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API Related, Oilfield Pressure Control Equipment, Terms and Definitions, Glossary, WOODCO USA

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GENERAL Revised: 11/12/2013

Oilfield Glossary:
Terms and Definitions

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To help visitors, many words below which name oilfield products manufactured
by WOODCO USA have links to illustrations and additional information shown in
WOODCO USA online catalogs or other sections of Web Site Tools.
Remember, "Whatever you say about a thing, or however you describe it, you
have not; for the words can never totally represent or equal the thing itself."
Find numerical entries by alphabetical spelling.
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Acceptance Criteria:
(General)

Defined limits placed on the characteristics of


materials, products, or services. Visually stated in
referenced industry specifications and standards

Acceptance Criteria:
(NDT)

Reference documentation and/or illustrations that


allow comparison of Indications or Discontinuities
found during Nondestructive Testing to a standard,
for the purpose of acceptance or rejection.

Adapter Flange:

Any flange that will connect between two other


flanges that would otherwise not connect. Usually a
Double Studded Adapter (DSA), or a Single
Studded Adapter (SSA).

Adapter Spool:

A unit of pressure control equipment with a body


and two different end connections used to connect
together other pieces of equipment that could
otherwise not connect. Sometimes used instead of
a Double Studded Adapter because at least one of
the units to which it connects has a studded flange
connection.

American Made:

See Made in U.S.A.

Annular:

Refers to the area of space between the inside


diameter of a drilled or cased hole and a
secondary string of pipe suspended inside this
space.

ANSI (ASA)

American National Standards Institute. An


organization formerly known by the name American

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organization formerly known by the name American


Standards Association (ASA). This organization
sets standards for the ANSI B16.5 Blind, Weld
Neck, and Threaded Flanges commonly used in
refineries and process industries.
For information comparing "ANSI" and "API"
Flanges, see A Brief History of Well Head Flanges.
API

American Petroleum Institute. The organization that


develops and publishes API specification
documents.

API Flanges

The flanges specified in API Spec 6A and API


Spec 17D. All of these flanges seal with Metal Ring
Gaskets. For flange sizes and dimensions, see
Flange Slide Rule Program.

API Monogram:

A registered trademark of the American Petroleum


Institute (API). Qualified licensed manufacturers
may apply the API Monogram along with their
license number, as a mark onto product or
equipment that serves to certify that the product or
equipment meets the requirements of API
published specifications.

API RP 5A3
(ISO 13678):

A specification for a high-pressure thread


compound that works well to lubricate API casing,
tubing and line pipe threads as well as bolts and
nuts used to connect flanges and clamps. Do not
use compound made to this specification for rotary
shoulder connections.

API Spec 6A:

Also, ISO 10423; The American Petroleum Institute


publication that serves as the industry Specification
for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment.
Those companies granted a license from API may
apply an API Monogram mark, along with their
license number, to products which they have made
in compliance with this specification.

API Spec 16A:

Also, ISO 13533; The American Petroleum Institute


publication that serves as the industry Specification
for Drill Through Equipment. Those companies
granted a license from API may apply an API
Monogram mark, along with their license number,
to products which they have made in compliance
with this specification.

API Spec 16A Clamp:


Photo

A device, serving as a fastener, designed to mate


with and Make-up to seal, API Spec 16A
designated hubs.

API Spec 16A Clamp

An end connector specified in API Spec 16A that

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Hub:
Photo

joins with a matching hub and secures with a


Clamp.

API Spec 17D:

The American Petroleum Institute publication That


serves as the industry Specification for Subsea
Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment. Those
companies granted a license from API may apply
an API Monogram mark, along with their license
number, to products which they have made in
compliance with this specification.

ASTM:

American Society for Testing and Materials. An


organization providing a vast array of specifications
for test methods and materials, frequently
referenced by other standards organizations.

Austenitic Stainless Steel:

300 series stainless steel with a chemical


composition of nickel, 8% minimum, chromium,
16% minimum, and carbon, .08 maximum. All
elements measured in % mass fraction.

Axial Alignment:

See Connector Axial Alignment

B7, B7M:

A short form of expression for the ASTM


specification for bolting, A193 Grade B7, called out
in API Spec 6A for standard service flange bolting.
If B7M appears, it means B7 in a Modified
condition with controlled hardness in the bolt (and a
2HM nut) for sour service exposed bolts.

Balance:

Also, Fluid Balance; That condition when the fluid


Head in a well bore produces sufficient pressure
inside the well bore to equal the pressure of the
production zone and stop the outflow of fluid or gas
from that zone.

Bell Nipple:

An upward pipe extension above the uppermost


BOP, used to discharge returning drilling mud to
the shakers, separators, and pits during drilling
operations. The "Bell" term derives from the bell
mouth usually fabricated on its upper end, See
Flange, Bell Nipple.

BHN:

An Abbreviation for Brinell Hardness Number. Now


abbreviated HBW.

See all hardness


related definitions

BHTA:

An Abbreviation for Bottom Hole Test Adapter. See


Top Connector

Blast Joint:

For Choke Manifolds, see Blast Spool. For tubing


strings in wells, the term Blast Joint applies to a
piece of heavy walled tubing, run in the tubing string
and positioned across from a perforated interval to
resist erosion caused by high velocity production

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resist erosion caused by high velocity production


fluid coming from that zone, thus prolonging the life
of the completion.

Blast Spool:

For Choke Manifolds, this term applies to a


specially constructed Spacer Spool attached
directly to the outlet connection of a Drilling Choke
where high velocity fluid erosion may occur.
Manifold designers build this spool with the
maximum practical wall thickness and sometimes
specify an erosion resistant liner for this spool.

Bleed Ring:

Another name for a Instrument Flange, a flange with


bolt holes drilled through, or studded, with sealing
surfaces on both sides and a tapped hole for
sampling.

Blind Flange:

See Flange, Blind.

Blowout Preventer:

A unit of equipment, installed singularly or as a part

(BOP)

of an assembly, attached to the Wellhead to control


and/or contain well pressure occurring inside the
Casing during Drilling, Workover, or Snubbing
operations.

BOP:

An Abbreviation for Blowout Preventer.

Body:

The portion of a unit of pressure control equipment


between separated end connections.

Bolt Circle:

The theoretical circle inscribed by the center point


of a series of holes, drilled equally spaced, near the
mid circumference of a flange.

Bolt Tension:

That energy achieved by applying Torque to nuts on


bolts providing the compressive force necessary to
hold connections in contact under pressure or load.

Bolt Torque :

That rotational force applied to nuts on stud bolts to


tighten and apply Tension to the bolts in order to
hold flanges or other connections in Make-up. This
force is usually expressed in Foot Pounds
(FT/LBS). See Torque Wrench.

Bottom Hole Test Adapter


(BHTA):

See Top Connector.

Break-out:

Also Break Apart; The act of disconnecting joined


flanges or other Connectors.

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Brinell Hardness:
See all hardness
related definitions

Buffer Chamber

Now abbreviated HBW. A designation of hardness,


usually of steel, performed by pressing a 10 mm
spherical tungsten carbide ball against a clean
prepared surface using a 3000 Kilogram force,
producing an impression, measured and given a
special numerical value. This numerical value
relates to steel tensile strength. API Spec 6A
specifies minimum Brinell Hardness requirements
for different material designations. NACE Standard
MR0175 references maximum hardness in
determining steels suitability for use in H2S
Service.
Also, a Header; Typically, a fabricated pressure
vessel with multiple inlets and outlets, used to
contain and direct the discharge from Chokes in a
Manifold system. An alternate method of buffer
system construction allows the use of non-welded
components.

