6 tayangan

Diunggah oleh Eddie

klhd

klhd

© All Rights Reserved

- JEE Main 2019 Chemistry January Attempt Shift - 2(09th January, 2019)
- Atomic Structure Exercises by Resonance
- Concise Inorganic Chemistry (4th Edition) by J.D.lee
- Computational Finance Using MATLAB
- Exercises Module1
- ZX210411420.pdf
- 05. Probability and Probability Distributions
- Statistics and Probability.pdf
- 16506physics Set B 17
- Edexcel GCSE Further Additional Science Topic P3.2 X-rays and ECGs and P3.3 Production, uses and risks of ionising radiation from radioactive sourcesTest 12_13
- Introductory Statistics Notes
- Unit v Sampling
- Atoms and Molecules
- The Normal Distribution
- A Stochastic Model, PDF
- Radphysics_1.docx
- rosenzweig 2002 0510
- MFCC
- Multi-dimensional numerical investigation of laser-induced particle acceleration_PSC code of H. Ruhl.pdf
- The Reality Check Oct

Anda di halaman 1dari 7

Abstract

We present an analytical calculation of the radial electron density along a proton bunch passing through an electron cloud, considering various longitudinal distributions, a

linear transverse force, and a round beam. From the electron density, we then infer the incoherent tune spread inside

the bunch. The analytical results are compared with a computer simulation, by which we can also study the effect of

a non-uniform transverse beam distribution.

INTRODUCTION

During the passage of a proton (or positron) bunch

through an electron cloud, the electrons are accumulated

around the beam center. This pinch effect produces tune

shift and tune spread in the bunch that could cause a

slow incoherent emittance growth over successive turns.

We compute the electron-cloud density evolution during a

bunch passage and from this we infer the tune shift induced

on the beam particles.

derived for an arbitrary longitudinal profile, under the approximation of a linear transverse force. Approximations

for low electron temperature are discussed.

Via computer simulation we extend the analysis to a nonlinear transverse force for a Gaussian transverse beam profile. From the simulation result, we estimate the incoherent

tune spread in the LHC.

THE APPROXIMATION OF A LINEAR

FORCE

We start from the electron distribution in the fourdimensional transverse phase space. In the linear force approximation, the horizontal and vertical planes are uncoupled. We thus factorize the electron density distribution as

follows:

(x, x,

y, y,

t) = x (x, x,

t) y (y, y,

t) .

(1)

ne (r, t) ne (x, y, t) = nx (x, t) ny (y, t) ,

(2)

where the projected spatial densities are obtained by integrating the projected phase-space densities over the electron velocities:

Z

nx (x, t) = dx

x (x, x,

t) .

(3)

Figure 1 shows a schematic of our analytical procedure.

Specifically, we consider a cylindrically symmetric model

of a bunch passing through an electron cloud. We first solve

the equations of motion of a single electron in the bunch

potential under the simplifying approximation of a linear

transverse force, for several longitudinal bunch profiles.

Next, assuming an initially Gaussian electron distribution

of finite temperature in transverse phase space, we compute

the evolution of the electron density during the bunch passage, using Liouvilles theorem. Finally, from the electron

distribution so obtained we calculate the tune shift experienced by individual protons as a function of their transverse

and longitudinal position. An explicit analytical solution is

Elena.Benedetto@cern.ch; Also at DENER & INFM, Politecnico di

Torino (Italy)

in terms of the radius r x2 + y 2 . From Liouvilles

theorem, we know that the electron density in the phase

space is locally preserved. Hence, with the hypothesis of

an initially Gaussian distribution for the electrons in their

transverse phase space, we can write for the horizontal distribution

x

2

x2

02 02

e

e 20 e 2 0 ,

x (x, x,

t) = x (x0 , x 0 , 0) =

20 0

(4)

and an analogous expression applies to the vertical plane.

Here, the parameters 0 and 0 denote the horizontal rms

size of the initial electron distribution and its horizontal rms

velocity, respectively. For the circularly symmetric problem that we consider here, the vertical density has the same

form with identical rms size and velocity. We will later

obtain some approximate compact expressions for the special case that the initial velocities of the electrons are small

compared with the (correlated) velocities acquired in the

beam potential, i.e. 0 e 0 .

