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IADCYSPE

lADC/SPE 19963
Design and Development of High-Strength, Sour Service Drillpipe
R.M. Shivers ill, Texaco U.S.
A.;

J.B. Greer, Greer Engineering Co.; and J.E. Smith, Hughes Tool Co.

SPEMembers

copyright 1SS0, lADC/SPE Drlllng Conference.


This paper wee prepared for preeenta!ion at the l=

IAIXXSFE Orilllng Conference held in Houston, Texas, February 27-March 2, 19S0.

This paper wae eeleeted for preeentatlon by an IADCLSPE Program Commlttea following review of informatkrn contained in an abstract submitted by the author(a). Ccni6!lt$ of the
papar, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petrolaum EnQlnOSra
orthe InternationalAaeociatlonof Drilling Contrectoraand are sub)ectto correction Ey Ihe author(a).
Tka material, se presented, does not neceeaarily reflect any positionof the IAN or SPE, its officers, or mombefe. Papers presented at IALWSPE meetings are aubjeotto publketkm
review by Editorial Commltteea of the IADO and SPE. Permission to copy Is restricted to an abstract of not more than300 words. Illustralione may not be capbd. The abstract should
mtein correpkuouaaCkrWb8dQMSntof W@re and by *m
* PSPWia Pfeeented.Write pufJf~t~
MWVSQSJI
*E. p-o.

SOX
m.

Abntraat

Drillpipe for deep, sour, highly


deviated, abnormally pressured Norphlet
wells in the Mobile Bay Area requires
tensile and torsional strength in excess of
conventional API Grade X-95 drillpipe with
NC50 tool joints.
It was decided to
construct a drillstring from 105,000 psi
[724 MPa] minimum yield strength steels
with optimum chemical composition for
welding, toughness, and resistance to H2S
exposure. Design load requirements led to
the selection of a tool joint with a
secondary torque shoulder.
Quality
assurance testing indicated that an SSC
resistant, Grade CG-105 grade drillpipe is
feasible to manufacture.

R~~~I ~ ~

-C T*I~

The Norphlet is generally sour across


the entire Mississippi -Alabama-Florida
Well tests in Alabama State
region.
Waters, show ii2Sconcentrations up to 8.8
Concentrations in wells
z401e percent.
drilled in Federal waters are much
less than 1.0 Mole
lower-- generally
percent.
The first two prospects to be drilled
required directional wells under shipping
fairways in OCS waters in Mobile Blooks 872
and 869. The initial exploratory wells for
these leases would require horizontal
displacements of 2,800 ft and 6,000 ft [850
m and 1830 m], respectively. Torque and
drag analysis indicated that conventional
API Grade X-95 drill pipe would not have
adequate strength to drill either of these
two wells with an acceptable design factor.

Introduction
Commercial gas reserves have been
discovered
in Mobile
Bay and the
surrounding
offshore
areas
in the
ultradeep, sour, abnormally pressured
Norphlet Sandstone. Production intervals
in the Mobile Bay Area range from 20,000
feet to 25,000 feet [6100 m to 7600 m] in
depth necessitating
a high strength
drillstring suitable for directional
drr::ing with possible exposure to sour

Some operators have overcome the


torque and drag problems introduced by
ultra deep ~irectional drilling by using
API Spec 5D , S-135 drillpipe; however,
~-$ i:~stry
this violates generally accepte
was
practice for H S drilling.
decided to cons+ ruct a drillstring from
105,000 psi [724 MPaJ minimum yield
strength steels with optimum chemical
composition for welding, toughness and
resistance to H2S exposure~ termed CG-105.

All of Texacols leasehold in the Lower


Mobile Bay area lies in the federal waters,
rig. 1. The Norphlet lies between 21,000
and 23,000 ft [6400 and 7000 m] on the
Texaco leases. Several of these leases are
crossed by shipping fairways necessitating
directional drilling to exploit reserves.

Drill String Design


ZZ9U!2iUUR?XK~
Drillstrixt:torque and drag analYsis
was conducte~ &sing a computer program
developed by &he Joint Industry Drilling
Engineering Association Extended Reach
Drilling Program. The program calculates
torque aiui drag as the product of the

---------------------------References and illustrationsat end of paper


..