Burn Through

A term used to describe an undesirable event


during welding when the welding arc unintentionally
burns trough a thin wall, or weld joint root, causing
unacceptable irregularities on the reverse side (or
the I.D.) of the weld. Excessive metal on the I.D. of
a pipe butt weld joint may interfere with the
passage of tools, or in extreme cases the flow of
fluid.

Butt Weld

The completed weld made in a Butt Weld Joint.

Butt Weld Joint

This term describes a form of weld joint having


specially prepared surfaces that makes a Full
Penetration Weld possible, usually by leaving a
small gap between the adjacent pieces that
deposited weld metal will bridge, fill, and close.

BX:

See 6 BX

Carbon Steel

An iron based metal with only carbon and


manganese deliberately added to specific limits.
Other elements residual, except for small quantities
added for deoxidization or to control the effects of
sulfur.

Casing:

Pipe used to line the bore hole of a well.

Casing Head:

A single unit of well control equipment (usually


flanged) attached to the upper end of surface
casing, allowing the attachment of Blowout
Preventers during drilling, and later suspending and
sealing a secondary string of casing set inside.

Casing Spool:

A single unit of well control equipment attached


above the Casing Head, used to suspend and seal

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above the Casing Head, used to suspend and seal


a secondary casing string.

Cast Steel:

Steel formed by pouring molten steel into a mold to


produce a desired near finished shape after
solidification and cooling.

Casting:

A shape made from cast steel. The term casting


may also apply to the process of pouring liquid
steel into a mold.

Certified Welder:

See Qualified Welder.

Charpy V-Notch Test:


(CVN)

A test performed at a specified temperature by


swinging a calibrated falling pendulum (hammer)
fracturing (breaking) a specifically configured
Specimen of Material and measuring the force
required, usually expressed in foot pounds.

Chemistry:

The chemical composition of Material. The


expression of the elemental composition of
material by percentage of weight for each
measured chemical element.

Choke:

Also, Choke Valve; A unit of pressure control


equipment used to restrict and regulate the flow of
well fluids to maintain a desired pressure and flow
rate. Chokes have hardened internal expendable
parts specifically designed to resist erosion caused
by high pressure, high velocity fluid. Often used as
part of a Choke Manifold (also see Drilling Choke)
or Christmas Tree.

Choke Manifold:

An assembly of valves, Fittings and Chokes


arranged to regulate and control the flow of high
pressure fluid from a well bore.

Christmas Tree:

An assembly of equipment topping off the


Wellhead, including valves, Fittings, Chokes, Top
Connectors, etc. used to regulate and control the
flow of oil or gas during normal well production.

Clamp:

See API Spec 16A Clamp.

Clamp Hub:

See API Spec 16A Clamp Hub.

Coefficient of Friction ( f ):

Term to describe the ratio of the force of friction


between two bodies and the force pressing them
together.

Coining:

The condition of bringing metal surfaces of differing


hardness so tightly together that the softer surface
deforms to match the harder surface exactly in
shape and finish. See Intimate Contact.

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Combination Adapter
Ring Gasket:

A uniquely configured Ring Gasket that allows two


flanges with ring grooves of different Pitch
Diameters to join and seal when Made-up.

Combination Bolts:

Those special bolts made to join flanges of different


Working Pressures, having a different diameter on
each end to correspond with the bolt holes in each
respective flange. See Cross Over Connections for
a full explanation.

Combination Ring
Gasket:

A specially configured Ring Gasket that allows two


flanges with Ring Grooves of different width and
depth but the same pitch diameter to join and seal
when Made-up.

Companion Flange:

See Flange, Companion.

Concentric Reducer:

A pipe fitting that transforms from a larger to a


smaller size on each end. The ends may have pipe
threads or have butt weld preparations, with the
ends concentric about a common axis.
Threaded Concentric Reducer
(Often called a Swage Nipple)

Butt Weld Concentric Reducer


(Sometimes called a Transition Piece)

Connector:

For Wellhead application, the part of pressure


containing / pressure controlling equipment that
allows a mechanical joint that can provide a
pressure seal: Flange, Hub, Union, etc., that does
not seal on a thread.

Connector Axial
Alignment:

Alignment to within specified tolerances of the


connector centerline, to the centerline of the

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Alignment:

connector centerline, to the centerline of the


connector at the opposite end of the equipment
unit.

Connector, Loose:

Any flange, hub, or Other End Connector, not


integral to a body of an identified piece of
equipment.

Connector Parallelism:

A measure of the connector face (or plane) with


respect to the connector face at the opposite end of
the equipment unit; e.g. do the connectors at
opposite ends of a spool center on the same axis
and do their faces lay parallel to one another?
Operators may assume acceptable parallelism if
assembled equipment will pass a drift test. See
http://www.woodcousa.com/standoff.htm#Drift.

Corrosion Resistant Ring


Grooves:

Ring Grooves lined with material resistant to Metal


Loss Corrosion. This material is either an austenitic
stainless steel or a corrosion resistant alloy,
normally 316 SS or 625 Inconel. These groove
inlays have nothing to do with H2S service, but
serve only to provide protection from Metal Loss
Corrosion (rust).

Corrosion Resistant Alloy:


(C.R.A)

Nonferrous alloys where any one or the sum of the


specified amount of the following alloy elements
exceeds 50%: titanium, nickel, cobalt, chromium,
and molybdenum. A Material sometimes used in
critical service applications for flanges, bodies,
bonnets and other components. Also frequently
used as a weld metal overlay for ring grooves to
prevent Rust damage between connection makeups. API requires CRA to appear in the connector
marking when the connector has UNS N06625
inlay in the ring groove.

Corrosion Resistant
Material:
(C.R.M)

Generally refers to ferrous or nonferrous alloys


which are more corrosion resistant than low alloy
steels. This term includes CRA's, duplex, and
stainless steels.

Cross:

Any Fitting with four connections in the same plane


with two of these connections forming an in-line
Run.
Crosses may have more than four
connections.

Cross-over Fitting:

Any pipe fitting, or similarly configured part, having


two different end connection types, e.g. line pipe X
8R Tubing Threads, male or female either way, and
various sizes and combinations of union
connectors, female end and male end with nut, etc.

"Cross Standard
Adapter:

Any Adapter Flange, Adapter Spool, or Cross-over


Fitting with connections specified in two different
industry standards when those standards have no

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industry standards when those standards have no


reference to one another. Typically, Cross Standard
adapters may have API X ASME flange
connections (studded adapter or flanged adapter
spool), API flange X union (female end or male end
with nut), or ASME flange X union (female end or
male end with nut)

Country of Origin:

That country within which 75% or more of the


manufacturing costs of a product item incur. See
also Made in U.S.A.

Deep Ring Grooves:

Now obsolete or withdrawn ring groove


specifications that allowed face to face contact on
Made-up hubs or flanges when using RX ring
gaskets. See SR ring grooves.

Discontinued:

Industry standard products or equipment that the


issuing standards organization has announced it
will no longer include in its published specifications.

Discontinuity:

A location, internal or external, where the structural


nature of Material (or a weldment) has an
interruption of its normal or continuous regularity. A
place where metals exhibit some mechanical,
physical, or metallurgical irregularity that requires
evaluation by reference to Acceptance Criteria.

Diverter:

A specialized Annular Blowout Preventer used, in


conjunction with large diameter flow valves, to close
and divert shallow gas encountered during drilling
operations.

Domestic Made:

See Made in U.S.A.

Double Extra Strong:


(XXS)
(XXH)

Also, Double Extra Heavy; A designation of pipe


with a wall thickness twice that of Extra Strong
Pipe. See Carbon Steel Pipe Dimensions and
Weights for commonly available pipe sizes.

