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1.1 Introduction
Biometric systems have overtime served as robust security mechanisms in various
domains. Fingerprints are the oldest and most widely used form of biometric identification. A
critical step in exploring its advantages is to adopt it for use as a form of security in already
existing systems, such as vehicles.
This research work focuses on the use of fingerprints for vehicle ignition, as opposed to
the conventional method of using keys. The prototype system could be divided into the following
modules: fingerprint analysis software module that accepts finger prints images; hardware
interface module and the ignition system module. The fingerprint recognition software enables
fingerprints of valid users of the vehicle to be enrolled in a database. Before any user can ignite
the vehicle, his/her fingerprint image is matched against the fingerprints in the database while
users with no match in the database are prevented from igniting the vehicle. Control for the
ignition system of the vehicle is achieved by sending appropriate signals to the parallel port of
the computer andsubsequently to the interface control circuit.
The developed prototype serves as an impetus to drive future research, gearedtowards
developing a more robust and embedded real-time fingerprint based ignitionsystems in
vehicles.Biometrics refers to the automatic identification of a living person based on
physiological or behavioural characteristics for authentication purpose. Among the existing
Biometric technology is used for automatic personal recognition based on biological
traitsfingerprint, iris, Face, palm print, hand geometry, vascular pattern, voiceor behavioral
characteristicsgait, signature,typing pattern. Fingerprinting is the oldest of these methods and
has been utilized for over a century by law enforcement officials who use these distinctive
characteristics to keep track of criminals.
The National Science and Technology Council provides the following overview of biometric
system components: A typical biometric system is comprised of five integrated components: A sensor is
used to collect the data and convert the information to a digital format. Signal processing algorithms
perform quality control activities and develop the biometric template. A data storage component keeps
information that new biometric templates will be compared to. A matching algorithm compares the new

biometric template to one or more templates kept in data storage. Finally, a decision process (either
automated or human-assisted) uses the results from the matching component to make a system-level

Biometric method requires the physical presence of the person to be identified. This
emphasizes its preference over the traditional method of identifying what you have such as, the
use of password, a smartcard etc. Also, it potentially prevents unauthorized admittance to access
control systems or fraudulent use of ATMs, Time & Attendance Systems, cellular phones, smart
cards, desktop PCs, Workstations , vehicles and computer networks. Biometric recognition
systems offer greater security and convenience than traditional methods of personal recognition.
Fingerprint recognition represents the oldest method of biometric identification which is
dated back to 2200 BC. The use of fingerprints as a personal code has a long tradition and was
already used by the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Chinese and the Japanese .
All human beings have unique, immutable fingerprints. A fingerprint is made of a series
of ridges and furrows/valleys on the surface of the finger. The uniqueness of a fingerprint can be
determined by the pattern of ridges and furrows as well as the minutiae points. Minutiae points
are local ridge characteristics that occur at either a ridge bifurcation or a ridge ending .
Fingerprint images are rarely of perfect quality. They may be degraded and corrupted with
elements of noise due to many factors including variations in skin and impression conditions.
This degradation can result in a significant number of spurious minutiae being created and
genuine minutiae being ignored. Thus, it is necessary to employ image enhancement techniques
prior to minutiae extraction to obtain a more reliable estimate of minutiae locations.
The prices of fingerprint recognition systems compared to other biometric systems are
quite low and the user acceptance is very high. The strength of fingerprint identification is that it
can be deployed in a varied range of environments. Also, it is a proven core technology and, the
ability of enrolling multiple fingers can increase the system accuracy and the flexibility
dramatically .
There are several concerns surrounding the use of biometrics for identification. If a credit
card or key is lost or stolen, the card can be cancelled, the locks can be changed and replaced.
However, if biometric data is compromised, there are a finite number of replacements, as a
person has only 10 fingers, two eyes, etc. Another concern is the possibility that sensors which
require contact could be unsanitary. Ensuring the privacy and security of biometric data is also of

concern, as users will be unlikely to accept the technology if information could potentially be
tampered with, stolen or otherwise misused.
There is a present demand for robust security systems in vehicles. Therefore, the
usefulness of designing and implementing a biometric security system using fingerprint
technology, to prevent unauthorized vehicle ignition cannot be overemphasized.