4s1

DESIGN AND DEVEIA2PMENTOF HIGH STRENGTH, SOEA SERVICE DRILL PIPE

Fig. 3. This tool joint has the same thread


form as the 5-1/2 in. [14 cm] Full Hole.
It features a secondary torque shoulder on
the pin nose to increase torsional
capacity. When the joint is Whandtightw,a
gap of 0.009w+/-0.003w[0.23 am +/-0.08 mm]
exists between the secondary shoulder on
the pin and the mating sesondary shoulder
in the box. The gap closes when the joint
is made-up power tight, and rotational
friction between the secondary shoulders
boosts the torsional
yield of
the
connection. The connection performance is
sensitive to the handtight gap clearance,
but Eor all cases, it satis2ies the
drillstringdesign criteria.

Laterdl force of the drill string against


the borehole, drill string diameter, and a
friction factor. Actual torque and drag
data from two offset directional wells were
history matched to determine friction
Torque and drag versus
factor vulues.
horizontal displacementwere calculated for
both steel and aluminum drillstring
in
both oil and water base muds.
Apparent friction factors derived from
directional wells drilled with water
base mud were unexpectedly high. Friction
factors for drag ranged up to 0.80 and for
up to 0.62. These friction facto:us
torque,
include escalation to account for miilor
wellbore undulations.
offset

Nickel electroplatingwas selected as


the primary anti-gallingprotection for the
connection based on experience. Only the
box member was nickel platel because nickel
on nickel will gall unless one member is
hardened.

Both oil base mud and aluminum


drillpipe substantially lower predicted
torque and drag. The use of these two
options would have eliminated the need for
special steel drillpipe. Howover, this
option was rejected because of concern
regarding the ability of aluminum drillpipe
to retain its strength in the 400F [204C]
BHST drilling environment. The practical
limit for steel drillpipe in water base mud
appeared to be 6,000 ft [1830 m] horizontal
displacement and this was adequate to drill
the two initial exploratory wells.

The largest high torque connector


previously used was an HT-50 (4-1/2 IF
equivalent); therefore, a test program was,
conducted to confirm performance properties
of the HT-55 before beginning production.
lwo prototype connections were manufactured
representing the maximum and IniniIRum
gap
range 0.006- 0.012 in. [0.15- 0.30 mm].
The connections were strain gaged in
critical stress areas on the ID and OD.
Makeup tests were conducted to determine an
optimum maJceup torqus of 40,000 ft-lbs (54
were
200 N-m). The made up connections
loaded in a test frame to monitor the
effects of combined tension, torsion~ and
bending loads at ambient temperature and
300F [149C].
A summary of the test
results are shown in Tsble 1.

2 Giiows that the practical


rig.
tensile limit (80% yield) on new 5~0,25.6#
[12.7 cm, 38.1 kg/ra], X-95 drillpipe is
exceeded with only 2000 ft [600 m]
Torque and drag for the
displacement.
6,000 ft [1800 m] displacement
were
estimated at 40,000 ft-lb [54 200 N-m]
drilling torque and 800,000 pounds [3 559
000 N] pickup load. The design criteria
called for drill pipe capable of handling
these loads with minimum tensile SF = 1.25
and torsional SF = 1.5 under combined
loading conditions.

Strain gage testing showed that


yielding is not a limitin~ ~~ctor for
Notational
expected service loads.
displacement transducerswere used to check
for relative movement between the box and
pins. These showed that the limiting
factor on tool joint performance was
additional makeup at 300F (149C) under
combined tensile and torsion loading. rig.
4 shows the threshold torque for additional
makeup as a function of tension.

JZUIR$UU!fZ@D
Standard API equations5 for tool joint
tensile and torsional strength do not
account for combined tension and torsion
load effects. Special equations were used
in the tool joint design to account for
combined load effects.6
Fishing considerations limited the
maximum tool joint O.D. to 7.5 in. [19 cm]
in the 9.5 in. [24 cm] drift drilling
liner. The largest API tool joints that
fit within this dimension were the 5-1/2
in. [14 cm]_Full Hole and 6-5/8 in. [17 cm]
Regular. Neither of these connections
satisfied criteria for combined load design
and manufacturing ease.
!U221-

IADC/SPE 19963

Drillpipe Metallurgy
The Texaco CG-105 drillpipe
along
was formulated
specification
traditional
high quality OCTG pipe
manufacturing principles to meet the
following objectives:
1. Achieve good SSC resistance in the
105,000 psi [724 Mpa] minimum yield
strength 5-1/5~$[14 cm] internal-external
upset pipe.

