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Procedia Engineering 97 (2014) 1676 1682

12th GLOBAL CONGRESS ON MANUFACTURING AND MANAGEMENT, GCMM 2014

The Effect of Heat Treatment and Aging Process on Microstructure


and Mechanical Properties of A356 Aluminium Alloy Sections in
Casting
K.T. Akhila,*, SanjiviArulb, R.Sellamuthuc
a
PG Scholar,Dept. of Mech. Engg., Amrita VishwaVidyapeetham,Coimbatore-641112-India,akhilkt9@gmail.com
Assoc. Professor,Dept. of Mech. Engg., Amrita VishwaVidyapeetham,Coimbatore-641112-India,s_arul@cb.amrita.edu
c
Professor,Dept. of Mech. Engg., Amrita VishwaVidyapeetham,Coimbatore-641112-India,r_sellamuthu@cb.amrita.edu

Abstract
Aluminium A356 alloy is widely used at automobile and aircraft industries in the form of cast component with varying section
size. This study investigates how the microstructure and mechanical properties of different section size vary before and after heat
treatment and aging processes. Aluminium ingot is melted using a furnace and poured in to the mold having mold cavities of
varying dimensions. Cast components are heat treated as per ASTM standard B917-01 at a temperature of 537C for 12 hours
followed by a temperature of 155 for 5 hours. In order to investigate the effect of heat treatment and aging processes
microstructure and mechanical properties such as impact strength, hardness, and tensile strength were analysed as-cast condition
and after heat treatment and aging process.

Authors.
Published
by Elsevier
Ltd. This
is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
2014
2014The
The
Authors.
Published
by Elsevier
Ltd.
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of GCMM 2014.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of GCMM 2014

Keywords:Aluminium A356 alloy, microstructure, impact strength, hardness, tensile strength, metal casting, heat treatment, and aging.

1. Introduction
Cast A356 aluminum alloy is widely used in automotive and aircraft industries because of their excellent
properties like high strength to weight ratio, low density, high corrosion rates etc. This increased use of A356
aluminum alloy leads to a need for deeper understanding of their mechanical properties and the impacts of

* Corresponding author. Tel.:+91 9496285256.


E-mail address:akhilkt9@gmail.com

1877-7058 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of GCMM 2014

doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2014.12.318

K.T. Akhil et al. / Procedia Engineering 97 (2014) 1676 1682

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processing factors [1-2, 4]. The mechanical properties can determine by controlling the microstructures of the alloys.
For designing any part we should have a thorough understanding of solidifications at different cross sections of the
cast part and its influence on the mechanical properties [5-6, 3].Most applications of A356 alloy dependent on
mechanical properties, so the performance of this alloy has been the subject of many micro-mechanical
investigations. Mechanical properties were improved with grain refinement. Since the mechanical properties are
mainly dependent on their microstructure, a lot of efforts have been done for refining microstructure of casting to
improve the mechanical properties of aluminum alloy A356. Refinement can achieve by using power ultrasound and
electromagnetic stirring and equal channel angular pressing, or accumulative roll bonding. As-cast A356 alloys are
made up of coarse primary -Al dendrites and acicular-shaped eutectic silicon, which lowers the mechanical
properties and limits its industry application. Heat treatment and aging are important to homogenize -Al dendrites
in aluminum alloys so we can achieve better mechanical properties. Cooling rate of mold is measured by introducing
a thermocouple inside the mold [7-8]. Heat treatment and aging processes are the most important processes
determining casting microstructure and mechanical properties [1- 2, 11- 12]. As-cast A356 alloys are made up of
coarse primary -Al dendrites and acicular-shaped eutectic silicon, which lowers the mechanical properties and
limits its industry application. The mechanical properties can determine by controlling the microstructures of the
alloys [9-10]. Heat treatment and aging are important processes to homogenize -Al dendrites in aluminium alloys
[11].
2. Experimental method
Experimental apparatus consisting of four green sand molds with mold cavities of 20 mm, 40 mm, 60 mm, 80
mm diameters (section sizes). A356 aluminum alloy is melted using muffle furnace and poured to the molds.
Thermocouple tip is placed 1mm apart from mold cavity in order to avoid damage of contact tip and temperature is
monitored till there is a decrease in temperature after an initial increment. Temperature is measured using a K type
thermocouple. Temperature-Time graph were plotted for all experiments and cooling rate for each sections were
measured. Cast specimens were heat treated to ASTM standard B917-01 at a temperature of 537C for 12 hours and
followed by an aging of 5 hours.
3. Testing
In order to investigate the effect of heat treatment and aging process on microstructure and mechanical
properties, impact strength, hardness and tensile strength were measured for as-cast condition, heat treated and aged
condition. Specimens were prepared for microstructural analysis by polishing on disc polisher followed etching with
diluted hydrofluoric acid. Microstructural analysis was performed by an inverted metallurgical microscope and the
microstructures were compared. Average grain size is measured using Metal Vision software. Cast specimens were
machined to ASTM standard E23-12C, 10 mm*10 mm*75 mm for Izod test and 10 mm*10 mm*55 mm for Charpy
test. Using an impact testing machine model IT30 both impact tests Izod test and Charpy test were performed for as
cast condition and heat treated and aged condition. Cast specimens were machined to ASTM standard E8M with a
gauge length of 45mm and gauge diameter of 9mm for tensile test. Tensile test were performed on universal tensile
testing equipment and ultimate tensile stress value for as-cast condition and after heat treated and aged condition
were compared. Hardness test were performed with Vickers hardness tester by applying a load of 100kgf for 20
second both as cast condition and after heat treated condition. All tests were repeated 5 times in both as-cast and
aged and heat treated condition.
4. Results and discussion
4.1. Effect of section size on cooling rate
Fig. 1 shows cooling curves of cast specimens of varying section size. Time taken to decrease in temperature for
20 mm, 40 mm, 60 mm, 80 mm, sections were 15 minutes, 22 minutes, 27 minutes, 31 minutes respectively.
Cooling rates are measured from the graph and found to be 4 0C/minute, 30C/minute, 20C/minute and 10C/minute for