If we are able to solve and invert the equation of motion

of a single electron in the bunch potential, we can express

t) and insert these resulting

expressions into the right-hand side of (4) in order to get

the electron density at the time t 1 .

potential

Under the linear approximation (r r ) the motion in

the two transverse planes is decoupled and the equation in

the horizontal plane is:

x + e2 (t)x = 0

Gaussian and cylindrically symmetric, characterized by the

rms transverse beam size r (namely r = x = y ):

b (z) r22

e

b (r, z) =

e 2r ,

2r2

(5)

pends on the longitudinal distance from the bunch center,

z. We can then find the radial electrical field of the beam

experienced by the electrons applying Gauss theorem for

a cylinder of radius r,

Z r

b (r, z) = 1

2r E

b (r0 , z)2r0 dr0 ,

(6)

0 0

which gives

r2

E

20 r

in the bunch potential is

d2 r

dt2

l2

= eEb (r, t) +

(10)

me r 3

2

r

l2

e2 b (t)

1 e 2r2 +

=

,

20 r

me r 3

a constant of motion.

Expressed in cartesian coordinates the angular momentum term disappears:

2

r2

2re c2 b (t)x

2r

,

(11)

x

(t) =

1e

r2

2

r2

2re c2 b (t)y

2r

y(t) =

,

1

e

r2

We introduced the classical electron radius

e2

.

re

40 me c2

1A

x0

= a(t)x + b(t)x

x 0

= c(t)x + d(t)x ,

(12)

similar method was used in [1] to compute the beam density evolution under the influence of nonlinear field errors.

(14)

(15)

where the coefficients a(t),...,d(t) depend on the longitudinal distribution, and for a conservative system (ad bc) =

1. The electron distribution in phase space is computed by

inserting (15) into (4) and the spatial electron density evolution is obtained by integrating over the velocities:

nx (x, t) =

1

(8)

t = (nz z) ,

c

where t = 0 refers to the instant when the bunch enters into

the e-cloud. We will use n = 3. This yields

2

r

e b (t)

Eb (r, t) =

(9)

1 e 2r2

20 r

b (t)re c2

.

r2

linear approximation, it is possible to solve the equation of

motion (13) and invert the solution, getting (x0 , x 0 ) as a

function of (x, x)

in the form:

(7)

For comparison with simulations, presented later, we express the field as a function of time

me

e2 (t) =

(13)

d x x (x, x,

t)

(16)

Tune Shift

From the electron density we can compute the tune shift

induced on the beam (over one turn around the ring).

The electrical field produced by the electrons can again

be obtained by Gauss theorem:

Z

|e| r

2rEe (r, t) =

ne (r, t)2r0 dr0 ,

(17)

0 0

As we are interested in the field experienced by a proton at position (r, z) in the bunch, we need to return to the

coordinate z: z = nz ct. Then, we get:

e (r, z) = |e|(r, z)

E

20 r

with

z) = 2

(r,

(18)

n

e (r0 , z)r0 dr0

(19)

where

n

e

1

r , z) = ne (r , t = (nz z)

c

0

I

1

ds (s)kx ,

Qx =

4 C

where

kx =

e,x

e E

.

2

mp c x

(20)

(21)

As we have

e,x

Ee,r

E

=

x

r

(22)

After some algebra, we obtain the electron distribution

function at the time t along the bunch. It can be written as

y=0

we obtain

kx

x (x, x,

t) = Aec(x,t) ea(t)(xb(x,t))

e,r

e E

(23)

mp c2 r

1

4rp

n

e (r, z)

(r, z)

2r2

Z

1

4rp

0

0 0

n

e (r , z)r dr

n

e (r, z) 2

=

=

=

Qx (r, z) =

(24)

I

Z

rp

1

ds (s)

n

e (r, z) 2

n

e (r0 , z)r0 dr0 .

r

C

In principle, the proton beam size depends on the beta functions and, thus, also the electron density n

e (r, z) depends

on the position around the ring s. In the following we will

use the smooth focusing approximation,

(s) = const. = . ,

Force

In the case

A =

c(x, t)

a(t) =

b(x, t) =

x +

=

=

e2

b r e c 2

,

r2

2 x2

2 2

2 2 2

e e 2( 0 S +e 0 C )

nx (x, t)

|C|

20

x(t)

x(t)

1

sin (e t)

e

= x0 e sin(e t) + x 0 cos (e t) .