~evelo~ment

Because the API 5-1/2 in. [14 cm] Full


Hole and 6-5/8 in. [17 cm] connections did
not meet the design criterial a high
torsio al strength tool joint, named the
HT-55,Y was considered as an alternative,

2. Achieve tool joint toughness and SSC


resistance comparable to the pipe~
considering the additional thickness of
---

432

IADWSPE 19963

ROBERT M. SHIVERS, III, J. 8RXSON GREER AND JACKIE E. SMITH

the tool joint.


Achieve good weldability, hardness
3.
COntrOl, improved toughness and SSC
resistance in the pipe to tool joint
weldment.
~~
The nominal dimensions, Table 2, for
the tubes, tube-upsets and tool joints are
important factors in selecting chemical
compositions suitable for subsequent heat
treatment processes. The cross-sectionfor
the tool joint is mere than four times as
large, and the ID area available for
quenching is decreased compared to the
tube. The quench and tempered tube and its
upset must be spin-friction or inertia
welded to the tool joint. This compositechemistry weld area must be heat treated
again,
without affecting either the nonupset pipe or tool joints previous heat
treu~aent, in order to have good toughness
and hardness control.
Literature sources8-lo suggested that
chromium-molybdenumsteel having moderate
manganese and carbon contents and produced
by a fine grain, clean melt practice could
have the desired metallurgical properties.
Reported chemical compositions are shown in
~eble 3 for the both pipe and tool joints.
Manganese, chromium and molybdenum are the
primary allaying elements varied between
the drill pipe and tool joint chemical
compositions in order to account for the
varying hardenability requirement due to
wall thickness. Results of the as-quenched
ROCkWell C hardness test used to determine
percent Martensite obtained during heat
treatment of the tubes and tool joints are
shown in T8ble 4.