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20 mm, 40 mm, 60 mm, and 80 mm sections respectively. From the graph it is found that increasing the section size
lead to reduction of cooling rate or increase in solidification time.

Fig. 1. Cooling Curves of cast components with varying section size

4.2. Microstructure evaluation

(a)

(b)

(b)

(d)

Fig. 2. Change in microstructureof as cast specimens with variation in section size (Magnification 200X)
(a) 20 mm, (b) 40 mm, (c) 60 mm, (d) 80 mm

Fig. 2 shows change in microstructure of as-cast specimens with variation in section size and Fig 3 shows
changes in microstructure of heat treated and aged cast specimens. As-cast condition microstructure is found fine for
small section size and coarse for large section size this is due to grain refinement of smaller section size caused by
fast cooling rate. Microstructure is found much refined and uniform in all section size for heat treated and aged
condition. Fig. 4 shows as-cast, heat treated and aged conditions Grain size variation with section size. As-cast
condition average grain size was found to be 0.82 microns, 0.94 microns, 1.4 microns, 1.8 microns for 20 mm, 40

K.T. Akhil et al. / Procedia Engineering 97 (2014) 1676 1682

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mm, 60 mm, 80 mm sections respectively. It shows an increase in average grain size with increasing section size due
to reduction in cooling rate. Average grain size for heat treated and aged condition was found to be 0.52 microns,
0.59 microns, 0.56 microns, 0.58 microns for 20 mm, 40 mm, 60 mm, 80 mm sections respectively. At heat treated
and aged condition average grain size is much less compared to as-cast condition but it is almost constant with
variation in section size.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 3. Changes in microstructure of heat treated and aged cast specimens with variation in section size (Magnification 200X)
(a) 20 mm, (b) 40 mm, (c) 60 mm, (d) 80 mm

Fig.4. Variation in Grain size with section size.

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4.3. Impact test evaluation


Fig. 5 shows as-cast, heat treated and aged conditions impact strength variation with section size. As-cast
condition impact strength in Charpy test is found 67.42 KJ/m2, 60.22KJ/m2, 55.43KJ/m2, 48.31 KJ/m2 for 20 mm, 40
mm, 60 mm, 80 mm size having sections and Impact strength in Izod test is found 69.61 KJ/m 2, 62.28 KJ/m2, 54.96
KJ/m2, 47.63 KJ/m2 for the same section respectively. It indicates that as-cast condition impact strength increase
with reduction in section size. This is due to grain refinement in smaller section size caused by fast cooling rate.
Heat treated and aged condition impact strength in Charpy test is found 114.0 KJ/m2, 109.0 KJ/m2, 111.57 KJ/m2,
116.5 KJ/m2 for 20 mm, 40 mm, 60 mm, 80 mm size having sections and Impact strength in Izod test is found 113.5
KJ/m2, 109.8 KJ/m2, 113.5 KJ/m2, 106.12 KJ/m2for the same section respectively. Impact strength at heat treated
and aged conditions were improved comparing as cast condition but it is almost constant with variation in section
size. This is due to much higher grain refinement in heat treated and aged condition irrespective to section size.

