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2.7.

3 that is related to the several modes of person-object relationship : function,


symbol,order and affect.
Itu berkaitan dengan beberapa metode dari hubungan manusia dan objek :
fungsi,tujuan,tatanan dan pengaruh.

1. Function. The object (the building or its parts) is a tool that actively assist in task
performances. The building is a "function" object defined by the function it provides.
1. Fungsi : Objek (bangunan maupun bagiannya) adalah alat yang aktif dalam
membantu hasil kinerja. Bangunan adalah sebuah "fungsi" objek yang dijelaskan
oleh fungsi yang disediakan bangunan tersebut.

2. Symbol. The object (the building or its parts) forms a setting that passively assist
social interaction or association. The building and its component parts are "symbol"
objects. The objects is defined by the meaning it provides.
2. Simbol. Objek (bangunan maupun bagiannya) membentuk suatu aturan yang
secara tak langsung membantu interaksi sosial maupun asosiasi. Bangunan dan
bagian - bagian komponen bangunan tersebut merupakan objek "simbol". Objek
tersebut diartikan dari "arti" yang diberikan bangunan tersebut.
3.Order. The object (the building or its parts) is itself an end and evokes an
"external" experience for the person viewing it. The building, its parts, and its
setting are interactive "order" objects. The object is defined by how it is classified
by the person viewing it and by the image associated with that classification.
3. Tatanan. Objek (bangunan maupun bagiannya) itu sendiri adalah sebuah akhir
dan menimbulkan sebuah pengalaman "eksternal" bagi orang yang melihatnya.
Bangunan,bagiannya dan susunannya adalah objek "tatanan" yang interaktif, dan
dari citra dan gambaran yang dihubungkan dengan klasifikasi tersebut.
4. Affect. The object (building or its parts) is itself an end and evokes an "internal"
response from the person viewing it. The building and its parts are emotionproducing "affective" objects. The object is defined by the affect it evokes.
4. Pengaruh. Objek (bangunan dan bagiannya) adalah sebuah hasil akhir yang
menimbulkan respon internal dari orang-orang yang melihatnya. Bangunan dan
bagiannya adalah objek yang mempengaruhi perasaan yang dihasilkan.

These four person-object relation are summarized in the accompanying diagram (fig
2.28) which shows a symbolized person to object relationship and its implications in

the behavior, function, and object parts of the information spectrum. The four
relationship defined (function, symbol,order and affect) are useful to remember. A
slight rearrangement of order in which the object characteristics are named
(symbol, order, function, and affect) produces an acronym.

SOFA,in order of speaking of these, I will refer to the SOFA characteristics of objects.

Invariably every building and most objects of every kind exist simultaneously in all
these relationships with persons. All buildings have all the object characteristics I
have defined. When a building has a kitchen or food preparation, or an operating
room, or any room organized to assist the performance of specific tasks, it exist as a
function (or tool) object. When the building or a room in the building is designated
as a meeting place, or when a door (or any other building component)
communicates by its appearance what it is to be used for, then the building or its
part exist as a symbol object. When the building is preceived as an object to be in
some size, geometric , and color relationship with its surrounding and with its own
parts, then it exist as an order object. Finally when a building evokes some response
in an individual, whether positive or negative, it exist as an effective object. All
these characteristics exist in every building: they are isolated here for analysis.
During design one or the other of these factors is often emphasized more than the
others.

Though it is clear how these different relation can exist and what their implications
are in the behavior, function, and object parts of the information spectrum, the
relationship should be pursued across the information spectrum in more detail.

Whatever the form of behavior under consideration, that behavior does not depend
on an integrative function capability alone : it also depends on an allocation of time
and effort, a choice to make use of that specific function capability. Behavior
depends both on the existence of a function capability and on a choice to make use
of that capability in a certain priority.

In a similar way whatever the function capability under consideration, it does not
depend on an object alone but on the degree of skill of the person who will bring
that object into use. To move from thinking about allocation (at the function phase
of the information spectrum) to asking what composes allocation (at the object
phase), there must be a weighing of two things : the situation in which the choice is

made and the values of chooser with respect to the desired behavior. This set of
relationships is shown in the accompanying diagram (Fig. 2.29).
A factoring chart. If the different modes of behavior (defined by the person-object
relationships) are expanded across the behavior, function , and object phases of the
information spectrum, they compose the major part of a factoring chart that permits
an explanation of the typical information factoring that occurs in design. There is
only one more step to complete the chart.

Two of the behavior modes-the performance and the association modes - are
purposive, since they are essentially means to accomplishment of some other end.
The other two behavior modes - the experience and the response modes - are
essentially nonpurposive ("ludentive." after the latin word for "play"), since they are
ends in themselves. The chart can be completed by grouping behaviors in this
manner in the purpose phase of the spectrum. (Fig 2.30)

The chart will repay some careful study. The design student discovers, sooner or
later, that he is required to deal with these different characteristics in the objects he
designs; he must deal with them in relation to the different modes of behavior those
objects support. A difficulty occurs when the designer talking about the design
object in terms of one mode, and his critic or client is talking about behavior in
terms of different mode. A study of the chart can help the designer to identify such
failures of communication and respond in a way to improve communication.

The factoring process. In the simple information spectrum described earlier (person
- purpose - behavior - function - object) different kinds of information are ignored at
each phase. If a client presents himself whole and ask assistance with his problem,
then no information is left out except as the architect fails to observe his condition
or to ask questions. The architect can move through the entire spectrum,
considering all the behavior modes to secure a comprehensive view of what
problems are to be solved and what course he might take in solution.

If, instead, a client presents only a statement of spesific purpose and asks the
architect to help him accomplish them, then the entire bottom half of the diagram is
omitted. The client has failed to provide information about his nonpurposive
behavior modes.