= x0 cos(e t) + x 0

(26)

x0

x 0

1

S

sin (e t) = C x

x

e

e

= xe sin(e t) + x cos (e t) = e S x + C x

= x cos(e t) x

with

C

S

= cos(e t) ,

= sin(e t) ,

(27)

(28)

(31)

nx (x, t) and ny (y, t), namely

= nx (x, t)ny (y, t)

(30)

and the above expression reduces to:

= 0

e

20 0

e2 x2

2

2 ( 0 S 2 + e2 02 C 2 )

02 S 2 + e2 02 C 2

2e2 02 02

e x 02 e 02 SC

( 02 S 2 + e2 02 C 2 )

e ec(x,t)

p

20 0

a(t)

e e

ec(x,t)

p

2

02 S 2 + e2 02 C 2

e2 x

Z +

nx (x, t) =

d x x (x, x,

t) =

ne (x, y, t)

b (t) = b = const.

(29)

where:

(25)

that the integrand becomes independent of s, and the integral over s amounts to a multiplication by the circumference C.

We now derive the tune shift for two specific longitudinal

bunch profiles and for the general case.

2 r2

e

2 2 C 2

2

2 S 2 +e

0

0

2 r2

e

2 2 C 2

2

2 S 2 +e

0

0

)

e (

2

2

2

2

2

2 0 S + e 0 C

e e2

e e

202

C2

)

,

(32)

limit. The right-hand side depends only on r, as a result

of the circular geometry.

Inserting

1

(33)

ne (r, z) = ne r, t = (nz z)

c

into (23), and keeping only the lowest-order terms in (e r),

we get

e2 r2

1

e r p

1

kx

C 2 02 1 + S2 2 2 02 2

2(C 2 e2 02 + S 2 02 )

C e 0

(34)

The tune shift (20) for a particle at position r and z in

the bunch is

Qx (r, z)

e rp

1

L

(35)

4C 2 02 1 + S2 2 2 02 2

C e 0

e2 r2

1

2(C 2 e2 02 + S 2 02 )

focusing assumption has been invoked.

The tune shift depends on the longitudinal position with

respect to the bunch center and it decreases parabolically

with transverse distance r.

We note that for 0 0 e , the tune shift becomes

maximum at periodic intervals along the bunch, given by:

1

nz

C t = (nz z) = cos e z e

=0

c

c

and

S(t)

e (t) .

x(t) = p

nz

+

(2k + 1) ,

c

e

2

k = 0, 1, ...

e (t)

cos S(t) + p

S(t) =

c2

e (t)

sin S(t) ,

(43)

e (t) dt

(44)

and x 0 .

In the general case of an arbitrary longitudinal bunch distribution b (t) but as before for a linear transverse force

, we can still invert the solution and determine (x0 , x 0 ) as

a function of (x, x),

as in Eq.(15), to insert the result into

the expression of the electron distribution in phase space

(4). The density ne (r, t) is obtained by integrating over the

velocities and it has the general form:

r2

e

e 2D(t)

2D(t)

(45)

(46)

ne (r, t) =

with

2

x Le rp e 1 .

Q

4

02

c1

where

or

z=

(42)

(36)

velocity spread.

Again assuming the smooth focusing approximation

(25), the tune shift in the horizontal or vertical plane has

the general form:

Qx,y (r, z) =

Linear Force

1

Lk

4

e rp L

2 r2

r2

e 2D r2 + D

1

D

(47)

!

.

a constant, the electron oscillation frequency varies with

time t (14)

b (t)re c2

(37)

e2 (t) =

r2

r2 /D, this simplifies to

e rp

L

3 r2

Qx (r, z)

1

(48)

4D

4D

with a Gaussian longitudinal shape:

x + e2 (t)x = 0

(38)

3 e

e

(39)

2 e , e 2e ,

z2

b (z) = Nb e 2z2

2z

(40)

yields

1

(41)

A(t) q

S(t)

z (, +)

(49)

b (t) =

for a solution in the form

x(t) = A(t)eiS(t) .