Fig. 5 Variation in Impact strength with section size

4.4. Tensile test evaluation


Fig. 6 shows as-cast, heat treated and aged conditions Ultimate Tensile Stress of all cast sections. As-cast
condition Ultimate Tensile Stress is found 145.4 MPa, 142.9 MPa, 70.4 MPa, 60.1 MPa for 20 mm, 40 mm, 60 mm,
80 mm size sections respectively. It is found that as-cast condition Ultimate Tensile Stress is increased with
reduction in cast component section size. This is due to grain refinement in smaller section size caused by fast
cooling rate. Heat treated and aged condition Ultimate Tensile Stress is found 263.5 MPa, 269.3 MPa, 265.2 MPa,
258.1 MPa for 20 mm, 40 mm, 60 mm, 80 mm size sections respectively. Ultimate tensile strength at heat treated
and aged condition was improved compared to as-cast condition but it is almost constant with variation in section
size. This is due to much higher grain refinement in heat treated and aged condition irrespective to section size.

K.T. Akhil et al. / Procedia Engineering 97 (2014) 1676 1682

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Fig.6. Variation in Ultimate tensile stress with section size

4.5. Hardness test evaluation


Fig. 7 shows as-cast, heat treated and aged conditions hardness of all sections. As-cast condition Micro hardness
is found 82.6 HV, 78.3 HV, 75.2 HV, 70.4 HV for 20 mm, 40 mm, 60 mm, and 80mm size having sections
respectively. It indicates that Micro hardness of as-cast components increases as section size decreases. This is due
to grain refinement in smaller section size caused by fast cooling rate. Heat treated and aged condition hardness is
found 112.6 HV, 122.6 HV, 117.5 HV, 114.2 HV for 20 mm, 40 mm, 60 mm, and 80 mm size having sections
respectively. Heat treated and aged condition hardness was improved compared to as-cast condition but it is almost
constant with variation in section size. This is due to much higher grain refinement in heat treated and aged
condition irrespective to section size.

Fig. 7. Variation in Hardness with section size

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5. Conclusion
As-cast condition Mechanical properties such as impact strength from 48.31 KJ/m2 to 67.42 KJ/m2, Ultimate
Tensile Stress from 60.1 MPa to 145.4 MPa, Hardness from 70.4 HV to 82.6 HV were increased with decreasing
section size from 80 mm to 20 mm due to grain refinement. Heat treated and aged condition mechanical properties
such as impact strength, ultimate tensile stress, hardness were further improved but it is almost constant with
variation in section size. This is due to further grain refinement in heat treated and aged sections irrespective to
section size.
References
[1] H. Abu EI-Aini, K. Mohamed, Y. Hassan Mohammed, Effect of mold types and cooling rate on mechanical properties of Al alloy 6061 within
ceramic additives, The 2nd International conference on Energy engineering, ICEE-2, ( 2010) 27-29.
[2]G. MrwkaNowotnik, J. Sieniawski, M. Wierzbiska, Analysis of intermetallic particles In AlSi1MgMn aluminium alloy, J of Achievements in
Materials and Mfg Engg, 20 (2007)155-158.
[3] A. Boschetto, G. Costanza, F. Quadrini, M. E. Tata, Cooling rate inference in aluminium alloy squeeze casting, Materials Letters, 6 (2007)
2969-2972.
[4] Z. Li, M. Samuel, F. Samuel, C. Ravindran, S. Valtierra, H.W.Doty, Parameters controlling the performance of AA319-type alloy, Materials
Science and Engineering, 367( 2004) 96-110.
[5] S. G. Shabestari, H. Moemeni, Effect of copper and solidification conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AlSiMg
alloys, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 153-154 (2004) 193-198.
[6] J. H. Lee, H.S. Kim, C. W. Won, B. Cantor, Materials Science & Engineering. A, Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and
Processing, 338 (2002) 182190.
[7] C. H. Caceres, C. J. Davidson, R. Griffiths, The deformation and fracture behaviour of an AlSiMg casting alloy, Materials Science and
Engineering, 197 (1995) 171179.
[8] P. S. Mohanty, J. E. Gruzleski, Grain refinement mechanisms of hypoeutectic AlSi alloys, Acta Mater, 44 (1996) 374960.
[9] S. A. Kori, B. S. Murty, M. Chakraborty, Preparation and characterization of AlB and B-rich AlTiB master alloys for the grain refinement
of Al7Si alloy AFS Trans 109 (2001) 26786.
[10] D. L. Zhang, L. Zheng, The quench sensitivity of cast Al7 wt.%Si0.4 wt.%Mg alloy. Metall Mater Trans, 27 (1996), 398391.
[11]E. Ogris, A. Wahlen, Luchinger, P. J. Uggowitzer, On the silicon spheroidization in AlSi alloys. J Light Metals, 2 (2002) 2639.