Double Studded Adapter:


(DSA)
Q&A

A flange with a through bore and a ring groove on


each side, drilled and tapped bolt circles on both
sides and Tap End Studs complete with nuts
installed on both sides. Usually the two sides are
different in size and/or pressure rating. Usually
used to adapt between different flange end
connections that would otherwise not connect.

Drift:

A gauge of special dimensions used to pass


through the Run of pressure control equipment to
demonstrate that the Run bore will pass working
tools. Also, the act of passing this gauge through
the bore.

Drilling:
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The process of making a bored well hole to test for

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Drilling:

The process of making a bored well hole to test for


and, if encountered in commercial quantities,
produce oil and/or gas.

Drilling Choke:

A Choke
specifically designated by its
manufacturer as suitable for drilling service, used
as part of a Choke Manifold.

Drilling Rig:

The entire collection of machinery and equipment


brought together as a unit and used to drill and set
Casing for an oil or gas well. An operating drilling
rig includes Blowout Preventers and drill pipe.

Drilling Spool:

Also, Mud Cross; A unit of equipment used with


Blowout Preventers to space pieces of equipment
apart and provide outlets to attach lines extending
to Choke and Kill Manifolds.

DSA:

An abbreviation for Double Studded Adapter.

Dual Flanges:

See Segmented Flanges.

Ductility:

A property of Material that allows it to yield or "bend


before breaking."
Technically expressed by
measurement records of Elongation and Reduction
of Area determined as the result of a Tensile Test.

Elastomer:

A flexible and elastic material used commonly for


molded seals, often referred to as rubber.
Specialized elastomeric compound formulations
allow sealing various fluids over a broad range of
temperatures.

Elongation:

That amount that a Material Specimen will stretch


before fracture (separation). Usually expressed as
a percentage of the original length.

End Connection:

That connection on either end of the Run (through


the central bore) of pressure control equipment.

Extra Strong:
(XS)
(XH)

Also, Extra Heavy; A designation of pipe wall


thickness specified in API Spec 5L in addition to
many other pipe wall thicknesses. See Carbon
Steel Pipe Dimensions and Weights for commonly
available pipe sizes.

15 M:

An abbreviation for 15,000 pounds per square inch


(psi) Maximum Service Pressure.

Fabricated Equipment:

That equipment, made with 2 or more pieces of


steel joined together by welding. Such fabricated
equipment may contain pressure or provide
structural support for pressure containing

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structural support for pressure containing


equipment. See One Piece Construction for
comparison.

Figure 1502:

A term, preceded by an inch size, describing a


specific union design widely used on flange by
union adapters.

Figure 2202:

A term, preceded by an inch size, describing a


specific union design widely used on flange by
union adapters

Fitting:

A unit of pressure containing equipment designed


to fit between other equipment for the purpose of
adapting or arranging that other equipment to
facilitate pressure control. See Tee or Cross.

"5 Bolt" Flanges:

See Segmented Flanges.

5 M:

An abbreviation for 5,000 pounds per square inch


(psi) Maximum Service Pressure.

Flange:

A single disc or a protruding disc extension on a


body with holes to accept bolts or with holes drilled
and tapped into its surface with Tap End Studs
installed, with a sealing means, used to join
pressure containing equipment.

Flange, ANSI:

A flange specified in American National Standards


Institute published standards.

Flange, API:

A flange specified, now or in the past, in American


Petroleum Institute published standards.

Flange, Adapter:

Any flange that will connect between two other


flanges that would otherwise not connect. Usually a
Double Studded Adapter (DSA), or a Single
Studded Adapter (SSA).

Flange, Bell Nipple:

The Flange attached to the Bell Nipple used to


secure it to the top of the uppermost BOP.

Flange Bolt Tightening


Sequence:

Begin tightening by hand by rotating nuts clockwise


until they touch the flange, with the nuts equally
engaged on both ends of the bolts. Begin tightening
with wrenches, choosing one bolt first, and then
choosing the bolt 180 opposite second. Continue
tightening the bolt at 90 and then the one 180
from that. Then step over one bolt from the first bolt
tightened (decide for yourself clockwise or counterclockwise) and continue the same pattern as with
the first four. Proportion the tightening so that full
tightening takes 4 to 5 passes around the full set of
bolts. For sequence diagrams for most flanges,
Click here.

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Flange, Blind:

A flange with no center opening, designed to close


off an outlet or end connection.

Flange, Companion:

A loose, Open Face Flange, usually threaded, but


may have a Weld Neck or Blind configuration.

Flange, Double Drilled:

A flange with two Bolt Circles drilled through, or


tapped for studs, so that it may join another flange
of a lower working pressure.

Flange, End Connection:

A flange integral with a body (e.g. spacer spool,


etc.) with an opposite integral connection.

Flange, Full Face:

A flange, with or without a ring groove, that has a full


surface flat face.

Flange, Gauge:

See Flange, Test

Flange, Instrument:

(1) An equipment piece usually made as a Spacer


Flange with a ring groove on both sides to go
between two other flanges, with special Tapped
Connection Ports through its side (O.D.) into its
bore, to facilitate the injection or sampling of fluid or
the measurement of pressure.
(2) A Special Flange Adapter, also known as a
Transmitter Flange, having 2 sides, one side
having a single flange face, either studded or open
face, and the other side having 2 or more studded
flange faces, all faces with bores interconnected.
Usually used to connect pressure gauges and
pressure transducers to a Choke Manifold
assembly.

Flange, Integral:

A flange made as part of a Body or attached to a


body by welding. The flange Material conforms to
specification requirements for integral flanges.

Flange, Loose:

See Connector, Loose

Flange, MSS:

A
flange
specified
in
Manufacturing
Standardization Society, Standard Practice SP-44.
Used by Manufacturers of Diverters in 30" 500 and
30" 1000 psi working pressure.

Flange, Open Face:

A flange connection with through bolt holes. An


open face flange will mate with another open face
flange or with a Studded Face Flange.

Flange, Outlet
Connection:

An integral flange connected to a Body (e.g. Tee,)


usually at 90 degrees from the end connection.

Flange Parallelism:

See Connector Parallelism.

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Flange, RTJ:

A flange that utilizes a Ring Gasket has the


designation "Ring Type Joint", abbreviated "RTJ"
in flange standards other than API Spec. 6A. All
API Spec. 6A flanges have "Ring Type Joint"
sealing surfaces.

Flange, Segmented:

See Segmented Flanges.

Flange Series:

An out of date term, applied in the past to API


flanges now described in terms of working
pressure.

Flange, Spacer:

A flange, made with a ring joint connection on both


sides, to go between two other flanges to space
them apart for some special purpose.

Flange, Studded Face:

A flange connection with the bolt circle drilled and


tapped into its face so as to accept Tap End Studs
(e.g. the connections on a Studded Cross). A
studded face flange will mate only with an Open
Face Flange.

Flange, Target:

A Blind Flange, usually with a lead filled cavity,


used to cushion and minimize the erosion of high
velocity abrasive fluid.

Flange, Test:

A flange, similar to a Blind Flange, with a tapped


port in its center or side to allow application of
pressure or attachment of a gauge.

Flange, Threaded:

A flange with an internal (see Flange, Companion)


or external thread opposite its Ring Groove side to
mate with standard threaded pipe.

Flange, Transmitter:

See Flange, Instrument

Flange, Weld Neck:

A flange with a butt weld neck for welding


attachment to pipe or tubing. Material may vary
from that required for Integral Flanges in order to
facilitate field welding.

Flowline:

Any line of pipe, that contains and controls the flow


of fluid.

Fluoropolymer Coating:

A specialized coating that manufacturers may use


on bolts, nuts, and other surfaces that need
characteristics of low friction, wear resistance, and
protection from corrosion; often described as Xylan
or Teflon coating.