Biometrics has been touted as the answer to our security authentication. However, Ive
shown hole after hole in this security solution. Thisdoesnt mean biometrics should be tossed
out like day-old doughnuts. Just as a firewall does not constitute a network security solution but
rather a component ofa defensive strategy, biometrics could be viewed in the same manner.6
Today,auto thieves dont try to get your car key and make a duplicate, they just try to bypassthe
alarm and ignition system to get the car started. In the same way,biometrics cant be viewed as a
cure-all for authentication security problems. Weneed to have security defense in depth.
Other issues needing discussion are: What happens when the part of the bodygetting
validated is somehow damaged, such as a finger getting badly burned ordeeply cut? Or, if
someone does manage to create a fake fingerprint from yourfinger, how is that issue resolved,
since a finger cant be easily changed like apassword can?
Although there are many aspects of biometrics that are being fine-tuned and stillneed to
be addressed, biometrics can and should be integrated into every companys defense in depth
security policy. There are several ways thatbiometrics can be used that greatly increase security
instead of weakening it.
The International Biometric Group lists four different policies that allow biometricsto play a
key role in exponentially increasing authentication security.

Randomization of verification data: If users are asked to enroll more than one
biometric sample - for example, three fingerprints or two distinct voice patterns - the
system may randomize the biometric data it requests for verification, thereby slightly
reducing the likelihood of spoofed data being usable for verification. Such a system may
also require two fingerprints for verification, such that an imposter would have to locate
two"target" fingerprints with which to defeat the system.

Retention of identifiable data: In most transactional biometric systems,identifiable data

is destroyed immediately after template generation.Retaining image data, though posing
substantial privacy and storagechallenges, may provide a means of resolving spoof
claims. In manycases spoofed biometric data will be evident upon inspection of the
actualsample (inspecting the template, of course, would be useless). Retentionof this data

strengthens a system's audit trail, and forces imposters tocreate data that looks like a
biometric sample to the naked eye as well asto an extraction algorithm.

Using multiple biometrics. Multiple biometric authentication is oftenproposed as a

means of solving the liveness problem, as it is clearly much more difficult to spoof two
biometrics in tandem or in sequence than tospoof one. However, implementing multiple
biometrics is currently muchmore difficult than it seems. Process flows for verification
are generally notcompatible with the provision of more than one biometric








certainenvironments, multiple biometric implementations can be deployedeffectively;

however, it is not the cure-all that it would seem to be at firstglance.

Using multi-factor authentication. Ultimately, the use of multi-factorauthentication using biometrics with smart cards, tokens, evenpasswords - reduces the convenience
provided by biometric systems butreduces the likelihood of biometric systems being
spoofed. An imposterwould need both the token and/or the secret along with imposter
data inorder to defeat the system. In certain biometric systems identificationsystems, for
example - this is not viable



When a user places their finger on NITGEN's Fingerprint Recognition Device

(FRD) for the first time, the fingerprint is scanned and a 3-D fingerprint image is captured. All
fingerprints contain a number of unique physical characteristics called minutiae, which includes
certain visible aspects of fingerprints such as ridges, ridge endings, and bifurcation (forking) of
ridges. Most of the minutiae are found in the core points of fingerprints, and the core points
themselves are found near the centre of the fingerprint on the fleshy pad. Figure shows the
positions of core points within fingerprints.

The user is enrolled, or registered, in the database after a special minutiae-based

algorithm extracts key minutiae points from the live image at the time of acquisition and
converts the data into a unique mathematical template comparable to a 60-digit password. This
unique template is then encrypted and stored it is important to note that no actual image of the
fingerprint is stored, only the minutiae-based template. The next time a new fingerprint image for
an individual is scanned by the FRD, another template is created and the two templates are
compared to verify the users identity.

