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An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that

renames another noun right beside it.

position like for example despite the glacial

Function of Nouns

mountainside, the stones is the subject of the

Review: A noun is a person, a place, or a

action many stones remained on the


thing. Nouns can serve several functions in a

The subject is also that element which exists

sentence. A noun can be used as the subject,

when used with verbs denoting states of being

the direct object, and/or the indirect object of a

such as be, become, remain, appear as, etc.

sentence. It can also serve as the object of a

preposition and the subject complement or the
predicate nominative.
Definition written on a Cartolina:
Noun as the subject: A subject tells whom or
what a sentence is about, it is the one
carrying out the action of the verb.

Definition written on a Cartolina:

Noun as the Direct Object: answers whom
or what after an action verb, it is the receiver
of the action.
Explanation: The direct object names the
receiver of the action; It is the person or thing
to which the action is being directed. It is a

Explanation: It is the person or element that is

word, phrase, or clause that follows a

performing the action of the verb. They are

transitive verb, and answers to the questions

easy to define because it is usually at the

"who?" or "what?"

beginning of the sentence like for example Mr.

Ram leads the team. Mr. Ram" is the subject
of the verb leads.
Example written on a Cartolina:
1. He is writing.
Explanation: In this example, He is the subject
of the verb, for He is the do-er, actor, or that is
responsible for carrying out the event in the

More info: The direct object is never

connected into the sentence via some
mitigating word such as a preposition, rather it
is acted upon directly hence the term direct
Like for example: written on the board
2. She has discovered many comets.

sentence with which the verb has grammatical

She has discovered many comets.

She is the subject, has discovered is the

agreement. However you have to be careful

action verb, then ask she has discovered

because sometimes subjects can be in an

what? Comets, so comets is the direct object

unusual order, which is why it is never

of the sentence. Comets is not a predicate

guaranteed that subject is always in the first

noun in this sentence, because it does not

More info: The subject is the element in the

follow a linking verb and does not rename or

the chairperson? wherein chairperson is the

define the subject.

indirect object.

Definition written on a Cartolina:

Definition written on a Cartolina:

Noun as the Indirect Object: tells to whom

Noun as the subject complement: Renames

or for whom the action is done

or defines the subject after a linking verb.

Explanation: The person or animate being


who receives the direct object is called an

indirect object. It is a word, phrase, or clause
that follows a ditransitive (means to have a
subject and two objects)verb and answers the
question "to or for whom?" or "to or for what".
Sometimes they are called as beneficiaries.
Sentences with an indirect object usually
contain a direct object as well.
Example written on the board
3. The committee is forwarding us the

A noun that is equal to, or renames the

subject, is called a predicate nominative or the
subject complement, complements are words
that completes the meaning of the verb. It
usually appears after the verb. The predicate
nominative can never be the object of a
preposition and will always be in the
nominative case. Predicate nominatives can
only be used when the verb is intransitive (no
direct object in the sentence).


Example written on the board:


4. My brother is a businessman.

The committee is forwarding us the report.



Committee is the subject of the sentence;

forwarding is the verb, to whom? Us is the

indirect object followed by the direct object. It
is us that receive the direct object.
More info: Also indirect objects are found in
sentences where the verb indicates in some
way an action of giving or telling, and in this
sentence the verb forwarding also means of
giving something. Indirect objects often show
up after the words to and for when the sense
of the verb means giving or telling like for
example Would you please write a letter to

My brother is a businessman.
SC of the sentence,
Brother is the subject
followed by a linking verb, then businessman
is the subject complement for it renames the
subject which is brother.
More info: Subject complements can also
appear with words/equational verbs such as
be, remain, become or look like for example
You look like a million dollars wherein million
dollars is the SC. And also they can appear
after the word as for example She was

serving as the president of the department

some coffee for the elderly woman wherein

wherein president is the subject complement.

woman is the object of preposition.

Definition written on a Cartolina:

Function of Pronouns

Noun as the object of preposition: A noun

Review: By definition a pronoun is a word that

(or pronoun) connected into a sentence via a

is used in place of a noun or a noun phrase.

preposition is called the object of a

Pronouns therefore take the positions of


nouns in sentences. For example, instead of

The object of a preposition is the noun or
pronoun governed by a preposition.
Remember, preposition is a word such as on,
for, at or it is a set of words that indicates
location (in near, beside, on top, beside) time
(week, On Thursday, within a month) and etc.
A preposition is not a preposition unless it
goes with a related noun or pronoun called the

saying: Peter is the thief, I can replace the

noun Peter with the pronoun he and form
the sentence like this: He is the thief.
The grammatical function of a pronoun is said
to be the work or the job that the pronoun is
doing in a sentence. Unlike some other parts
of speech which are capable of performing
only a single function in a sentence, a
pronoun can perform a variety of functions in
a given sentence.

object of the preposition

Subject of the verb

Example written on the board:

Object of the verb

5. Inside every cynical person, there is a

Complement of the verb

disappointed idealist George Carlin

Object of the preposition

Apposition to a noun


Let us now take a look at each of these

functions of a pronoun one after the other.

In this quote, the preposition is inside, and

Definition written on a Cartolina

the object of preposition is the person. Every

and cynical are modifiers in the sentence.