Foot Pounds:
(FT/LBS)

A term usually used to express the amount of


rotational force (Torque) applied to nuts on stud
bolts. "One Foot Pound" equals the force of one

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bolts. "One Foot Pound" equals the force of one


pound of pull on a wrench with a handle that
extends 12 inches from the center axis of a bolt and
nut upon which the force acts. See Bolt Torque and
Torque Wrench.
Forged Steel:

Steel, plastically deformed and shaped, usually


when hot, using compressive force to breakup and
close any internal Discontinuities.

Forging:

See Forged Steel.


Also, the act of using
compressive equipment (presses or hammers) to
plastically deform steel into a desired shape.

4130:

A low alloy steel containing molybdenum and


chromium as strengthening agents. The carbon
content is nominally 0.30% and with this relatively
low carbon content the alloy is excellent from the
fusion weldability standpoint. The alloy can be
hardened by heat treatment.

4140:

One of the chromium, molybdenum, manganese


low alloy steels noted for toughness, good torsional
strength and good fatigue strength after heat
treatment. The carbon content of 0.40% makes this
steel less easily welded than 4130.

45K:

An API Spec 6A abbreviation for 45,000 psi,


minimum yield strength Material.

Full Face Flange:

See Flange, Full Face.

Full Penetration Weld:

A weld performed on a prepared joint between


adjacent pieces, the weld metal extending through
the entire wall.

Gage:

Also, Gauge; A preset device for determining the


relative size or shape of an object compared to a
standard (e.g. a Drift). The act of using a gage to
compare or confirm a size or shape. A device to
measure pressure within a pressure containing or
controlling system.

Gauge:

See Gage.

H2S:

An abbreviation for the chemical Hydrogen Sulfide.

H2S Service:

Short for Hydrogen Sulfide Service (HSS). A term


used to designate that equipment material
specifications meet the requirements of NACE
Standard MR0175, for use in controlling fluid
containing partial pressure (some percentage) of
Hydrogen Sulfide.

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Hammer Unions:

Also, Wing Unions; Connectors that allow quick


make-up and break-out of pipe and fittings used
primarily in temporary flow-lines. Any connected
Hammer Union consists of 3 pieces.
1) A male connector with a spherical sealing
surface.
2) A female connector with a tapered sealing
surface and external Acme threads.
3) A wing nut with internal Acme threads that fits
over the male connector and screws onto the
female connector holding the two connectors
together, achieving a seal.
Some Hammer Unions contain an elastomeric
secondary seal.

Hammer Wrench:

A box end wrench with a shortened heavy handle


having an elongated square shaped end. Designed
to withstand heavy striking with a sledge hammer to
tighten or loosen nuts on stud bolts.

Hardness:

A measured factor that reasonably predicts the


amount metal will resist abrasion and bending, as
well as indicating Ultimate Strength. Most
commonly expressed as Brinell Hardness and
Rockwell Hardness. ASTM E140 provides a guide
for comparing hardness determined by different
methods and expressed on different scales.

See all hardness


related definitions

Head:

The standing column of fluid in a well bore. The


measure of fluid pressure at the bottom of a column
of fluid in a well bore or in any vertical fluid
containing pipe or system.

Header:

See Buffer Chamber.

Heat Affected Zone


(HAZ)

That part of the base metal formed as a narrow


band immediately adjacent to deposited weld
metal, affected by welding heat input but not
melted.

Heat Treatment:

Heating and cooling metallic Material in such a way


as to produce selected and intended conditions
and properties in the material. This process affects
Tensile Strength, Yield Strength, Elongation,
Reduction of Area, and toughness (usually
measured as Impact Strength).

HBW:

Abbreviation for Brinell Hardness.

See all hardness


related definitions

HRB:
See all hardness

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(Sometimes RB) An abbreviation for Rockwell


Hardness measured on the B scale. The

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See all hardness


related definitions

Hardness measured on the B scale. The


abbreviation usually appears after a number, e.g.
83 HRB. See: Rockwell B Hardness.

HRC:
See all hardness
related definitions

(Sometimes RC) An abbreviation for Rockwell


Hardness measured on the C scale. The
abbreviation usually appears after a number, e.g.
22 HRC. See: Rockwell C Hardness.

Hub:

See API Spec 16A Clamp Hub.

Hub Parallelism:

See Connector Parallelism.

HV:

Abbreviation for Hardness Vickers. The Vickers


hardness testing method represents another
method of testing by indenting the test material
under a specified load and measuring the size of
the indention and comparing it to a number table.
This method has gained greater use in testing of
weld samples to meet NACE requirements.

See all hardness


related definitions

Hydrotest:

Also, Hydrostatic Test; a pressure test conducted


by pumping a fluid (usually water) into a closed
vessel or equipment system until the pressure
reaches a specific level. The test consists of
holding this pressure for a specific period of time
without observed leaks or pressure decline on the
indicating instrument.

Hydrogen Sulfide:
See all hardness
related definitions

The chemical commonly abbreviated H2S. This


deadly poison also has a destructive effect on high
strength low alloy steels when the hardness of these
steels exceeds a hardness of 22 Rockwell C.

I.D.

An abbreviation for Inside Diameter.

Impact Strength:

The amount of energy required to fracture (break) a


Specimen of Material using an impact blow, usually
performed at a specified temperature, by means of
a Charpy V-Notch Test.

Indenter:

A hardened pointed or rounded contact object used


to impress an indentation into the surface of steel
(or other metal) parts in order to obtain a Hardness
measurement of that part. See HBW, HRC, and
HRB.

See all hardness


related definitions

Indication:

A term used in magnetic particle testing to identify


locations found that require evaluation by
references to Acceptance Criteria. See Magnetic
Particle Inspection.

Inlay:

Used to describe a form of weld metal deposit,


where the weld deposit fills a groove or cavity.
Frequently referring to Corrosion Resistant Alloy

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Frequently referring to Corrosion Resistant Alloy


weld metal deposits in oversize grooves later
machined to accept Ring Gaskets.

Intimate Contact:

The condition of bringing metal surfaces of


matching shape and finish into contact with such
force as to leave no space or gap. See Coining.

Integral:

Made as a single unit. Usually referring to


connectors (Flanges, Hubs, and/or O.E.C.'s) made
as part of a body, or joined to a body by welding;
the connectors meeting the API specifications for
end and outlet connectors.

International Standards
Organization

Abbreviated ISO, this standards organization has


taken on a partnership with the American
Petroleum Institute to establish equipment and
quality specifications. ISO now issues these
specifications and the API adopts them back and
further supports these specifications with the API
Monogram program.

ISO:

See:
International Standards Organization

k:

Also, kip; A load of 1000 pounds. See ksi.

Kill:

The act of pumping heaver fluid into a well bore to


bring a well into Balance and stop the outflow from
the well.

ksi:

Abbreviation for one thousand pounds per square


inch usually used to indicate material (e.g. steel)
strength, sometimes shortened to a suffix K.

L7, L7M:

A short form of expression for the ASTM


specification for bolting, A320 Grade L7, called out
in API Spec 6A for low temperature bolting. If L7M
appears, it means L7 in a Modified condition with
controlled hardness in the bolt (and a 2HM nut) for
sour service exposed bolts.

Lack of Full Penetration:

This term describes a condition observed in a weld


joint when the weld metal does not uniformly
continue from the root of the weld to the final cover
pass, most often observed at the root of a butt
weld.

Line Pipe:
(LP)

Pipe generally intended for use in the oil and gas


industry for the conveyance of oil and gas under
pressure, or for a variety of industrial applications.
API Spec 5L and 5LX specify this pipe. For
commonly available sizes of line pipe, see Carbon
Steel Pipe Dimensions and Weights on this web
site.