3.2 Ignition Systems of Vehicles

The ignition system of an internal-combustion engine is an important part of the overall
engine systemthat provides for the timely burning of the fuel mixture within the engine. All
conventional petrol(gasoline) engines require an ignition system. The ignition system is usually
switched on/off through alock switch, operated with a key or code patch.The ignition system
works in perfect concert with therest of the engine of a vehicle. The goal is to ignite the fuel at
exactly the right time so that theexpanding gases can do the maximum amount of work that in
line with the processes to make thevehicle move. If the ignition system fires at the wrong time,
power will fall and gas consumption andemissions can increase .
The part of the ignition system that first initiates the process of moving a vehicle is the
keysystem in conjunction with the kick starter. A wire from the battery in the vehicle connects to
the kickstarter and other wires connect the kick starter to the key system. When the car key in the
ignitionsystem is turned once, two wires coming from the kick starter to the key system are
bridged. Thiscauses the engine and some other parts of the vehicle to be put in a READY or ON
state. Turning thekey again makes a third wire to temporarily join the already bridged wires,
causing voltage to flowfrom the battery to the necessary parts vehicle so as to enable the vehicle
An ignition system is a system for igniting a fuel-air mixture. Ignition systems are well
known in the field of internal combustion engines such as those used in petrol (gasoline) engines
used to power the majority of motor vehicles, but they are also used in many other applications
such as in oil-fired and gas-fired boilers, rocket engines, etc.
The first ignition system to use an electric spark was probably Alessandro Volta's toy
electric pistol from the 1780s. Virtually all petrol engines today use an electric spark for ignition.
Diesel engines rely on fuel compression for ignition, but usually also have glowplugs that
preheat the combustion chamber to allow starting of the engine in cold weather. Other engines
may use a flame, or a heated tube, for ignition.

The disadvantage of the mechanical system is the use of breaker points to interrupt the
low-voltage high-current through the primary winding of the coil; the points are subject to
mechanical wear where they ride the cam to open and shut, as well as oxidation and burning at
the contact surfaces from the constant sparking. They require regular adjustment to compensate
for wear, and the opening of the contact breakers, which is responsible for spark timing, is
subject to mechanical variations.
In addition, the spark voltage is also dependent on contact effectiveness, and poor
sparking can lead to lower engine efficiency. A mechanical contact breaker system cannot control
an average ignition current of more than about 3 A while still giving a reasonable service life,
and this may limit the power of the spark and ultimate engine speed.
Electronic ignition (EI) solves these problems. In the initial systems, points were still
used but they handled only a low current which was used to control the high primary current
through a solid state switching system. Soon, however, even these contact breaker points were
replaced by an angular sensor of some kind - either optical, where a vaned rotor breaks a light
beam, or more commonly using a Hall effect sensor, which responds to a rotating magnet
mounted on the distributor shaft. The sensor output is shaped and processed by suitable circuitry,
then used to trigger a switching device such as a thyristor, which switches a large current through
the coil.
The first electronic ignition (a cold cathode type) was tested in 1948 by Delco-Remy,
while Lucas introduced a transistorized ignition in 1955, which was used on BRM and Coventry
ClimaxFormula One engines in 1962. The aftermarket began offering EI that year, with both the
AutoLite Electric Transistor 201 and Tung-Sol EI-4 (thyratron capacitive discharge) being
available. Pontiac became the first automaker to offer an optional EI, the breakerless magnetic
pulse-triggered Delcotronic, on some 1963 models; it was also available on some Corvettes.[4]
The first commercially available all solid-state (SCR) capacitive discharge ignition was
manufactured by Hyland Electronics in Canada also in 1963. Ford fitted a Lucas system on the
Lotus 25s entered at Indianapolis the next year, ran a fleet test in 1964, and began offering
optional EI on some models in 1965. Beginning in 1958,

Earl W. Meyer at Chrysler worked on EI, continuing until 1961 and resulting in use of EI
on the company's NASCARhemis in 1963 and 1964.
Prest-O-Lite's CD-65, which relied on capacitance discharge (CD), appeared in 1965, and
had "an unprecedented 50,000 mile warranty. (This differs from the non-CD Prest-O-Lite system
introduced on AMC products in 1972, and made standard equipment for the 1975 model year.) A
similar CD unit was available from Delco in 1966, which was optional on Oldsmobile, Pontiac,
and GMC vehicles in the 1967 model year. Also in 1967, Motoroladebuted their breakerless CD
system. The most famous aftermarket electronic ignition which debuted in 1965, was the Delta
Mark 10 capacitive discharge ignition, which was sold assembled or as a kit.
The Fiat Dino is the first production car to came standard with EI in 1968, followed by
Chrysler (after a 1971 trial) in 1973 and by Ford and GM in 1975.
In 1967, Prest-O-Lite made a "Black Box" ignition amplifier, intended to take the load off
of the distributor's breaker points during high r.p.m. runs, which was used by Dodge and
Plymouth on their factory Super StockCoronet and Belvederedrag racers. This amplifier was
installed on the interior side of the cars' firewall, and had a duct which provided outside air to
cool the unit The rest of the system (distributor and spark plugs) remains as for the mechanical
system. The lack of moving parts compared with the mechanical system leads to greater
reliability and longer service intervals.
Chrysler introduced breakerless ignition in mid-1971 as an option for its 340 V8 and the
426 Street Hemi. For the 1972 model year, the system became standard on its high-performance
engines (the 340 cu in (5.6 l) and the four-barrel carburetor-equipped 400 hp (298 kW) 400 cu in
(7 l)) and was an option on its 318 cu in (5.2 l), 360 cu in (5.9 l), two-barrel 400 cu in (6.6 l), and
low-performance 440 cu in (7.2 l) .Breakerless Ignition was standardised across the model range
for 1973.
For older cars, it is usually possible to retrofit an EI system in place of the mechanical
one. In some cases, a modern distributor will fit into the older engine with no other
modifications, like the H.E.I. distributor made by General Motors, the Hot-Spark electronic
ignition conversion kit and the aforementioned Chrysler-built electronic ignition system.