While both the tubes and the tool


joints have a minimum yield strength of
105,000 psi [724 MPa], the weldnent is
designed for a minimum yield of R0,000 psi
[552 HPa]. This was to insure that maximum
hardness in the weld area did not xceed
Rockwell C 30 in spite of the fact that
minimum and maximum hardness and yield
strength ranges in welds are much wider and
more difficult to control than in the tubes
and tool joints.
The enlarged cross
sectional area of the weld upset more than
compensates for the reduced yield strength.
~~~!U@Ul
Tensile specimens were removed from
the t~bes, tool joints, HAZ, and wald lines
of production pipe and tested for sulfide
stress cracking <sSC) resistance accurding
to NACE TX-01-77. 1 Figs. 6 and 7 shov the
SSC threshold stress for pipe, tool joint&,
and weld areas cn both the CG-105 drillpipe
and typical API X-95 drillpipe.
run Soale Impact Teasion Te8tiEg

In the full scale impact tension test,


14,000 lbs [63 500 kg] of drill collars
were made up on the bottom of a joint of
The drill pipe was then
drill pipe.
dropped 27 ft [8.2 m] in air and caught on
the box shoulder by an anvil. Typically,
drill pipe will stretch 11 in. [28 cm] and
fail in the pipe body on the third drop.
The C!G-105drillpipe was dropped six times,
stretched 12.5 in. [32 cm], and did not
fail.
Field Experience
Initial make and break tests on the
rig indicated that minor galling in the
last engaged thread occured at 45,000 ft-lb
[61,000 N-m] torque. Therefore maximum
make up torque was limited to 40,000 ft-lb
[54 200 N-m].

~~m-~
The tube upset is welded to the tool
joint by spin-friction or inertia welding.
After inertia welding, the weldment heat
affected zone (HAZ) is again Q&T heat
treated to restore ductility. This process
is conducted using a forced air quench and
automated induction heating tempering
process which was again followed with a
long soak (1 hour at temperature)tempering
process using thermal blankets. Welding
and heat treatment of the weldment were
qualified by tensile, hardness and impact
testing. Brinell hardness checking was
employed as a control to ensure that each
weldment was properly tempered.
liWllUL~21S2@AtuiUK?AGk

On the first well, a hydraulic make up


unit incorporating a stabbing guide was
used to spin and make up all connections on
S~me mousehole
trips while drilling.
connections were made with manual tongs.
Drill string inspection after the first
well showed that nearly 80 percent of
joints were bent and required straightening
while 67 percent of connections required
recutting due to galling. The galling was
attributed to damage while stabbing, while
the bent joints were thought to be a result
of using manual tongs.

Zk@S

Specification
requirements
and
summarized test results for the as-quenched
and tempered Rockwell hardness rings taken
from the tubes, tool joints and weldments
are given in l%blos S nd 6, respectively
and illustrated in Fig. 5. The associated
tensile and transverse Charpy V impact test
properties are shown in T@le 7.

On the second well, a stabbing guide


and hydraulic make-up unit were used for
connections.
all trip and mousehole
Subsequent inspection showed that 44
percent of joints were bent and only 17
percent of the connections
required
recutting.
.-

.
4

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH STRENGTH, SO~ SERVICE DRILL PIPE

XADC/SPE 19963

A eidp benefit of &he 5--1/2in. [14


cm] drill pipe waE.its ability to run the
long, heavy (8,500 ft, 500,000 lb) [2590 m,
2 224 000 N] drilling liners required in
the casing program.

Conolusioas
A special 5-1/2ti[14 cm] O.D. x 0.550H
and 0.750 [0.?7 cm x 1.9
cm]
wall
thickness drillstring was designed and
manufactured that:

summary

1. Provides sulfide stress cracking


resistance superior to X-95 drillpipe
despite increased wall thickness and
minimum yield strength,

specifications,
Metallurgical
manufacturing
procedures and quality
control resulted in a drillstring with
relatively low hardness, high toughness and
its
Ssc resistance .for
strength.
Experience has shown that G-105 drillpfpe
typically lies in the 25-35 Rockwell C
hardness range as compared to an HRC 22-30
range obtained with this string. This
improvement is due to the restricted yield
etrength range of the CG-105 drillpipe,
105,000-120,000psi [724-827 MPa] in tubes
and 110,000-130,000 psi [758-896 MPa] in
tool joints, and also to the higher yield