(nz ct)

Nb

2

2z

e

2z

(50)

(nz ct)2

2

4z

e

n

1 ct

z

Erf

+ Erf

n

S(t) =

c

2

2 z

s

r e Nb c 2

=

r2 z 2

e (t)

x0

= a(t)x + b(t)x

x 0

= c(t)x + d(t)x ,

z2 n

+ z

a(t) = e 8 4 cos S(t)

2

n2

z n) c

+ z n z (

+e 4 8 4

sin S(t)

4

2

2

n

+ z n z 1

b(t) = e 4 8 4

sin S(t)

c(n z) z82 n4 z

e

c(t) =

4z

cn z82 + n4 z

cos S(t) +

e

4z

2

2

n + z n z

+ e 4 8 4

cn(n z) c n42 + z82 n4z

sin S(t)

+

e

16z2

z

2

n z

d(t) = e 8 4 cos S(t)

2

n2

n c

+ z n z

+e 4 8 4

sin S(t)

4r

with

z =

ct

.

z

Using these expressions for d(t) and b(t), the density and

the tune shift are obtained from (48) with D(t) given by

D(t)

= d(t)2 02 + b(t)2 02 =

z

2

n z

= 02 e 4 2 cos2 S(t) +

2 2

2

n2

n

c

+ z n z

02 e 2 4 2

sin2 S(t) +

4r

2

2

n2

n c

+ z n z

02 e 4 4 2

sin S(t) cos S(t) +

2r

1 n2 + z2 n z

+ 02 2 e 2 4 2 sin2 S(t)

injection

electron cloud density

bunch population

rms bunch length

rms beam size

nominal tunes

electron cloud size

electron initial velocity

e

Nb

z

b

Qx,y

0

0

6 1011 m3

1.1 1011

0.115 m

0.884 mm

64.28, 59.31

10 b

e 0 /100

Figure 2 shows the electron density evolution at the centre of the pipe, during the passage of a bunch, computed

with the linear force approximation and for the Gaussian

beam profile. The simulation with the linear force acting

on the electrons is consistent with the analytical prediction

(the height of the peaks depends on the initial electron velocity, which was slightly different; there is also a small

shift in the position of the peaks, which depends on the initial condition and the slicing in our simulation).

On the other hand, if the electrons move in the potential generated by a transversely Gaussian beam, the peaks

almost disappear and after a quarter oscillation the density

stays almost constant. In the case of the non-linear force,

in fact, as illustrated in Fig. 3, the electrons do not reach

the centre of the bunch simultaneously, but their oscillation

frequency depends on the initial amplitude. Figure 4 displays snapshots of the radial distribution of the electrons at

different times during the bunch passage both for the linear

force approximation and for the Gaussian potential. Figure

5 is the same as the right picture in Fig. 2, but on a linear

vertical scale. Figure 6 shows the phase space distribution

for the same (nonlinear) case, at four different time steps,

which are indicated in Fig.5.

z = 0) is

Qx (r, z)

e rp

C

,

402

density [2].

EXTENSION TO NON-LINEAR

TRANSVERSE FORCE

Via a simple tracking code, we extended the analysis to

electrons moving in the potential of a transverse Gaussian

beam. For the simulations we took the parametres for LHC

at injection, listed in Table 1.

during the passage of a Gaussian bunch (non-linear force).

As can be seen in Figs. 5 and 2, the density enhancement

at the center of the bunch is about a factor 50. This allows

Figure 2: Electron density vs. time at the centre of the pipe,during the passage of a bunch, assuming a linear transverse

force (left) and a Gaussian transverse beam profile (right). In red the simulated density evolution and in green the analytical

results. A Gaussian bunch profile is assumed in z.

Figure 3: Vertical position versus time for 6 electrons starting at different amplitudes spaced at 0.5: (left) linear force;

(right) Gaussian force. A Gaussian bunch profile is assumed in z

Figure 4: Snap shots of radial distribution ( r) at 4 different times during the bunch passage: (left) linear force

approximation, (right) Gaussian transverse profile. A Gaussian bunch profile is assumed in z

Q

p

Cr

ne ,

2

(51)

example of the LHC, this gives the value Q 0.13, if the

initial unperturbed electron cloud density is 6 1011 m3 .

A frequency map analysis [3] from HEADTAIL simulations [4] in a frozen-field approximation gave a tune spread

of 0.05 at z = +2z . This tune spread corresponds to

a density enhancement of a factor 20 [5] (see Fig. 7), in

nearly perfect agreement with Fig. 5.

passage of a bunch through the electron cloud. An expression for the electron density evolution was derived for any

longitudinal bunch profile, a linear transverse force, and

circular symmetry. The incoherent tune shift as a function of radial and longitudinal position inside the bunch has

been computed from the pinched electron distribution.