3.3 Micro-Controller

A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated C, uC or MCU) is a small computer on a

single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and
Programmable input/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of NOR flash or
OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM.









themicroprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications.

Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as
automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office
machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems. By reducing the size and
cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output
devices, microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and
processes. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common, integrating analog components needed to
control non-digital electronic systems.
Some microcontrollers may use four-bit words and operate at clock rate frequencies as
low as 4 kHz, for low power consumption (single-digit milliwatts or microwatts). They will
generally have the ability to retain functionality while waiting for an event such as a button press
or other interrupt; power consumption while sleeping (CPU clock and most peripherals off) may
be just nanowatts, making many of them well suited for long lasting battery applications. Other
microcontrollers may serve performance-critical roles, where they may need to act more like
a digital signal processor (DSP), with higher clock speeds and power consumption
A microcontroller consists of a powerful CPU tightly coupled with memory (RAM, ROM


















converter(ADC), Digital to Analog converter(DAC), everything integrated onto a single silicon

chip. Depending on the need and area of application for which it is designed, the chip on features
present in it may or may not include all the individual sections.
In their project use Atmel AT89S51 eight bit microcontroller with 4k bytes in system
programmable flash. The AT89S51 is a low power, high performance CMOS 8 bit
microcontroller with 4k bytes of in-system programmable flash memory. The AVR is a modified
Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC single-chip microcontroller, which was developed by Atmel in
1996. The AVR was one of the first microcontroller families to use on-chip flash memory for
program storage, as opposed to one-time programmable ROM,EPROM, or EEPROM used by
other microcontrollers at the time.
The device is manufactured using Atmels high density non-volatile memory technology
and it is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip
flashallows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining versatile 8 bit CPU with in-system programmable
flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S51 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a
highly flexible and cost effect solution to many embedded control applications
Micro controllers must provide real time (predictable, though not necessarily fast)
response to events in the embedded system they are controlling. When certain events occur,
an interrupt system can signal the processor to suspend processing the current instruction
sequence and to begin an interrupt service routine (ISR, or "interrupt handler"). The ISR will
perform any processing required based on the source of the interrupt, before returning to the
original instruction sequence. Possible interrupt sources are device dependent, and often include
events such as an internal timer overflow, completing an analog to digital conversion, a logic
level change on an input such as from a button being pressed, and data received on a
communication link. Where power consumption is important as in battery operated devices,
interrupts may also wake a microcontroller from a low power sleep state where the processor is
halted until required to do something by a peripheral event


EEPROM stands for ElectricallyErasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a

type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices to store small
amounts of data that must be saved when power is removed, e.g., calibration tables or device
Unlike bytes in most other kinds of non-volatile memory, individual bytes in a traditional
EEPROM can be independently read, erased, and re-written.
When larger amounts of static data are to be stored (such as in USB flash drives) a
specific type of EEPROM such as flash memory is more economical than traditional EEPROM
devices. EEPROMs are organized as arrays of floating-gate transistors.
An EPROM usually must be removed from the device for erasing and programming,
whereas EEPROMs can be programmed and erased in-circuit, by applying special programming
signals. Originally, EEPROMs were limited to single byte operations which made them slower,
but modern EEPROMs allow multi-byte page operations. It also has a limited life - that is, the
number of times it could be reprogrammed was limited to tens or hundreds of thousands of
times. That limitation has been extended to a million write operations in modern EEPROMs. In
an EEPROM that is frequently reprogrammed while the computer is in use, the life of the
EEPROM can be an important design consideration. It is for this reason that EEPROMs were
used for configuration information, rather than random access memory

There are different types of electrical interfaces to EEPROM devices. Main categories of
these interface types are:

Serial bus

Parallel bus

How the device is operated depends on the electrical interface.