to tensile strength ratio associated with
fully transforming and high tempering
temperature, chromium-molybdenumsteels.

2. Can handle torque and drag up to


40,000 ft-lbs [54 200 N-m] rotation and
;~O&,000 pounds [3 559 000 N] pick up
3* Performs well under simulated dropped
impact :.oading,and
4. Provides a means to safely run long,
heavy, drilling and production liners.

Weldability of the upset tubes to the


tool joints was excellent with no problems
being experienced during manufacture.
Transverse Charpy V impact tests of the
wel< line were above 50 ft-lbs [68 N-m].
Typ.tally, impact energies are below 25
ft-lbs [34 N-m] for drillstring pipe to
tool joint weldments. The measured impact
energies of the tubes, tool joints and
weldments were all well in excess of the
critical toughness needed to prevent
brittle fracture according the criteria of
API Spec 5CT12 Grade Q-125.

API Specification 5D, Specification


for Drillpipe, First Edition, March 15,
1988,N American Petroleum Institute, 211 N.
Ervay, suite 1700, Dallas, Texas 75201.
1.

2. H. M. Rollins, Drill-StemFailures Due


to H S,w The Oil and Gas Journal, 1966,
82-8z.
3* L. P. Grizzaffi and B. M. Thompson,
HDrilling and Testing of Deep Wells With
in southern
High H2S concentration
Missisaippi,n presented at the API Division
of Production
Spring Meeting of the
Southern District, 1970.

Sulfide stress cracking tests taken as


a quality assurance
measure showed that the
heavy wall composite drillpipe structure
had SSC resistance which approached that of
sour environment production tubulars,
despite the 105,000 psi minimum yield
strength of the tubes and tool joints.
Analysis of threshold stresses on a crosssectional area basis indicated that the
design of the CG-105 drillpipe was balanced
frora an SSC as well as a mechanical
perspective.

4. W. L. Kirk, C:DeepMississippi Drilling


Petroleum
of
Practices, 1$ Journal
Technology, June, 1972, 633-642.
API Recommended
Practice RP 7G,
5*
llReco~ended practice for Drill Stem DeSigII
and Operating Limits,!American Petroleum
Institute, 211 N. Ervay, Suite 1700,
Dallas, Texas 75201.
llLoad
l!fannesmann-Roehenwerke,
6.
Diagrams--DrillPipe and Tool Joints, July
1985 Edition, 11-14.

Reported13 SSC threshold stress values


for G-105 drillpipe and tool joints lie in
the 30-45 percent of yield stress range,
while threshold SSC values for x-135
drillpipe are in the 10-20 percent of yield
strength stress range.
Threshold SSC
stresses for the CG-105 drillpipe were
above 80 percent of the minimum yield
strength for the pipe body and above 50
percent for the tool joint and weld areas.

7. HT-55 is a proprietary tool joint


product designation of Hughes Tool Company,
5425 Polk Street, Houston, Texas 77252.
8. P. J. Grc::ner,D. L. Sponseller and W.
w. Cias, wDevelopment of Higher-Strength
HzS-Resistant Steels for Oil Field Applicatlons,llclimax Molybdenum Co. ~ Novemberc
1973.

Impact-tension prototype tests also


confirmed
the
viability
of
the
manufacturing process and toughness of the
drillpipe assembly.
The pipe suffered
significant damage after being used on the
first well, but damage was greatly reduced
on the second well through better pipe
handling practices.

9. A. lkeda, S. Nagata, T. Tsumura, Y.


Nara and M. Kowaka, Development of High
Strength Oil Country Tubular Goods Highly
Resistant to Sulfide Stress Corrosion
Cracking,~ Sumitomo Metal Industries,
.- .

4a4

IADC/SPE 19963

ROBERT M. SHIVERS, III, J.

BRISON GREER AND JACKIE E. SMITH

13

presented to the APX Production Department


Symposium on Tubular Goods, June, 1977.

M. Watkins and G. A. Vaughn, Effects


H2S Partial Pressure on the Sulfide
Stress Cracking Resistance of Steel,
Materials Performance,January 1986, 44-48.

of

10. J. Brison Greer and W. E. Holland,


@Iiigh-StxengthHeavy-Wall Casing for Deep,
Sour Gas Wells,w JPT, December 1981, 23892397.

S1 Metric Conversion
Faotors
E+OO = m
nile x 1.609*3
f X 3.048
ft1 X 2.831 685 ;-ii ~ ;3
11. NACE Standard TM-01-77, Testing
of
F (F-32~/l.8
=Oc
Metals
for Resistance to Sulfide Stress
E+OO = OM
in. x 2.54
Cracking at Ambient Temperatures, NACE,
lbm x 4.535 924 E-01 = kg
Houston, Texas 1977.
lbf X 4.448 222 E+OO = N
ft-lbf x 1.355 818 E+OO = N-m
12* API Specification 5CT, ISpecification
psi x 6.894 757 E+OO = kPa
for Casing and Tubing, First Edition, March
PPG X 1.198 264 E-01 = g/cm3
15, 1988,U American Petroleum Institute,
