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Bearing V12.xmcd

## The Units used as standard: m, kg, N, Pa, sec, watts

N, kg, m, Pa, sec/min, watts/kW

## Rolling Contact Bearings

(pg 550)

This note is only a guideline for using the text book. Detailed explaination and
tables are found in Shigley Mechanical Engineering Design text book.
a) double row deep
groove ball bearing
b) roller bearing
c) angular contact
bearing

Bearing types
a) single row
deep groove
b) double row
deep groove
c) angular
contact
d) roller or
needle
e) self-aligning

## f) tapered roller bearing

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Bearing V12.xmcd

Pg 554

Other bearings are beyond the scope of this subject.

Bearing Life

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The objective of this analysis is to determine the life of a bearing before the first
tangible evidence of fatigue.
Common life measures are
1. Number of revolutions of the inner ring (outer ring stationary) or
2. Number of hours of use at a standard angular speed
AFBMA standard states that the first evidence of fatigue is the spalling or pitting of
an area of 0.01 in2 (by Timken Company laboratories).
The AFBMA (and most other manufactures) term rating life as the life span of 90%
of a batch of bearings.

For 90% reliability (R = 0.9) (std value for most bearing), the regression equation form is
1
a

F L = constant

## this is the basic load-rating eqn for bearing

where
L is the desired life
and

a=3
a=

Fr
=
Lr Fd

Ld

10
3

## for ball bearing

for roller bearings

## where Lr, Fr refer to RATED specs provided by manufacturers

and Ld, Fd are the DESIGNER values.

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Bearing V12.xmcd

From the equation above, a catalog load rating known as C10 is use to represent the
standard 90% reliability (10th percentile rating life where the reliability R = 0.90 ).
1

## Hence the catalog rating

(unit: kN) is given by

LD nD 60
C10 = Af Fr

LR nR 60

Fr
LD

- designed life (in hours) --> the expected life of the bearing

nD
LR

## - designed rotational speed of the bearing in RPM

- rated life (in hours) provided by manufacturer of the bearing

nR
Af

## - rated rotational speed of the bearing (RPM)

- application (safety) factor of the bearing system

The value (LR x nR) provide the rated life in revolutions for 1 minute. Most bearing
manufacturer chooses a rated cycles value of 1,000,000 revolutions in a 1 hr period to
correspond to a basic load rating in the catalog. Hence for most class of bearing
where R = 0.90, the catalog rating is given by:
1

LD nD 60
C10 = Af Fr
6

10

## N.B: If reliability is not mentioned,

then the default value of R = 0.90 is
assumed.

Sample 1A
A ball bearing is to be selected to carry a radial load of 6.5 kN. The designed life is
5000 hr with a rotation rate of 900 rpm. For a bearing reliability of 0.90, find the
suitable bearing.
Designed life,

Fr = 6.5kN

Af = 1.15

nD = 900rpm
1
a

LD nD 60
= 48.31 kN
6

10

C10 = Af Fr

a = 3

Application factor,

LD = 5000

Ball bearing,

## Refer to Table 11-2 pg 571 , column for

Deep Groove Load Ratings. The next
higher C rating C10 = 55.9 kN
corresponding to Bore 65mm.

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Bearing V12.xmcd

## Reliability of the Bearings

Reliability R > 0.9
Empirical formulaes had been used for higher accuracy of the calculation for
Bearing Life based on reliability analysis. The formula below is the most accurate for
bearing analysis.
1

Xd =

LD nD 60
6

10

Xd

C10 = Fr

1
x
+

x
log
0 (

o)

Based on experimental data, the equation above had been refined and finally for
academic purposes, it was simplified further. The final equation for load rating of
reliability R 0.9 is shown below:
1

Xd =

LD nD 60
6

10

Xd

C10 = Af Fr
1

1.483
0.02 + 4.439 ( 1 R)

## If Application factor (safety factor ) if not mentioned, Af = 1.0

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Bearing V12.xmcd

Sample 1B
If reliability in Sample 1A is R = 0.95 , and safety factor Af = 1.15 , find the new load
rating and the correct bearing? Find the suitable bearing if it is to be mounted on a
65mm round shaft.
1

C10

Xd

= 1.15 6.5 10
1

1.483
0.02 + 4.439 ( 1 0.95 )

C10 = 57 kN

## The next higher C load rating is ( C10 = 61.8 kN) for a

70mm bore deep groove ball bearing.
However the shaft diameter is only 65mm. It will be rocking within the bearing bore
because of the generous tolerance (i.e. the bearing is too big for the shaft)
Comments: 70mm ball-bearing - Not recommended
Solution: Use the alternative:- Angular Contact bearing.
The next higher Angular Contact C rating ( C10 = 63.7 kN) corresponding to a 65mm
bearing. This bearing will slip perfectly on the 65mm shaft.
Recommended: 65mm Angular Contact ball bearing
Overall Reliability (or combined reliability) for multi-bearings system
Most shaft are supported by at least 2 bearings. If the overall reliability of the
bearings supporting the shaft is given as R' , then
Individual bearing reliability,

R=

## where n is the number of bearings

supporting the shaft.
(used at least 2 more decimal points)

R'

## For a 3 bearings system with overall reliability R' = 0.99 then

the individual reliability is given by R =
If R' = 0.999 then
If R' = 0.9999 then

R =
R =

0.99 = 0.9967

3

## 0.9999 = 0.999967 with 2 decimal points added.

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Bearing V12.xmcd

damage as combined radial and thrust load. The equation is given as below:
Fe = X1 V Fr + Y1 Fa

or

Fe = X2 V Fr + Y2 Fa

## To correct for various rotating-ring conditions, a rotation factor, V is used.

V=1
inner ring rotates

V = 1.2
outer ring rotates

## The X and Y factors depends on several conditions including number of balls

and its diameter.
The Equivalent Radial load factors for ball-bearing is shown in Table 11-1.
The Y = 0 for straight and cylindrical roller bearings because it does not take
If

If

Fa
V Fr
Fa
V Fr

>e

## To get the accurate value of e and Y2, tabulation may be needed.

1

Fe = X2 V Fr + Y2 Fa

LD nD 60
C10 = Fe
6

10

Sample 2
An ball bearing is to be selected to carry a radial load of 8 kN and thrust load of 4 kN.
The desired life LD is to be 5000 h with an inner-ring rotation rate of 900 rpm What is
the basic load rating that should be used in selecting a bearing for reliability of 0.95?

Sample 3
A bearing is to be selected to carry a radial load of 5.0 kN. The designed life is 2500 hrs
with a rotation rate of 500 rpm. For a bearing reliability of 0.99, find the suitable bearing if
it is to be mounted on a 35mm round shaft. Application factor = 1.15