Via a simple tracking code, we have extended this study

to electrons moving in the nonlinear field of a beam with

Gaussian transverse profile. In this case, the electrons do

not reach the centre of the bunch simultaneously, and after

a quarter oscillation the density at the center of the bunch

stays roughly constant. It is easy to estimate the tune shift

from the value of this stationary density enhancement.

In the near future we plan to continue with analytical approaches to model the electron cloud phenomena, e.g., by

generalizing our calculation to the nonlinear force. Our objective is in particular to understand the causes (and even

the very existence) of a slow emittance growth on a scale

longer than the synchrotron period [6, 7, 8, 9]. We will further compare analytical results with HEADTAIL [4] simulations. We also plan to produce instability diagrams for

the electron cloud. Other challenging open questions are

the possible excitation of plasma waves by a passing bunch

and, related, the effect of longitudinal discontinuities in the

electron plasma.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Figure 6: Horizontal phase space at different time steps

(which are marked in Fig.5): t0 is when the bunch enters

into the cloud (z = 3z ), t1 correspond to the first peak,

t2 the first valley and t3 is the last peak.

We thank F. Ruggiero, G. Rumolo, K. Ohmi, Y. Papaphilippou, and D. Schulte, for helpful discussions and collaboration.

REFERENCES

[1] S.K. Dutt, et al., Direct Simulation of Beam Density Evolution in Phase Space: Preliminary Modeling in one Degree of

Freedom, SSCL-Preprint-2 (1991).

[2] K. Ohmi, S. Heifets, F. Zimmermann, Study of Coherent

Tune Shift Caused by Electron Cloud in Positron Storage

Rings, APAC01 Beijing (2001).

[3] J. Laskar, Secular Evolution of the Solar System Over 10

Million Years, Astron. Astrophys. 198, 341 (1988).

[4] G. Rumolo, F. Zimmermann, Practical User Guide for

HEADTAIL, CERN-SL-Note-2002-036 (2002).

[5] E. Benedetto et al., Transverse Monopole Instability

Driven by an Electron Cloud, Proc. PAC 2003 Portland

(2003).

frozen electron potential by a frequency-map analysis [5]

(Courtesy Y. Papaphilippou).

Effects in the Large Hadron Collider, Proc. PAC 2003 Portland (2003).

[7] Y. Cai, Emittance Growth Due to Electron Cloud in Positron

Ring, ECLOUD02 Geneva, CERN-2002-001 (2002).

[8] H. Fukuma, Electron Cloud Effects at

ECLOUD02 Geneva, CERN-2002-001 (2002).

We presented an analytical approach to compute the inoherent tune shift caused by the electron pinch during the

KEKB,

Driven by an Electron Cloud, these proceedings.

- JEE Main 2019 Chemistry January Attempt Shift - 2(09th January, 2019)Diunggah olehResonance Eduventures
- Atomic Structure Exercises by ResonanceDiunggah olehchiragjn120
- Concise Inorganic Chemistry (4th Edition) by J.D.leeDiunggah olehHari Madhavan Krishna Kumar
- Computational Finance Using MATLABDiunggah olehpopoyboys
- Exercises Module1Diunggah olehCuong Hoang Viet
- ZX210411420.pdfDiunggah olehAJER JOURNAL
- 05. Probability and Probability DistributionsDiunggah olehPutri Mulia Hasibuan
- Statistics and Probability.pdfDiunggah olehJohn Kevin Bihasa
- 16506physics Set B 17Diunggah olehashrafrazi
- Edexcel GCSE Further Additional Science Topic P3.2 X-rays and ECGs and P3.3 Production, uses and risks of ionising radiation from radioactive sourcesTest 12_13Diunggah olehPaul Burgess
- Introductory Statistics NotesDiunggah olehstefaniasiatra
- Unit v SamplingDiunggah olehSrikanth Reddy
- Atoms and MoleculesDiunggah olehalokesh1982
- The Normal DistributionDiunggah olehPratul Mishra
- A Stochastic Model, PDFDiunggah olehSoumitra Bhowmick
- Radphysics_1.docxDiunggah olehAngelica Bastes
- rosenzweig 2002 0510Diunggah olehParticle Beam Physics Lab
- MFCCDiunggah olehpushprajpachori
- Multi-dimensional numerical investigation of laser-induced particle acceleration_PSC code of H. Ruhl.pdfDiunggah olehAjit Upadhyay
- The Reality Check OctDiunggah olehLauren
- 310 4.docDiunggah olehAnonymous DwS5XA
- Solar CellDiunggah olehHimadri Mandal
- 162919544-Solar-CellDiunggah olehJust Ismail
- Trial STPM chemistry Sem 1.pdfDiunggah olehsuhaidah47
- A2Probability.pdfDiunggah olehRiddhi Pandya
- Continuous Probability Distribution-finalDiunggah olehshashank vyas
- 0625_w10_qp_12Diunggah olehHussein Shareef
- Analysis of Structures Subjected to Random Loading Using the Transfer Matrix or Numerical Integration Methods 1992Diunggah olehcisco
- MIT8_04S13_ps9_solDiunggah olehYul Lope
- L2.Atomic StructureDiunggah olehMiaka Lee

