang lebih
dahulu ada, lintasan
atau gerak benda?

Vektor
In 2D system:
Position (and other
vector quantities) can be
characterized by two
methods:
q Points
q Segments

We called it VECTOR.

There are only Addition
and Multiplication of
vectors.

Vertical axis (called y)


IND: Ordinat

This is a Cartesian axis.


Position specified by two
coordinate numbers.

Horizontal axis (called x)


IND: Absis

This is a point c. It consists of


two coordinate, namely x and y
and written as c (x, y) = c (3, -3).

Vektor
Components of Vectors
Components of Vectors:
Vector A has two components
(number of components also tell us about
the dimension of the vectors)

q X Component:
Ax = A cos
q Y Component:
Ay = A sin
Finding the components of a vector
is a process of projecting the vector
to the coordinate axis.
The component of A along EF is B.

Vektor
Components of vector

Vectors in 3D

Vector R has three components,


i.e. R1, R2, and R3.

Vector 3D notations:
R = x1 i + y1 j + z1 k

on

Comp

tor

f vec
o
s
t
n
e

Equation of Motion

Jika benda bergerak pada lintasan lurus, maka besarnya perpindahan
sama dengan panjang lintasan yang ditempuh benda. Panjang lintasan
disebut jarak.

Case 1:
Benda bergerak dengan kecepatan konstan (artinya kelajuan dan
arahnya tetap)

Peprindahan (t) = Posisi awal (t = 0) + Kecepatan x Waktu

x (t) = x0 + vt

No force, no acceleration. No change


in the path of motion and its speed

What if the Net


Force is not zero?


F 0

Always remember:
1. Rest Move or Move Rest
2. Change in velocity

The results is:


q The rest object will moves


The net

object

forces gives acceleration to the

q The velocity of the moving object will


change
The net

object

forces gives acceleration to the

Acceleration
Acceleration is defined as the rate of change
of velocity with respect to time.

Constant Acceleration (Constant Force)


q It can increases or decreases the velocity.
q It can changes the direction of the objects motion.

2
!
a

This part is not


our business!

Nonconstant Acceleration (Non Constant Force)


q It can increases or decreases the velocity.
q It can changes the direction of the objects motion.

!
!
!
vfinal vinit = v
Acceleration =

(m/s)/s m/s2

The rate of change of velocity


Time interval

t final tinit = t

Formulasi Gerak Lurus


Ketika benda
bergerak, benda
mengalami
perubahan posisi.

Perubahan posisi
disebut
perpindahan.

Untuk menentukan
perpindahan, kita
harus menentukan
posisi benda
terlebih dahulu,
yaitu posisi awal
dan posisi akhir.
Question!
Mana yang lebih
dahulu ada, lintasan
atau gerak benda?

Equation of Motion

Agar benda
mengalami
percepatan maka
harus ada gaya
yang bekerja secara
terus menerus pada
benda

t3
t2

Anggaplah
terdapat sebuah
benda yang
didorong dengan
gaya konstan (besar
dan arahnya tetap),
maka benda akan
mengalami
perpindahan.

t1

Formulasi Gerak Lurus


Equation of Motion

Acceleration and Instantaneous
Acceleration

1 Average Acceleration
! Velocity change
a =
Time
!
!
!
vfinal vinit v
=
=
t
t
!
v = m/s and t = s
!
a = m/s 2 LT -2

!
! v
a=
t

2 Instantaneous
Acceleration
!
!
Graph of Velocity Time

!
v v
a = lim final init
t 0
t
!
!
v dv
= lim
=
t 0 t
dt

!
!
! dv
! dx
a=
v =
dt
dt
2!
! d x
a= 2
dt

Equation of Motion

Instantaneous
Velocity

x
t

t 0
! !
!
x2 x1
vinst = lim
t 0
t
where :
! !
x2 = x (t + t )
! !
x1 = x (t )
t = t 2 t1
!
vinst
!
vinst
!
vinst

!
!
x (t + t ) x (t )
= lim
t 0
t
!
x
= lim
t 0 t
!
dx
=
dt

1 Uniform and Non-uniform Motion

Formulasi Gerak Lurus


2 Constant Speed
Distance (t) = initial position (t = 0) + velocity x time

Constant speed

x (t) = x0 + vt

3 Constant Acceleration

x vs t

Distance (t) =
initial position (t = 0) +
velocity (average) x time

Constant Acc

v vs t

x (t) = x0 + vaveraget

Formulasi Gerak Lurus


t1

2 (x , x )
1

2,

t2

1
3
q Terminology
1. Motion

MathTalk!

2. Position
3. Displacement
4. Distance
5. Velocity (Average and Instantaneous Velocity)
6. Speed (Average and Instantaneous Speed)
7. Time (and Time Interval)

Formulasi Gerak Lurus


1 Velocity

(and Average Velocity)

! Displacement
v =
Time
!
!
x
=
x = meter and t = second
t
!
v = m/s LT -1

!
! x
v=
t

2 Speed

(and Average Speed)

Total distance
Time
x v = m/s LT-1
=
t

v =

v=
t

Look!

!
!
x x and v v

Formulasi Gerak Lurus


3 Instantaneous Velocity
!
vinst

!
dx
=
dt

4 Instantaneous Speed
vinst

dx
=
dt

Constant rate of change of position gives


constant or uniform velocity (or speed)

For this case:

!
!
dx dx
dx = dx
=
dt
dt
!
vinst = v

3
4

Formulasi Gerak Lurus


Mathematical Formulation

1.
2.