211 N. Ervayt SUite 1700, Dallas, Texas
*Conversion i.~toris exact.
75201.
Table 19 Suxmary of Test Results
for the HT-55 Tool Joint.
Torsional Yield
at O lbs. Tension: 80,000-100,000ft-lbs.
Tensile Yield at
O ft-lbs. Torque:
40,000 ft-lbs. Torque:
Bending Yield at
600,000 lbs. Tension:

2,200,000 lbs.
1,800,000 lbs.
2,200,000 ft-lbs.

Nominal Drillpipe Dimensions.


Inside Outside
Wall
Diameter Diameter Thickness
inches
inches
inches
Description
*************************************************************
0.550
4.400
5.500
5.5 x 0.550$Tube
5.51!x 0.750$1Tube
0.750
4.000
5.500
1.375
3.188
5.938
Tube Upset-As Forged
1.250
5.750
Tube Upset-MachinedAfter Welding 3.250
2.416
7.628
2.850
Tool Joint-As Forged
2.125
7*500
Tool Joint-MachinedAfter Welding 3.250
Table 2.

~able 3. Chemical Compositions for


Tubes and Tool Joints

Element
----------Carbon
Manganese
Chromium
Molybdenum
columbium
Sulfur
Phosphorous
Calcium
Hydrogen

Silicon
Aluminum
Soron
Nickel
Copper

Percent by Weight
*******************
Tool Joint
Tube
-------------O*3O
0.29
0.92
1*O3
0.97
1.44
0.82
0.68
0.023
0.03
0.003
0.001
0.010
0.007
0.003
0.003
Degassed
0.0001
0.34
0.30
0.027
0.023
0.0001
-0.06
O*O2
0.05
O*O2

Table 4. Specificationand Average AuQuenched Hardness of Drillpipe and Tool Joints.


Rockwell C Hardness
**********************
I.D. M.W. O.D. Var.
Description
-------------------------------------------44 minimum--- N.A.
Specification
----------------------------------------49.3 47.7 47*3 1.9
0.550W Drill Pipe
0.750t~Drill Pipe
49.3 47.6 47.4 L.9
Tc>l Joint
49.4 50.3 49.3 1.0

.*.

Sf% 19963
mbh s.

specificationand Average Q&T


Hardness of Drillpipe and Tool Joints.
Rockwell C Hardness
***********************
I.D. M.W. O.D. Var.
Description
--------------------------------------------28 maxim~--- 4 max
Specification
------------------------------------------26.8 27.0 26.8 0.3
0.550!Drill Pipe
26.0 26.1 25.0 1.3
0.750$Drill Pipe
--------------------------------------------30 maximum--- 5 max
specification
-----------------------------------------29.5 29.7 29.2 1.0
Tool Joint

Table 6. Qualificationand Production


Tool Joint to Pipe Weldment Hardness.
Maximum hardness HRC 29.
Rockwell C Hardness, HRC
************************************
Weld Weld Pipe Pipe
Tool TJ
Upset
Joint HAZ
Line Line HAZ
Description
------------.---~----------------------------------28.2 24.5 25.4 23.6 19.6 23.0
Qualification
0.550 Weldment 30.2 27.3 28.4 26.6 18.7 22.4
0.75081Weldment 27.4 24.2 25.3 23.0 16.4 21.2

Tablo 7. Specification and Measured Tensile


and Transverse Charpy V Impact Properties.
Impact
Yield
Tensile
Energy
Strength
Strength
psi
ft-lbs
psi
Upsat mlbo8
----------------------------------------------25
115,000
105,000
Spec. Min.
120,000
Spec. Max.
-----------------------------------------------136
124,900
0.55011Drillpipe 110,900
136
122,800
0.7501Drillpipe 110,600
J0int8
------------------------------------------------30
120,000
Spec. Min.
110,000
130,000
Spec. Max.
-----------------------------------------------61.3
135,000
118,300
Tool Joint
------------------------------------------------

T@Ol

Wmld Area
-------------------------

------------------------

80,000
16
90,000
Spec. Min.
120.000
Spec. Max.
----------------------------------------------69
95,150
110,000
Qualification
56
91,100
108,150
o.550H Weldment
53
84,500
102,600
0.750$!Weldment

436

TExAg
AREA

LEASE$
TE)CAC()

FULL
INTEREST

g TExACo PARTIAL
INTEREST
SAFETY

. .

FAIRWAY

.,,.

.,

FIGURE f

1000

- Soo
$ 100
~ 700 -

Maw

PICK UP LOAD VS
ktORIZONTAL DNPLA~MENT
@

M872

22$)00

WD

600
2
~ 000 +
g 400 !/:

o:

@
d
I

/
10%7sNsloN

5,25.W, X95

10ol-

TORQIJE w
mPLAOEt4ENT
A*C6o

4s ~

1 ,

-MAKE-UP

,
.

SHOULDER

-BOX COUNTERBORE SEC TION


PIN BASE
hAST ENGAGED THREAD
THREADS
.PtN HOSE
bii60ibARY
SHOULDER

.1
FIGURE ?

SW

19963

Ids=
WJGHE$ MT-55 TOOL JOINT

79112,$1142110

OPERATIONAL LOAD ENVELOPE


1000.0 )

000.0
G
~
S

600.0

0
~

TttnssHOLO TORQUE
~edltlonat mske-up (300 F o.o12 WP)

THRESHOLDTORQUE
8ddltlonal make-up (300 F 0.006 g-p)

400.0

z
Lu
b

200.0
I

.0

0.0

TORQUE,

(ft =kips)

FIGURE 4

17
18

v
1
1

Pi@

P14u

WL

~,

WL

NACE TEslum

PIPE AND TOOL JOW$


.
. . . - .. *
100
90

10
0

TJ W

. -- .-.:

NACE lEslMm w
WELD AREA
-

100
90

1~

..4mw-

..

09-

lEMcowEmz

l-+-tt

TEST
u
10

.I

HAZ
&&&
WELDLINE
TOOLJOINTHAZ g m
I 1 1 I 1 i II
1

PIPE

100

10
.-

LOG

TIME (HOURS)

FIGURE7

1000