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# CCC801, ART OF NUMBERS

NEELANSH KULSHRESHTHA
SNU ID: 1510110241

FIBONACCI SEQUENCE
WHAT IS FIBONACCI SEQUENCE:The Fibonacci numbers or Fibonacci sequence are the numbers in the
following integer sequence:0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34,...
Or
1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34,...
By definition, the first two numbers in the Fibonacci sequence are
either 1 and 1, or 0 and 1, depending on the chosen starting point of
the sequence.
The next number is found by adding up the two numbers before it.
The 2 is found by adding the two numbers before it (1+1)
Similarly, the 3 is found by adding the two numbers before it
(1+2),
And the 5 is (2+3), and so on!
Here is a longer list:
0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, 1597,
2584, 4181, 6765, 10946, 17711, 28657, 46368, 75025, 121393,
196418, 317811, ...

## THE RULE:In mathematical terms, the sequence Fn of Fibonacci numbers is

defined by the recurrence relation

## CCC801, ART OF NUMBERS

NEELANSH KULSHRESHTHA
SNU ID: 1510110241

n= 0
...

10

11

Fn = 0
...

13

21

34

55

89

## There is an interesting pattern:

Look at the number f3 = 2. Every 3rd number is a multiple
of 2 (2, 8, 34, 144, 610, ...)
Look at the number f4 = 3. Every 4th number is a multiple
of 3 (3, 21, 144, ...)
Look at the number f5 = 5. Every 5th number is a multiple
of 5 (5, 55, 610, ...)
And so on (every nth number is a multiple of Fn).
TERMS BELOW ZERO:The sequence below zero has the same numbers as the sequence
above zero, except they follow a +-+- ... pattern. It can be written like
this:
Fn = (1)n+1 Fn
Which says that term "-n" is equal to (1)n+1 times term "n", and the
value (1)n+1 neatly makes the correct 1,-1,1,-1,... pattern.
The sequence works below zero also, like this:
n = ...
-6
4 ...

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

## CCC801, ART OF NUMBERS

NEELANSH KULSHRESHTHA
SNU ID: 1510110241

Fn = ...

-8

-3

-1

## REAL WORLD APPLICATION OF

FIBONACCI SEQUENCE
The Fibonacci Sequence as many real world application and the cover
a wide range of phenomenon. Its found in many places like:-

FIBONACCI SEQUENCE IN NATURE:The Fibonacci numbers are Nature's numbering system. They appear
everywhere in Nature, from the leaf arrangement in plants, to the
pattern of the florets of a flower, the bracts of a pinecone, or the scales
of a pineapple. The Fibonacci numbers are therefore applicable to the
growth of every living thing, including a single cell, a grain of wheat,
a hive of bees, and even all of mankind.

## The Fibonacci Sequences applications are not only limited to nature

but they are also applied in many algorithmic techniques.

## CCC801, ART OF NUMBERS

NEELANSH KULSHRESHTHA
SNU ID: 1510110241

The most common example of these algorithmic applications are:The Fibonacci Heaps and The Fibonacci Search Technique.
Out of these two, The Fibonacci Search technique is quite fascinating.

## The Fibonacci Search Technique

In computer science, the Fibonacci search technique is a method of
searching a sorted array using a divide and conquer algorithm that
narrows down possible locations with the aid of Fibonacci numbers.
Compared to binary search, Fibonacci search examines locations
whose addresses have lower dispersion. Therefore, when the elements
being searched have non-uniform access memory storage (i.e., the
time needed to access a storage location varies depending on the
location previously accessed), the Fibonacci search has an advantage
over binary search in slightly reducing the average time needed to
access a storage location.
Fibonacci search was first devised by Jack Kiefer (1953) as a
minimax search for the maximum (minimum) of a unimodal function
in an interval.

## ALGORITHM:Let k be defined as an element in F, the array of Fibonacci

numbers. n = Fm is the array size. If the array size is not a Fibonacci
number, let Fm be the smallest number in F that is greater than n.
The array of Fibonacci numbers is defined where Fk+2 = Fk+1 + Fk,
when k 0, F1 = 1, and F0 = 0.
In Simple Words: We divide the array into two subsets according to the both preceding
Fibonacci numbers and compare 'item' to the element at the position
Fn-2. If 'item' is greater than the element, we continue in the right
subset, otherwise in the left subset. In this algorithm we don't have to

## CCC801, ART OF NUMBERS

NEELANSH KULSHRESHTHA
SNU ID: 1510110241

## make a division to calculate the middle element, but we get along

only with additions and subtractions. In our implementation we
assumed that the Fibonacci numbers are given explicitly (e.g. as
constants in the frame program).

## To test whether an item is in the list of ordered numbers, follow these

steps:
1. Set k = m.
2. If k = 0, stop. There is no match; the item is not in the array.
3. Compare the item against element in Fk1.
4. If the item matches, stop.
5. If the item is less than entry Fk1, discard the elements from
positions Fk1 + 1 to n. Set k = k 1 and return to step 2.
6. If the item is greater than entry Fk1, discard the elements from
positions 1 to Fk1. Renumber the remaining elements from 1
to Fk2, set k = k 2, and return to step 2.
The written program in C can be like this:#include <stdio.h>
int ricerca_fib(int a[], int n, long x)
{

## int inf=0, pos, k;

static int kk= -1, nn=-1, fib[]={0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987,
1597, 2584, 4181, 6765, 10946, 17711, 28657, 46368, 75025, 121393, 196418, 317811, 514229,
832040, 1346269, 2178309, 3524578, 5702887, 9227465, 14930352, 24157817, 39088169,
63245986, 102334155, 165580141};
if(nn!=n)
{

k=0;
while(fib[k]<n) k++;
kk=k;

## CCC801, ART OF NUMBERS

NEELANSH KULSHRESHTHA
SNU ID: 1510110241

nn=n;
}
else
k=kk;
while(k>0)
{

pos=inf+fib[--k];
if((pos>=n)||(x<a[pos]));
else if (x>a[pos])
{
inf=pos+1;
k--;
}
else {
return pos;
}

}
return -1;
}
_________________________________________________________________________________

## As it can be seen that the above application of Fibonacci series is

really interesting and it has many other similar applications.
But we must know that it is not a universal law:H S M Coxeter, has the following important quote:
It should be frankly admitted that in some plants the
numbers do not belong to the sequence of f's
[Fibonacci numbers] but to the sequence of g's [Lucas
numbers] or even to the still more anomalous

## CCC801, ART OF NUMBERS

NEELANSH KULSHRESHTHA
SNU ID: 1510110241

sequences
3,1,4,5,9,... or 5,2,7,9,16,...
Thus we must face the fact that it is really not a universal law but
only a fascinatingly prevalent tendency.
Still, Fibonacci Sequence is one of the most amazing art of numbers
known to human knowledge today.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

www.mathworld.wolfram.com
Fibonacci in Nature www.jwilson.coe.uga.edu
www.maths.surrey.ac.uk
www.mathsisfun.com
www.auto.tuwien.ac.at
www.codeido.com
Introduction to Geometry (1961, Wiley, page 172)
by H.S.M.Coxeter

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