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Liquid Penetrant Test:

A method of surface inspection to detect


indications not visible to the unaided eye on nonmagnetic Materials, or to prove or disprove
questionable Magnetic Particle indications.
A liquid penetrant inspection consists of:
Applying a liquid penetrant colored dye to a
clean material surface.
Allowing time for penetrant to enter any
Discontinuities.
Drying this surface of all liquid visible on the
surface.
Applying a developer coating to the surface
to draw out any penetrant that may have
entered surface discontinuities.
Allowing time for the developer to draw out
any penetrant to stain the developer coating.
Observing any colored surface stains and
comparison of any indications seen to
Acceptance Criteria for acceptance or
rejection of the inspected part.

Loop, Pressure
Controlling:

Any assembly of valves and fittings connected to a


Blowout Preventer stack to allow pressure
equalization and/or bleed down before opening
rams. Most commonly used during Snubbing
operations.

Loose Connector

See Connector, Loose.

Loose Flange

See Connector, Loose.

Low Alloy Steel:

An iron based metal alloy with small amounts of


other elements added in specifically measured
amounts to produce a desired response to Heat
Treatment cycles and achieve intended mechanical
properties..

LP:

An abbreviation for Line Pipe.

Lubricator Adapter:

See Top Connector.

M:

An abbreviation for "000 psi" in designating


working pressure in equipment marking.

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Manufacturers apply much of the marking on


pressure control equipment by striking hand
stamps, with a hammer, to apply individual
numbers and letters. The Roman numeral for one

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numbers and letters. The Roman numeral for one


thousand (1,000), M, provides a simple symbol to
use and save the space used by 3 zeros and 3
letters when hand stamping parts, e.g. 10M, rather
than 10,000 psi. This same term of abbreviation
has become commonplace now in the literature.
Made as one piece:

See One Piece Construction

Made in U.S.A.:

1. WOODCO USA shall consider steel material


melted in the U.S. as Made in U.S.A., and any
product made from that steel and sold by
WOODCO USA as Made in U.S.A.
or
2. WOODCO USA will make an unqualified Made
in U.S.A. claim (U.S. origin claim) if, at the time it
makes the claim, it possesses credible evidence
that: (1) U.S. manufacturing costs constitute 75% of
the total manufacturing costs for the product; and
(2) the product was last substantially transformed in
the United States. 75% of total manufacturing costs
shall include all costs paid by WOODCO USA to all
USA vendors, for material made in USA or outside
services performed in USA, and best estimates of
internal manufacturing costs, but not including
calculated mark-up.

Made-up:

Refers to a completed connection after joining


flanges or other connectors to achieve a seal.

Magnetic Particle
Inspection:

A non-destructive surface inspection process for


ferromagnetic materials (materials that will attract a
magnet) performed by magnetizing the material,
applying a fine iron powder, either dry or in liquid
suspension, to the magnetized surface, and
observing the collection of this powder along any
breaks in the magnetic field that might represent
fractures or other irregularities in the surface. See
Indication.

Make-up:

The act of joining flanges or other connectors to


achieve a seal.

Manifold:

An assembly of valves and Fittings arranged to


regulate and control the flow of high pressure fluid
from a well bore. Also see Choke Manifold.

Material:

A term used on this web site, and in API documents


for pressure control equipment, that identifies the
Steel or Corrosion Resistant Alloy used for flanges,
bodies, bonnets and other components specified.

Mechanical Properties:

Measured aspects of Material used to describe its


elastic and inelastic reaction to applied force;

See all hardness


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See all hardness


related definitions

elastic and inelastic reaction to applied force;


These may include Tensile Strength, Yield Strength,
Elongation, Reduction of Area, Impact Strength and
Hardness.

MegaPascal
(MPa)

A basic unit of pressure or tension measurement in


the International System of Weights and Measures.
1 MPa - 145 psi,
1 MPa = 1 N/mm2.
(For converter, click here)

Metal Loss Corrosion:

That corrosion on the surface of metal that converts


the metal to an oxide or otherwise gradually
consumes the exposed surface of the metal.
Localized metal loss corrosion may appear as
"pitting."

Microstructure (Steel):

The existing described order and arrangement of


constituents of steel Material, as observed on a
prepared sample through a microscope. For more
on Microstructure, click here.

M.S.P.:

An abbreviation for Maximum Service Pressure.

Mud Cross:

See Drilling Spool.

NACE MR 01 75:

A document published by the National Association


of Corrosion Engineers defining the specific limits
of chemistry, hardness and microstructure of
Materials used to make equipment to contain or
control well production fluids that include hydrogen
sulfide.

See all hardness


related definitions

NC:

National Coarse, See UN and UNC.

Nipple, Swage:

See Concentric Reducer.

Nipple-Up:

Usually refers to assembling BOP Stacks and


Choke Manifolds. See Make-up.

Nominal:

A term related to "size" or "dimension", indicating a


designation only, not the actual measurement. (e.g.
2 inch nominal pipe measures 2-3/8 inches outside
diameter and no standard Schedule of the 2 inch
pipe has a 2" inside diameter).

Nondestructive Evaluation
:
(NDE)

Also,
Nondestructive
Examination
or
Nondestructive Testing; these terms identify a
group of activities using various methods to find,
locate, measure, or determine something, without
damage, about Material or equipment, that allows
an investigator to decide if any identified
characteristics or conditions constitute rejectable
flaws.

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O:

See Zero.

Obsolete:

Industry standardized products or equipment that


the issuing standards organization has replaced
with updated products or equipment. Manufactured
goods the manufacturer has replaced with updated
goods.

O.D.

An abbreviation for Outside Diameter.

O.E.C.:

An abbreviation for Other End Connector.

O.E.M.

Original Equipment Manufacturer. Refers to the


company which first designed and built equipment
or parts.

One Piece Construction:

This term refers to flanged or hub connection


equipment made from a single steel forging.
Equipment made this way has no Fabrication (or
assembly)
welding
performed.
Equipment
manufactured from one piece may often have weld
Inlay or Overlay to prevent corrosion damage to
Well Wetted surfaces.

Other End Connector:


(O.E.C)

Any type of end (or outlet) connector designed to


contain pressure, other than those specified in API
Spec 6A. An O.E.C. may have any configuration so
long as it meets the design and performance
requirements of API Spec 6A. Examples include
Union and proprietary Lubricator connectors.

Outlet Connection:

Any connection other than an End Connection on a


Run. Used to flow fluid or gas into a Manifold or
Choke, or used to pump into, for the purpose of
injecting fluid or to Kill a well.

Overlay:

Used to describe a form of weld metal deposit


where the weld deposit entirely covers a base
metal surface. Frequently referring to Corrosion
Resistant Alloy weld metal deposits over Well
Wetted surfaces of pressure control equipment to
prevent severe corrosion caused by well fluids.

Pack-Off Adapter:

A single unit of equipment used in a wellhead


assembly below the Tubing Head to adapt between
flange sizes or pressure ratings and provide a seal
around a secondary Casing String.

Parallelism:

See Connector Parallelism.

Pitch Diameter:

Specifically of a Ring Groove; The theoretical


diameter of the ideal mid point (imaginary circular
center line) of a ring groove. Most easily

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center line) of a ring groove. Most easily


determined by measuring carefully from the inside
of the ring groove on one side to the outside of the
ring groove on the other side (same as measuring
from the centerline on one side to the centerline of
the other side). See Measuring Ring Groove Pitch
Diameter.

Port, Test:

A drilled and tapped port in pressure control


equipment, or a flange, that penetrates through to
the fluid containing bore. For more information,
Click Here.

Post Weld Heat


Treatment:

See Stress Relief.

Pressure Cut:

The erosion damage caused by high pressure fluid


during an extended leak past a sealing surface.