TUGAS PROSES MANUFAKTUR DAN PEMILIHAN MATERIAL

MARDIANSYAH PRATAMA (1406533094)


TRIANA YUSMAN (1406533081)
DEPOK, 18 FEBRUARI 2016
TUGAS 1

JAWABAN SOAL
1. What are the condition for obtaining substitutional and interstitial solid solution?
(a) Substitutional solid solutions : Terjadi jika zat pelarut atau atom mayoritas dalam pola-pola
geometris digantikan posisinya oleh zat terlarut. Sebagai contoh atom tembaga menggantikan
posisi atom-atom nikel tanpa mengganggu struktur pola geometris nikel itu sendiri. Syarat
terjadinya Substitutional solid solution adalah:
-

Kedua atom mempunyai struktur kristal yang sama

Perbedaan jari-jari atom keduanya harus kecil dari 15 persen

(b) Interstitial solid solutions : Atom zat pelarut tidak digantikan posisinya oleh atom zat terlarut,
tapi atom zat terlarut mengisi ruang di celah-celah diantara atom-atom zat pelarut. Syarat
terjadinya Intertitial solid solution adalah:
-

Solvent mempunyai valensi yang lebih dari satu

Jari-jari atom solute kecil dari 59 persen dari jari-jari atom solvent

2. Descibe the major features of a phase diagram!


The major feature of a phase diagram : yaitu sebuah representasi grafis dari keseimbangan suhu
dan komposisi batas reaksi bidang fase dalam sistem paduan. Dalam sistem biner, suhu biasanya
ordinat dan komposisi absis. sistem terner dan lebih kompleks memerlukan beberapa diagram
dua dimensi untuk menunjukkan suhu - variabel komposisi sepenuhnya. Dalam sistem paduan,
tekanan biasanya dianggap konstan, meskipun mungkin diperlakukan sebagai variabel tambahan.
keunggulan diagram fase adalah menunjukan fase antara paduan, menghubungkan hubugan
temprature dengan karakteristik paduan, dan menunjukan titik ekuilibrium pada suatu paduaan.

Phase boundaries or lines of equilibrium: suatu garis dimana dua buah fasa bertemu pada
kondisi setimbang

Triple point: suatu titik dimana tiga buah fase bertemu dalam garis kesetimbangan (gas,
cair, padat)

3. What do the term equilibrium and constitutional as applied to phase diagram, indicate?
(a) Ekuilibrium : Yaitu Sebuah kondisi dinamis keseimbangan antara gerakan atom, di mana
resultan adalah nol dan kondisi tampaknya menjadi salah satu perhentian daripada perubahan.
(b) Constitusional: yaitu suatu keadaan pada fase diagram yang berhubungan antara kedua
struktur , komposisi, dan struktur properti fisik yang menjadi informasi dalam proses pembuatan
paduan (alloy)
4. What are precipitates? Why are they significant in precipitation hardening?Precipitates :
Yaitu suatu endapan yang tidak larut pada reaksi produk padat ionik, terbentuk ketika kation dan
anion tertentu bergabung dalam larutan cair. Faktor yang menentukan pembentukan endapan
dapat bervariasi. Endapan ini diperlukan untuk meningkatkan kekuatan struktur dari suatu bahan
sebagai yang memberikan ketahanan suhu, dalam hal ini pula endapan diperlakukan dengan
mengatur suhu untuk mendapat kan hal-hal tersebut. Tekniknya adalah dengan mendispersikan
secara seragam partikel kecil dari suatu fasa selain fasa asal ke dalam matriks dari fasa asal.
5. Describe the characteristics of ferrite, austenite, and cementite!
(a) Ferrite : Larutan padatan yang bisa disebut -Fe. Yang didalam larutannya terdapat karbon
dalam jumlah yang terbatas dalam ukuran B.C.C (body cube cubik) dengan bentuk struktur
menyerupai kristal dengan Fe utuh terletak dipusatnnya.
(b) Austenite: Larutan padatan yang bisa disebut -Fe. Dimana Fe nya terdistribusi secara
Interestitial dengan karbon menempati secara Interestitial. Hal ini menyebabkan austenite lebih
padat dari pada feritte. Namun austenite hanya akan bersifat ductile apabila pada suhu tinggi ,
sehingga mudah dibentuk pula.
(c) Cementite: Yaitu Besi karbida Fe3C, struktur ini bersifat sangat keras dan struktur ini juga
dipengaruhi oleh karbidanya (sementite) dalam menentukan kekerasnnya.
6. What is the purpose of annealing?
Tujuan utama dari proses annealing adalah untuk mengurangi kekerasan dari baja dan membuat
struktur yang mudah dilakukan proses pemesinan. Selain itu anneling bertujuan untuk
memperbaiki sifat sifat antara lain:

1.mampu mesin
2.mampu bentuk
3.keuletan
4.kehomogenan struktur
5.menghilangkan tegangan dalam
6.persiapan struktur unutk proses perlakuan panas
7. Decribe the engineering significance of the existence of a eutectic point in phase diagram!
Eutectic point in phase diagram : Titik leleh komposisi hanya pada suhu (suhu eutektik/Te) atau
perpotongan antara kurva likuidus dan garis solidus. Dalam hal ini titik eutektik sangat penting
keberadaannya karna titik ini menunjukkan komposisi kimia dan suhu yang sesuai dengan titik
leleh terendah dari campuran komponen.
8. It generally is not desirable to use steels in their as quenched condition. Explain why?
Dalam hal ini pada dasarnya steel ingin di potong atau di ubah bentuknya dengan cara di
panaskan dengan di panaskan steel akan lebih mudah untuk dibentuk. Namun ketika di dinginkan
atau pada kondisi dingin steel cenderung menjadi lebih mudah untuk getas (rapuh) sehingga steel
akan mudah hancur dan tidak dapat dipakai atau diubah bentuknya. Hal ini lah yang menjadi
alasan mengapa pada umumnya not desirable to use steels in their as quenched condition.
9. Descibe thee characteristics of an alloy, pearlite, eustenite, martensite and cementite!
(a) an Alloy : yaitu suatu campuran/paduan dua atau lebih unsur kimia yang salah satunya adalah
logam. bentuk dasar dari an alloy (paduan) adalah larutan padat dan senyawa intermetalik. kuat,
keras, dan rapuh. Karena titik leleh tinggi, kekuatan pada suhu tinggi, ketahanan oksidasi yang
baik, dan kepadatan relatif rendah, an alloy adalah bahan kandidat untuk aplikasi seperti mesin
turbin gas. Seperti Aluminides of titaniu (Ti_3 Al), nikel (Ni_3 Al), and iron (Fe
_3 Al).