- 39Diunggah olehEddie
- 198Diunggah olehEddie
- 33Diunggah olehEddie
- 33.pdfDiunggah olehEddie
- 152Diunggah olehEddie
- 6Diunggah olehEddie
- 6Diunggah olehEddie
- 88Diunggah olehEddie
- 88.pdfDiunggah olehEddie
- Irodov_76_100_OPTDiunggah olehEddie
- Dinamiica de meriam 2aed reverteDiunggah olehEddie
- 119Diunggah olehEddie
- 29.pdfDiunggah olehEddie
- 119Diunggah olehEddie
- xDiunggah olehEddie
- 88.pdfDiunggah olehEddie
- 97Diunggah olehEddie
- 61Diunggah olehEddie
- 35Diunggah olehEddie
- 5Diunggah olehEddie
- 71Diunggah olehEddie
- 77Diunggah olehEddie
- 283Diunggah olehEddie
- 80Diunggah olehEddie
- 40Diunggah olehEddie
- 106Diunggah olehEddie
- 179Diunggah olehEddie
- 149Diunggah olehEddie
- 7Diunggah olehEddie
- 123Diunggah olehEddie

- HWsets-2011_2Diunggah olehsalim
- Kinematics Problems Set3 Solutions 2jygpyjDiunggah olehsam_roy124
- VaidyalettDiunggah olehDr Abhas Mitra
- Introduction of s.p.r. SlideDiunggah olehSaumya Tripathi
- Neilson_etal_2003.pdfDiunggah olehShadab Ilahi
- Pressure DistributionDiunggah olehMahadevan
- el1.pdfDiunggah olehdiptodevil
- 1st Long Exam Problem SetDiunggah olehKim Borja
- nlefm.pdfDiunggah olehLuiz Cordeiro
- Physical Methods NmrDiunggah olehafra1870
- Effects of Blade Tip Modifications on Wind Turbine Performance Using Vortex ModelDiunggah olehGeorgeKKonsolas
- gisDiunggah olehdigvijay909
- pons_2011cordusconjecture_r1-2Diunggah olehnubuna
- Koseki-4paper Seismic stability of reinforced soil walls.pdfDiunggah olehpabulumzeng
- Lateral Load AnalysisDiunggah olehJohn Harry Santos
- ipi116184Diunggah olehMuhammad Hisyam Habani
- A M Gabovich, A I Voitenko, J F Annett and M Ausloos- Charge- and spin-density-wave superconductorsDiunggah olehGlade680
- SPRING PROBLEMS.docDiunggah olehRaman Aylur Subramanian
- Sol Exam Jan15Diunggah olehAli Pliego
- 2013-900a Meile Boillat Schleiss Propagation of Surge Waves in Channels With Large Scale Bank RoughnessDiunggah olehAli Triki
- Mechanical Engineering_ Interview Questions for Mechanical FreshersDiunggah olehprasanthvnb6
- 1-S1024123X06468150.pdfDiunggah olehshailesh goral
- From Newton to Einstein; Changing Conceptions of the UniverseDiunggah olehPiotr Kopylowicz
- Response of Buried Steel Pipelines Subjected to Relative Axial Movement WijewickremeDiunggah olehGottfried Leibniz
- Lect02.pptDiunggah olehNandana Jammula
- On the Modeling of Spar-type Floating Offshore Wind TurbinesDiunggah olehBehairy Ahmed
- PhysicsDiunggah olehBacillus Subtilis
- EccentricDiunggah olehChypra
- Assignment MTDiunggah olehWesley See
- EPR+TheoryDiunggah olehccentellav