Initial Position, x0
Initial Velocity, v0

q Motion with constant speed (GLB)



x (t) = x0 + vt

q Motion with constant Acceleration (GLBB)
x (t) = x0 + vaveraget

Acceleration = a
vaverage = (v0 + v)
v = (v0 + at)
vaverage = v0t + at2

x (t) = x0 + v0t + at2

Brief
Formulasi Gerak Lurus
summary

1 Motion with constant speed/velocity (GLB)

q Other Useful Formula:


v (t) = v0 at
v2 = v02 2ax
x (t) = x0 + vaveraget

q Quantities

q Formula
x = x0 + vt x0 = 0, x = vt

xample (Quiz 1):


An amateur bowler releases a
ball with initial velocity 3.0 m/s;
the ball slow down with a
constant acceleration 0.2 m/s2.

Length (distance or displacement)


Time
Velocity/Speed

2 Motion with constant acceleration (GLBB)


q Quantities

Length (distance or displacement)


Time
Velocity/Speed
Acceleration

q Formula
x (t) = x0 + v0t + at2

a. How far does the ball roll


before stopping and how
long does it takes to stop?
b. How long it takes to reduces
its velocity to 1.0 m/s?
c. Draw the position time
graph, velocity time graph
and acceleration time
graph.

Free Falling Objects: The Art of Gravity


Attraction

Formulasi Gerak Lurus



An Object is placed above
the earth surface (H)

Earth has its own natural


acceleration (called Gravity)
that attract any object.

And, the object will moves


toward the earth surface with
constant acceleration.

q Free falling objects:


Free means there is no
initial velocity or v0 = 0.
Falling means the objects
always move toward the
earth surface.
Objects means every
physical quantity including
light.

q Is it kinds of Straight Line
Motion?
q Mathematical Formulation:
Gravity (g) = Acceleration (a)
Objects move straight up
= Deceleration.
Objects move straight
down = Acceleration.

h (t) = h0 + v0t gt2

Formulasi Gerak Lurus


Example (Quiz 2):

A ball is thrown straight up with a speed of


10.0 m/s from a third-floor window that
located 15.0 m above the ground. Calculate:

a. The maximum height of the ball.


b. Total time for the ball to reach the
maximum height.
c. The balls velocity when it hits the ground.
d. Total time it takes to reach the ground.
e. Total time it takes to drop from height 10.0
m to 5.0 m.
f. Draw the position time graph, velocity
time graph and acceleration time graph
Use g = 10.0 m/s2.

Free Falling
Objects

If, the net force is not zero


Assumption:
q The trajectory is parabolic.
q No friction.
q The free-fall acceleration g is
constant over the range of motion
and is directed downward.
cos = vx / v0
sin = vy / v0

If, the net force is not zero



Maximum Height and Flight Time:

q Maximum Height (Vertical)



v02 sin 2

h max =
2g

q Flight Time

q Range (Horizontal)

v02 sin 2
R=
g

2v0 sin
g
v sin
= 0
g

t AB =
t max

Range

Newtons Laws of
Motions
3.1 Force & Interactions

A push

q Definition:
Force is a pull or a push that acted on a
thing or body
q It is a vector quantity, so:
It has magnitude and direction
q Symbol: F
q Measured in Newton (SI system) and dyne
(cgs system)
A pull

Newtons Laws of
Motions
3.1 Force & Interactions

Kinds of Interactions:
q Contact
q Non contact
Kinds of Forces:
q Contact Forces
q Field Forces

Newtons Laws of
Motions
3.2 Newtons 1st Law:
Inertia
It states that:

when there is no net force


acting on an object, the object maintain
its initial condition (rest) or motion with

constant velocity


In other words:
when an object moves with

constant velocity, the net force

acting on it must be zero


1 Net Force = 0

F = 0

We called it:

Equilibrium

2 Rest or Constant Velocity


v = 0
v = constant

We (also) called it:

Equilibrium

For the same object:

q The bigger the


net force, the faster object will moves

v
F t a

For the same net force:


q The bigger
moves

the mass of the object, the slower object will

v
m
a
t

Newtons Laws of
Motions
3.2 Newtons 2st Law
We can start by saying:
an object acted upon a net force
accelerates

F
=
m
a

Warning!

FORCE!

ma is not a
All forces on an objects are added as a vector to generate the
net force on the left side of the above equation. ma then just a
physical result of the net force that acts on an object which has
mass m.

Some Particular
Forces

1 The Gravitational Force

q Due to the gravitational acceleration


of the Earth
q Acts on everything that has mass
q Type of pull force (never push)

F = mg j


F = mg g = gj

( )

Weight

Weight is the magnitude of the net force


required to prevent the body from falling freely
j
i

q Fnet = may W Fg = m(0)


q So, W = Fg = mg

Normal

Normal

Norm
Perp al means

endic
ular

Surface
Surface
Gravity
Not normal
Normal

Normal

FN Fg = may
FN = mg + may m ( g + ay )
FN = mg ay = 0

ce
a
f
r
u
S

ce

Surfa

2 The Normal Force


Gravity

Gravity cos

In almost all situation, we have

FN = mg cos
Where = angle between normal and gravity

3 Friction
Always acts on opposite direction to
the object movement, relatively
q Static Friction
Relative velocity = NO
q Kinetic Friction
Relative velocity = YES

4 Tension

We assume:
1. The rope is massless (compared to the object where the rope attached)
2. No stretching or compression on the rope