Pressure, Maximum
Service:

Also, Working Pressure; the maximum pressure


that specific units of equipment should experience
in use. API specifies that the manufacturer clearly
mark the Maximum Service Pressure (MSP) on
each unit of equipment; the equipment pressure
rating limited by the lowest pressure connector on
the equipment, or the manufacturers design. For
Test Pressure and Working Pressure tests
explained, click here.

Pressure, Test:

The hydrostatic pressure applied to equipment to


demonstrate the equipment's capacity to hold
pressure. A pressure test on existing equipment in
the field should equal but not exceed Maximum
Service Pressure. The Test Pressure and
procedures for new manufactured equipment, or
remanufactured equipment, shall comply with that
specified by API. For Test Pressure and Working
Pressure tests explained, click here.

Pressure Test:

The act of applying fluid or gas pressure inside


equipment bodies, or upstream of equipment
closure mechanisms, to demonstrate equipment
pressure containment integrity or pressure
controlling reliability. The term may apply to any
application of pressure intended to demonstrate
equipment fitness for service. Pressure applied
during a pressure test should never exceed specific
equipment rated working pressure except in a
controlled environment. See the definitions of the
terms, Test Pressure and Working Pressure.

Pressure, Working:

See Pressure, Maximum Service.

Procedure Qualification
Record:
(PQR)

A written document recording all of the testing


utilized to prove the validity of the Welding
Procedure Specification (WPS) which references

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it. The PQR contains actual records of the


performance of all variable factors called out in the
WPS, as well as, the results of all mechanical,
volumetric, and surface tests made on samples of
the test welds performed to demonstrate that
production welds carried out in conformance with
the WPS shall meet the specified requirements.
Qualification of a WPS necessarily requires
calibrated welding equipment instruments and
meters, a record of the calibration and the
reference standard, and the date of calibration and
frequency performed. Reference ASME SEC. IX
QW-200.2. Also see Qualified Welder.
psi:

An abbreviation for pounds per square inch to


indicate pressure or load.

PSL:

Product Specification Level, as described in API


Spec 6A. The term applies to a tiered progression
of increasing testing and inspection requirements
for materials and equipment. Other API
Specifications include these PSL requirements by
reference to API Spec 6A. For more complete
information, CLICK HERE.

PSL 1:

Product Specification Level 1, references the


minimum level of testing and inspection required for
material and equipment as specified in API Spec
6A. For more complete information, CLICK HERE.

PSL 2:

Product Specification Level 2, references a level of


testing and inspection requirements for material
and equipment alternate to and in addition to PSL
1 requirements as specified in API Spec 6A. For
more complete information, CLICK HERE.

PSL 3:

Product Specification Level 3, references a level of


testing and inspection requirements for material
and equipment alternate to and in addition to PSL
1 and 2 requirements as specified in API Spec 6A.
For more complete information, CLICK HERE.

PSL 3G:

Product Specification Level 3G, references a level


of testing and inspection requirements for material
and equipment specified in API Spec 6A as PSL 3,
adding the requirement of gas testing of completed
equipment units. For more complete information,
CLICK HERE.

PSL 4:

Product Specification Level 4, includes all the


testing and inspection requirements described in
API Spec 6A for PSL 3G, plus additional
restrictions on the material qualification and heat
treating, and the prohibition of welding except for

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treating, and the prohibition of welding except for


overlay/inlay of corrosion resistant material. For
more complete information, CLICK HERE.

Qualified Welder:

A person who performs welding in accordance with


a Welding Procedure Specification and a sample
resulting weld has passed all required visual,
mechanical and/or volumetric examinations
necessary for acceptance. Maintenance of welder
qualification requires that the welder performs
welding, using the procedure methods and
equipment within specified time periods, and
maintains records of this performance. A welder so
qualified has qualification to use the same and
other WPS's utilizing the same welding process,
depositing similar metal, using similar calibrated
equipment; with the exception of Corrosion
Resistant Alloy inlay, which requires separate
specific qualification. Reference ASME SEC. IX
ART. III QW-304 and QW-305

Qualified Welding
Procedure:

A Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)


containing a reference to the Procedure
Qualification Record (PQR) which demonstrates
that the procedure results in the desired properties
in the weld metal, heat affected zone and base
metal after any post weld heat treatment.

Quality:

(As perceived in the business market)


That which makes a customer choose, buy, use
and retain a product, with continued satisfaction.
Quality will draw the customer to return again to the
provider to get more of the same.

Quality Assurance:

The predicate of quality outcome.


The planning, creation of specifications, choice of
inputs, choice of processes (and machines), choice
of personnel and training, and continuity of
maintenance and management necessary
to
produce predictable and desirable product
outcomes.

Quality Control:

The examination of quality outcome.


The measurement and inspection activities
performed at various times during the making of
product(s) to ensure that the product(s) meet(s)
specified standards.

R:

Raised Face:
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A prefix designation, always followed by a number,


(e.g. R-24) designating a standard oval or
hexagonal Ring Gasket. A term used to refer to
any ring groove that will accept an R ring gasket.
Sometimes abbreviated RF. That portion of the

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Raised Face:

Sometimes abbreviated RF. That portion of the


face of a flange near the I.D. raised above the
remaining face of the flange, providing a sealing
surface for a flat gasket or containing a ring groove
to affect a seal with a Ring Gasket. API Spec. 6A
flanges do not utilize flat gaskets. Only Open Face
Flanges sealed with BX ring gaskets must have a
raised face, 1/8" minimum height. API Spec. 6A
permits the omission of raised faces on all other
flange connectors.

Raised Ring Groove:

Identifies flange facing that has a seal groove cut


into a raised portion of the flange face closely
surrounding the flange bore, required on 6BX and
17D SS Open Face flanges, optional and usually
omitted on 6BX Studded Flanges and all API 6B
flanges.

RB:

See HRB

RC:

See HRC

Reduction of Area:

The amount that a Material Specimen necks down


(or becomes smaller in section) as it experiences
stretching under a load sufficient to cause fracture
(separation). Usually expressed in percentage of
the original cross sectional area.

Ring, Bleed:

See Bleed Ring.

Ring Gasket:

A metal gasket shaped like a ring, with a number


designation, designed to fit into grooves machined
into the face of flanges and/or other connectors and
provide a seal after Make-Up.

Ring Groove:

A closely dimensioned groove machined into the


face of a Connector, designed to accept a Ring
Gasket and achieve a seal when Made-up.

Riser:

A unit of pressure control equipment used to space


apart or raise other equipment to a useful height or
position. See Spacer Spool.

Rockwell B Hardness:

A designation of hardness of metallic materials


measured by pressing a small rounded indenter
against a clean prepared surface with a

See all hardness


related definitions

specific force. The machine making the indention


also measures the depth of the indention and
provides a numerical value for that depth. The
Rockwell B scale expresses more accuracy in the
hardness measurement of metallic materials softer
than HRC 20. To convert hardness numbers
between measuring methods and scales, see
Hardness Number Conversion Chart.
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Rockwell C Hardness:
See all hardness
related definitions

A designation of hardness, usually of steel or


Corrosion Resistant Alloys, measured by pressing
a specially shaped indenter against a clean
prepared surface with a specific force. The
machine making the indention also measures the
depth of the indention and provides a numerical
value for that depth. This numerical value relates to
steel Tensile Strength and NACE Standard
MR0175 references hardness in determining
steels suitability for use in H2S Service. To convert
hardness numbers between measuring methods
and scales, see Hardness Number Conversion
Chart.

RTJ:

An abbreviation for Ring Type Joint. See Flanges,


RTJ.

Run:

That passage through a Body, between End


Connections, that will pass fluid and working tools.