(b) Pearlite : Pearlite is a tw-phased, lamellar (or layered) structure composed of alternating
layers of ferrite (88 wt%) and cementite (12 wt%) that occurs in some steels and cast irons. In
fact, the lamellar appearance is misleading since the individual lamellae within a colony are
connected in three dimensions; a single colony is therefore an interpenetrating bicrystal of ferrite
and cementite. In an iron-carbon alloy, during slow cooling pearlite forms by a eutectoid reaction
as austenite cools below 727 C (1,341 F) (the eutectoid temperature). Pearlite is a
microstructure occurring in many common grades of steels.
(c) Austenite : Larutan padatan yang bisa disebut -Fe. Dimana Fe nya terdistribusi secara
Interestitial dengan karbon menempati secara Interestitial. Hal ini menyebabkan austenite lebih
padat dari pada feritte. Namun austenite hanya akan bersifat ductile apabila pada suhu tinggi ,
sehinnga mudah dibentuk pula.
(d) Martensite : Martensit terbentuk pada baja karbon dengan pendinginan cepat (quenching) dari
austenit pada kecepatan yang tinggi dalam atom karbon sehingga tidak punya waktu untuk
berdifusi keluar dari struktur kristal dalam jumlah cukup besar untuk membentuk sementit
(Fe3C). Akibatnya, austenit kubik berpusat muka berubah ke bentuk berpusat badan yang sangat
tegang tetragonal dari ferit yang jenuh dengan karbon. Deformasi geser yang dihasilkan
menghasilkan dislokasi, yang merupakan mekanisme penguatan utama baja. Kekerasan tertinggi
dari baja perlitik adalah 400 Brinell sedangkan martensit dapat mencapai 700 Brinell. Salah satu
perbedaan antara dua fase adalah bahwa martensit memiliki struktur kristal Body-Centered
tetragonal (BCT), sedangkan austenit memiliki struktur Face-Centered Cubic (FCC).
(e) Cementite : Yaitu Besi karbida Fe3C, struktur ini bersifat sangat keras dan struktur ini juga
dipengaruhi oleh karbidanya (sementite) dalam menentukan kekerasnnya.
10. Explain why carbon, among all elements, is so effective in imparting strenght to iron in
the form steel?
Karena carbon merupakan unsur dasar dan penting dalam sebuah alloy baja. Karbon merupakan
paduan utama dan pengaruhnya sangat besar pada baja dengan membentuk karbida Fe3C /
sementit yang keras. Karbon merupakan unsur 'pengeras utama' pada baja. Jika kadar Carbon
ditingkatkan maka akan meningkatkan kekuatannya akan tetapi nilai impactbaja tersebut akan
menurun. Penambahan karbon akan meningkatkan kekerasan dam kekuatan baja. Tetapi sifat

elastisitas, kemampuan untuk di tempa, di las dan di mesin akan menurun. Kandungan karbon di
dalam baja sekitar 0,1 1,7 %, sedangkan unsur lainya dibatasi presentasinya sesuai dengan
kegunaan baja.
11. A typical steel for tubing is AISI 1040, and one for music wire is 1085. Considering their
application explain the reason for the difference in carbon content!
AISI 1040 dan AISI 1085 memiliki kandungan karbon yang berbeda dan yang sangat mencolok
adalah AISI 1085 terdapat tambahan karbon yang lebih banyak didalamnnya sehingga disebut
carbon steel. Terlihat dari tabel bahwa kekuatan kedua material ini sama tetapi dengan
banyaknya kandungan karbon didalam AISI 1085 membuat material ini menjadi lebih lentur
sehingga sering digunakkan untuk wire.

The Effect of Heat Treatment and Aging Process on Microstructure


and Mechanical Properties of A356 Aluminium Alloy Sections in
Casting
K.T. Akhil, SanjiviArul, R.Sellamuthu

Aluminium A356 sangat banyak digunakan pada industri automotive dan aircraft.
Material ini mempunyai mechanical properties yang sangat baik, seperti tahan terhadap korosi,
kuat dan ringan. Oleh karena itu pengembangan terhadap metrial ini sangat penting mengingat
perlakuan panas terhadap logam dapat meningkatkan mechanical properties dari bahan itu
sendiri. Mechanical properties juga dapat ditingkatkan dengan cara grain refinement karena
mechanical properties suatu material sangat bergantung pada microstructure nya.
Refiniment dapat dicapai dengan menggunakan kekuatan ulltrasound, electromagnetic
stirring, dan accumulative roll bonding. Campuran aluminium A356 tuang dibuat dari -Al
dendrites kasar dan acicular-shaped eutectic silicon yang menpunyai mechanical properties
yang relatif rendah dan jarang digunakan dalam dunia industri. Perlakuan panas sangat penting
untuk memadukan -Al dendrites kedalam aluminium sehingga didapatkan mechanical
properties yang lebih baik.
Setelah dilakukan percobaan didapatkan bahwa perlakuan panas dapat merubah
microstructure aluminium A356.

Microstructure dari suatu material juga akan berubah apabila cooling rate direduksi

Jadi, dapat disimpulkan bahwa mechanical properties pada aluminium A356 dapat
ditingkatkan melalui perlakuan panas terhadap bahan tersebut. Seperti hasil yang didapatkan
dari percobaan dimana kekuatan A356 bertambah dari semulanya 48.31 KJ/m2 menjadi 67.42
KJ/m2, Tensile Stress meningkat dari 60.1 MPa menjadi 145.4 Mpa, Hardness dari 70.4 HV
menjadi 82.6 HV. Pengurangan section size juga berpengaruh dalam proses grain refinement,
dimana semakin kecil section size maka mechanical properties juga akan semakin baik. Namun,
section size tidak berpengaruh pada proses heat treatment.