Pronoun as the subject of the Verb: A

pronoun is said to be the subject of a verb

More info: These nouns can never be a

when it is used as the subject in the sentence

subject, direct object or predicate nominative.

and comes before the main verb.

Though there is some incertitude whether the

object of a preposition can also be the indirect
object, for example A young man poured

Explanation: Here, the pronoun will always

come before the main verb in the sentence. It
is also the one the entire sentence focuses
on. Simply put, whenever a pronoun is used

as the subject in a sentence, then it functions

as the subject of a verb.
Examples shown on the Cartolina:

He is very sick.

I hate the way the movie ended.

She likes me.

Definition showed on the cartolina:

Pronoun as the complement of the verb: In
this instance, the pronoun comes after a
linking verb or a state-of-being verb but
receives no action from the verb.
Explanation: A pronoun can also function as a
complement of a verb. When a pronoun
functions as a complement of a verb, what it

Explanation: All the highlighted pronouns in

the sentences above are all subjects and they
are therefore functioning as subjects of their
respect verbs. For example, in sentence 1, the
pronoun he is functioning as the subject to
the verb is.
Definition written on a Cartolina:
Pronoun as the Object of the Verb: A

basically does is it comes after a linking verb

or state-of-being verb and receives no action
from the verb.
Examples shown on Cartolina

The thief was he.

It was I who called you last night.

The winner was he.

pronoun is used as an object of a verb when it

comes after the verb and receives the action
of the verb.

Definition shown on the Cartolina

Pronoun as the Object of Preposition: A

Explanation:. It normally comes at the

pronoun functions as an object of a

predicate of the sentence and will always

preposition when it comes after a preposition.

come after an action verb so it can receive the

action of the verb.
Examples shown on the Cartolina

James slapped me.

I kissed her.

Elton likes her a lot.

Explanation: Each of the highlighted pronouns

above is functioning as an object of the verb
coming before it. They are all objects because
they are receiving action from their respective
action verbs.

Explanation: When a pronoun functions as an

object of a preposition, it always comes after a
preposition. Any pronoun coming after a
preposition is the object of the preposition.
Examples shown on the Cartolina:

I bought the book for her.

The teacher is angry with us.

I want to go with you.

I took a picture of her.

Explanation: The words for, with, of, to are all

NOTE: Of all the functions of pronouns, it is

prepositions. It therefore goes without saying

that all the highlighted pronouns coming after
them are objects of the prepositions. For
example, in the first sentence, the pronoun
her is functioning as the object of the
preposition for.

the last function that is rarely used in


Definition shown on the Cartolina:

Present, Past and Future Tenses

Review: Verb tense tells you when the action
happens, and they are tools that English
speakers use to express time in their
language. There are three main verb tenses:
present, past, and future

Pronoun as the Apposition to a Noun: It

comes after a noun and either renames the
noun or tells us something more about the

Explanation: Pronouns can also be used as

appositives. When a pronoun functions in
apposition to a noun, what it does is it comes
after a noun in the sentence or statement and
renames the noun or tells readers something
more about the noun.

Examples shown on the Cartolina

The boys, those who killed the dog,

have gone.

My friends, those who stood by me,

Present tense: the verb that shows action

that happens regularly/now.
Example: I learn English.
Explanation: The sentence that describes that
is happening right now. Use the Simple
Present to express the idea that an action is
repeated or usual. The action can be a habit,
a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or
something that often happens. It can also be
something a person often forgets or usually
does not do. Can also indicate the speaker
believes that a fact was true before, is true
now, and will be true in the future.

have all been rewarded.

Past tense: the verb shows action that
Explanation: The pronoun those is
functioning in apposition to the noun boys in
the first sentence and the noun friends in the
second sentence.


You can clearly see that the pronoun those

can be used to rename the nouns in the
sentences above.

Explanation: Sentence that describes that

Example: I learned English the last two years.

something happened in the past. It can be

used with a duration which starts and stops in
the past. A duration is a longer action often

indicated by expressions such as: for two

Will often suggests that a speaker will do

years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.

something voluntarily. A voluntary action is

Can also be used to describe a habit which

one the speaker offers to do for someone

stopped in the past. It can have the same

else. It is also usually used in promises.

meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we

are talking about a habit, we often add
expressions such as: always, often, usually,
never, when I was a child, when I was







will finish



will walk



will like



will talk



will help

younger, etc. Can also be used to describe

past facts or generalizations which are no
longer true
Future tense: The verb that shows action that
will happen.
Example: I will learn English next year.
Explanation: The sentence that describes

Be going to expresses that something is a

plan. It expresses the idea that a person
intends to do something in the future. It does
not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.

something that is going to happen in the

future. Simple Future has two different forms
in English: will and be going to. Although
the two forms can sometimes be used
interchangeably, they often express two very
different meanings.Both will and be going
to refer to a specific time in the future.
[will + verb]
FORM Be Going To
[am/is/are + going to + verb]

a. Present tense is the original verb
b. Past tense has a few patterns.
c. Future tense needs will (shall)+
I eat lunch in my office.
I ate lunch an hour ago.
I will eat lunch in one hour.
I cook my supper every night.
I cooked our dinner already.
I will cook breakfast tomorrow.