Rust:

The Metal Loss Corrosion product, iron oxide. The


most common form of metal loss corrosion
associated with steel.

RX:

A prefix designation, always followed by a number,


for API Spec. 6A self energizing seal rings. RX
ring gaskets will fit all R ring grooves in 6B flanges
and only RX ring gaskets fit SR ring grooves in API
Spec. 16A hubs.

SBX:

A Ring Gasket based on BX gasket design but


drilled with a special vent hole for underwater
(subsea) Make-up.

Schedule:

A term used to indicate the wall thickness of


standard pipe sizes (e.g. 4 inch Schedule 80 Pipe
has a 4.500 inches outside diameter with a .337
inch wall). See Carbon Steel Pipe Dimensions and
Weights.

Seal Contact Area:

Those areas that gaskets seal against in joined

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Seal Contact Area:

Those areas that gaskets seal against in joined


connections.

Segmented Flanges:

Sometimes called "5 Bolt" or "Dual" flanges. These


flanges connect valves and tubing head adapters
on Christmas Trees where 2 producing tubing
strings hang inside a single cased well bore. They
have a special "one sided" configuration that allows
the producing tubing to have a small center to
center distance.

Series

A now obsolete term adopted originally by API to


distinguish API well head flanges that matched
dimensions with ASA flanges. The ASA identified
flanges with a number followed by the term "Lb"
and API designated flanges of the same
dimensions by the term "Series". "Series" flanges
having a higher standard working pressure and
made of higher strength steel than the standard
ASA (now ANSI) flanges.
For information comparing "ANSI" and "API"
Flanges, see A Brief History of Well Head Flanges.

Service:

A term used to denote the suitability of equipment


for use in a particular environment e.g. H2S
service, High Temperature, Low Temperature, etc.

75K:

An API Spec 6A abbreviation for 75,000 psi,


minimum yield strength for Material.

Single Studded Adapter:


Q&A

A flange with a through bore and a ring groove on


each side, with a drilled through bolt circle the
same as an Open Face Flange on it's larger side
and a drilled and tapped bolt circle on it's smaller
side, with Tap End Studs installed.

6 B:

A term applied to API Spec 6A flanges which have


ring grooves dimensioned to accept R or RX ring
gaskets. API originally specified these flanges in
API STD. 6 B. R or RX appears in the prefix of the
numbered ring gaskets which fit 6 B flanges.

6 BX :
(or BX)

A term applied to API Spec 6A flanges which have


ring grooves dimensioned to accept BX ring

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(or BX)

ring grooves dimensioned to accept BX ring


gaskets. API originally specified these flanges in
API STD. 6 BX. BX appears in the prefix of the
numbered ring gaskets which fit 6 BX flanges.

60K:

An API Spec 6A abbreviation for 60,000 psi,


minimum yield strength for Material, or an
abbreviation adopted on this Web Site for 60,000
psi, minimum yield strength in relation to Line Pipe.

Snubbing:

A term used to describe the process of removing or


installing pipe into a pressurized well bore, using
specialized
equipment
including
Blowout
Preventers in a special arrangement.

Sour:

Crude oil or natural gas contaminated with sulfur or


sulfur compounds, especially hydrogen sulfide. At
high concentrations, sulfur is odorless and deadly.

Spacer Flange:

See Flange, Spacer.

Spacer Spool:

A unit of pressure control equipment usually having


only end connections and an extended body, most
commonly used to raise or space apart Blowout
Preventers or to connect a Choke Manifold to the
well control system.

Specimen :

A sample, usually of Material, shaped and


processed according to a detailed specification,
tested and used as a representation of the
properties of the lot of Material from which it came.

Spherical Washers:

See Washers, Spherical.

SR :

A term designating special ring grooves specified


in API Spec 16A that allow face-to-face make-up of
the hub connections which utilize RX ring gaskets.
Take special care not to confuse connections with
SR ring grooves with those connections that have
Deep Ring Grooves previously used in now
obsolete or withdrawn flanges or hubs.

SRX:

A Ring Gasket based on RX gasket design but


drilled with a special vent hole for underwater
(subsea) Make-up.

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SS Flanges:

API Spec 17D specifies these 2-1/16" through 11"


flanges in 5,000 psi working pressure with BX ring
grooves, otherwise dimensioned the same as API
6B flanges, manufactured from, or inlayed with
Corrosion
Resistant
Material.
For
more
information, see About API Spec 17D SS and SV
Flanges.

SST:

Required by API to appear in the connector


marking when the connector has 300 series
stainless steel inlay in the ring groove.

Stainless Steel:

An iron based metal alloy with a high chromium


content sufficient to reduce or prevent Metal Loss
Corrosion.

Standard:
(STD)

A designation of pipe wall thickness intended for


ordinary use with water, air, steam and gas as well
as plumbing and heating applications. See Carbon
Steel Pipe Dimensions and Weights for commonly
available pipe sizes.

Standards:

An alternate term used to describe specifications


published by an industry organization, a certifying
authority, or a government agency.

Stand-off:

The distance between Made-up connection faces


utilizing R or RX ring gaskets, measured near the
ring groove.

STD:

See Standard.

Steel:

An iron based metal, combined with carbon,


manganese, and other constituents as required, to
obtain response to heat treat and/or to secure
desired mechanical properties.

Stress Relief:

A heat treating process usually used after welding.


It involves heating the weld deposit and base metal
affected to a suitable temperature and holding this
temperature long enough to reduce residual stress.
This process, when performed in accordance with
a Qualified Welding Procedure, then termed Post
Weld Heat Treatment, may also serve to satisfy
NACE MR0175 requirements for equipment used
in H2S Service.

String:

A term used to refer to a vertical arrangement of


pipe suspended in a well bore as Casing, Tubing
or drill pipe.

Stud Bolts:

Stud bolts for Open Face Flanges that have

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Stud Bolts:
(See Catalog)

Stud bolts for Open Face Flanges that have


threads over their full length or may have an
unthreaded portion on the central area of the body
diameter. (See PDF file AWHEM document
TR9601 for bolt dimension information).

Stud Face Flange:

See Flange, Studded Face.

Substructure:

That base of fabricated steel beams or columns


that supports the working floor and mast of a land
based Drilling Rig.

Subsea:

A term used to identify oilfield wellhead equipment


used offshore and below the surface of the water.

Surface:

A term used to identify oilfield wellhead equipment


intended for use on land or above the waterline in
offshore applications.

SV Flanges:

API Spec 17D refers to Swivel Flanges (flanges


that swivel around a hub) as "SV Flanges". API
specifies these flanges in a limited range of sizes
in 5,000 psi and 10,000 psi working pressures. For
more information, see About API Spec 17D SS
and SV Flanges.

Swage Nipple:

See Concentric Reducer.

Sweet:

Crude oil or natural gas without appreciable


amounts of sulfur or sulfur compounds.

Tap End Studs:


Q & A 27
Q & A 51

Stud bolts threaded on each end, with an


unthreaded portion on the body center diameter.
The thread length dimension on one end controls
the depth of engagement of that end into a tapped
hole, and also controls the extension length of the
stud beyond a Studded Flange Face (See PDF
file AWHEM document TR9601 for tap end stud
dimension information).

Target Flange:

See Flange, Target.

Tee:

Any Fitting with three connections in the same


plane with two of these connections forming an inline Run. A Tee may have a fourth outlet not in the
same plane as the run.

Teflon:

Fluoropolymer Coating.

10 M:

An abbreviation for 10,000 pounds per square inch


(psi) Maximum Service Pressure.

Tensile Strength:

Also, Ultimate Strength; The breaking strength of a


Material Specimen when subjected to a stretching

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force sufficient to pull it apart, usually expressed in

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force sufficient to pull it apart, usually expressed in


ksi.
Tensile Test"

A test performed on a Material Specimen by pulling


it to failure (separation) and measuring the results
in terms of Ultimate Strength, Yield Strength,
Elongation, and Reduction of Area.

Tension:

For bolts, the amount of stretching force placed into


a bolt by the tightening of the nut(s), usually
measured in pounds per square inch (psi).

Test Flange:

See Flange, Test.

Test Port:

See Port, Test

Test Pressure:

See Pressure, Test

Thermal History:

A record of the cycles of heating and cooling


performed on metal Material for the purpose of
producing specified conditions and properties in
the material.

30 M:

An abbreviation for 30,000 pounds per square inch


(psi) Maximum Service Pressure.

3M:

An abbreviation for 3,000 pounds per square inch


(psi) Maximum Service Pressure.

35K:

An abbreviation adopted on this Web Site for


35,000 psi, minimum Yield Strength in relation to
Line Pipe.

36K:

An API Spec 6A abbreviation for 36,000 psi,


minimum Yield Strength for Material.

Thread Anchored Studs:

Studs screwed into tapped bolt circle holes in a


flange face. See Tap End Studs.

Top Connector:

The Top Connector of a Christmas Tree that allows


access to the full bore of the valves. Usually a
flange bottom and union top configuration with a
cap and Gage tap. Operators may also identify this
unit of equipment as a Bottom Hole Test Adapter, a
Tree Cap or a Tree Top.

Torque:

See Bolt Torque.

Torque Wrench:

A wrench for tightening nuts that incorporates a


measuring means, usually expressed in Foot
Pounds. See Bolt Torque.

TPI:

Threads per Inch.

Transition Piece:

In the past, API Spec 6A specified weld end


reducers that adapted the weld necks of 6BX

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reducers that adapted the weld necks of 6BX


flanges to standard pipe sizes and schedules. API
no longer specifies transition pieces in API Spec
6A. See Concentric Reducer.
Tree Cap:

See Top Connector

Tree Top:

See Top Connector

Trim:

A general term used to describe the metallurgy and


other material considerations used when specifying
pressure control equipment, including internal parts,
for use in particularly corrosive environments. e.g.
"H2S Trim."

Triple Extra Strong:


(XXXS)
(XXXH)

Also, Triple Extra Heavy; An uncommon


designation of pipe with a wall thickness three
times that of extra heavy pipe. This pipe does not
appear on standard pipe dimension charts. See
Carbon Steel Pipe Dimensions and Weights for
commonly available sizes.

Tubing:

Pipe suspended in a well bore, inside the casing,


used to produce fluid or gas from the well.

Tubing Head:

A single unit of equipment attached above the


Casing Head and the smallest Casing String, used
to suspend and seal the production Tubing string.

Tubing Head Adapter:

A single unit of equipment attached above the


Tubing Head, used to join the tubing head to the
Christmas Tree.

20 M:

An abbreviation for 20,000 pounds per square inch


(psi) Maximum Service Pressure.

22 RC:

22 RC, 99 RB, 237 HBW (read 235 in table), and


248 HV represent the important upper hardness
limit for non austenitic steel for H2S service

See all hardness


related definitions

specified in NACE MRO175 and referenced in API


Spec 6A. Some authorities may offer slightly
different equivalent hardness numbers.
2H, 2HM:

A short term form of expression for ASTM


specification for nuts, A194, used with API flange
bolts. 2H nuts have standard service and low
temperature application. When specifications
require B7M or L7M studs, use 2HM nuts.

Ultimate Strength:

See Tensile Strength.

Ultrasonic Testing:

A method of non-destructive examination of solid


metal bodies utilizing high-frequency sound waves
that allows the discovery and identification of
internal anomalies by measurement of the reflection
of the sound waves. (Anomalies, in this case,

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of the sound waves. (Anomalies, in this case,


defined as any interruption of regularity.) This
method of inspection requires special calibration
samples for the type of material and shape
examined. Standards define anomalies discovered
by this method as acceptable or unacceptable
based on size and location.
UN:

National Coarse threads, in form and pitch, but


outside the Unified System, e.g. 1" x 8 TPI threads
fall within the UNC System, 1-1/8" x 8 TPI threads
and all larger bolts threaded 8 TPI fall outside the
Unified System, and carry the designation 8UN.

UNC:

Unified National Coarse. The most common


standardized inch bolt thread for heavy duty
fasteners used for rapid assembly.

USA, Made in:

See Made in U.S.A.

Valve:

A unit of pressure controlling equipment with a bore


( Run ) between End Connections containing a
closing mechanism to stop and seal any flow
through the bore.

Velocity, Fluid:

The speed, usually measured in feet per second,


that fluid passes through the inside of a pipe or
tube.

Volumetric Examination:

A nondestructive means of examining Material


throughout its volume (or section) for the purpose of
detecting any internal Discontinuities that may
require evaluation by references to Acceptance
Criteria.

Washers, Spherical:

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Washers, designed for use in pairs (2), one having


a concave face on one side, and the other having a
convex face. These washers, nested together with
a nut, allow the nut bearing face to make a 100%
flat contact against the load bearing surface under
the nut, when the nut and equipment surfaces are
not parallel.

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Wear Bushing:

A removable insert used inside a Casing Head or


Casing Spool during drilling operations to prevent
damage to casing suspension and sealing
surfaces.

Weld Inlay:

See Inlay.

Weld Neck:

An extended prolongation on a flange or other


fitting with a bevel prepared for butt weld
connection to pipe or another fitting with a similar
beveled prolongation.

Weld Overlay:

See Overlay.

Welding Procedure
Specification:
(WPS)

A written document giving all necessary


parameters and directions to make production or
field welds meeting specified requirements. The
WPS includes a reference to the Procedure
Qualification Record (PQR). Welding procedure
performance assumes welding by a Qualified
Welder. Reference ASME SEC. IX ART. II

Wellhead:

All of the equipment attached above the Casing


used to control a well. That portion of the completed
well at, and above, the ground surface or sea floor.

Well Wetted:

Any part of pressure control or pressure containing


equipment that has contact with pressurized well
fluid.

Wing Unions:

See Hammer Unions.

Withdrawn:

Industry standardized products or equipment


documented in once published specifications that
the issuing Standards organization has declined to
reaffirm.

WN:

When applied to flanges, this means: Weld Neck.

WNRF:

When applied to flanges, this means: Weld Neck


Raised Face.

WNRTJ:

When applied to flanges, this means: Weld Neck


Ring Type Joint.

Working Pressure:

See Maximum Service Pressure.

Workover:

The process of re-entering an existing well to


perform a remedial action that will restore or
improve the commercial production of oil and/or
gas.

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Workover Rig:

A specialized assembly of machinery, usually as a


self propelled unit, that can perform re-entry of
existing oil and/or gas wells. The unit has hoisting
capability and can remove and reinstall the well
production tubing and perform other services.

XH:

See Extra Strong.

XXH:

See Double Extra Strong.

XXXH:

See Triple Extra Strong.

XS:

See Extra Strong.

XXS:

See Double Extra Strong.

XXXS:

See Triple Extra Strong.

Xylan:

See Fluoropolymer Coating.

Yield Strength:

The stress (load) at which a Material elongates or


stretches enough that after removal or release of
this stress the material will not return to its original
length or size, usually expressed in ksi.

0:

See Zero.

Zero:

Also, 0; Indicates the absence of any amount in


measurement.
Designates
the
freezing
temperature of water on the centigrade scale.

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USA PRODUCTS AND SERVICES,


CONTACT:
WOODCO USA
P.O. Box 1261
Houston, Texas 77251-1261
Phone: 713-672-9491
USA and Canada: 1-800-496-6326
Fax: 713-672-8768
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