Serial bus devices

Most common serial interface types are SPI, IC, Microwire, UNI/O, and 1-Wire. These
interfaces require between one and four control signals for operation, resulting in a memory
device in an eight-pin (or less) package.
The serial EEPROM (or SEEPROM) typically operates in three phases: OP-Code Phase,
Address Phase and Data Phase. The OP-Code is usually the first 8-bits input to the serial input
pin of the EEPROM device (or with most IC devices, is implicit); followed by 8 to 24 bits of
addressing depending on the depth of the device, then data to be read or written.
Each EEPROM device typically has its own set of OP-Code instructions to map to different
functions. Some of the common operations on SPI EEPROM devices are:

Write Enable (WRENAL)

Write Disable (WRDI)

Read Status Register (RDSR)

Write Status Register (WRSR)

Read Data (READ)

Write Data (WRITE)

Other operations supported by some EEPROM devices are:


Sector Erase

Chip Erase commands


Parallel bus devices

Parallel EEPROM devices typically have an 8-bit data bus and an address bus wide
enough to cover the complete memory. Most devices have chip select and write protect pins.
Some microcontrollers also have integrated parallel EEPROM.
Operation of a parallel EEPROM is simple and fast when compared to serial EEPROM,
but these devices are larger due to the higher pin count (28 pins or more) and have been
decreasing in popularity in favour of serial EEPROM or Flash.
Other devices
EEPROM memory is used to enable features in other types of products that are not
strictly memory products. Products such as real-time clocks, digital potentiometers, digital
temperature sensors, among others, may have small amounts of EEPROM to store calibration
information or other data that needs to be available in the event of power loss. It was also used
on video game cartridges to save game progress and configurations, before the usage of external
and internal flash memories
There are two limitations of stored information; endurance, and data retention.During
rewrites, the gate oxide in the floating-gate transistors gradually accumulates trapped electrons.
The electric field of the trapped electrons adds to the electrons in the floating gate, lowering the
window between threshold voltages for zeros vs ones. After sufficient number of rewrite cycles,
the difference becomes too small to be recognizable, the cell is stuck in programmed state, and
endurance failure occurs. The manufacturers usually specify the maximum number of rewrites
being 1 million or more.
During storage, the electrons injected into the floating gate may drift through the
insulator, especially at increased temperature, and cause charge loss, reverting the cell into erased
state. The manufacturers usually guarantee data retention of 10 years or more


AT24C02 is an electrically erasable and programmable ROM. It has a 2Kbits of memory

size arranged in 32 pages of 8 byte each. There are 256 (32 x 8) words each of one byte. The data
is transferred and received serially through serial data (SDA) pin. The SCL is clock input and is
used to synchronize EEPROM with microcontroller for various operations. When data is to be
read or write, first a start condition is created followed by device address, byte address and the
data itself. Finally a stop condition is provided. The start condition occurs when SDA and SCL
get high to low simultaneously. The stop condition is when SDA remains low while SCL goes
from high to low. The data is read or written between the start and stop conditions on every
transition of SCL from high to low. A total of eight EEPROMs can be connected through a bus.
There are three address pins in AT24C02 for selecting a particular chip. The device can be
addressed serially by the software. It makes use of an internal register of the EEPROM whose 4
MSB bits are 1010, the next three are the EEPROM address bits and the LSB signifies whether
data is to be read or written. This last bit is 1 for write and 0 for read operation It also have
limited life that is, the number of times it could be reprogrammed was limited to tens or hundreds
of thousands of times. The limitation was extended to a million write operations in modern
A. RPM Sensor
In this project to measure the Revolution per Minute (RPM) of the vehicle they use
Continuous Ratio-metric Linearly Hall effect sensor. The benefit of using Hall Effect sensor is
it could be entirely integrated on a single silicon chip. This breakthrough resulted in the low cost,
high volume application of Hall Effect, truly solid state keyboards. Micro Switch sensing and
control has produced and delivered nearly a billion Hall Effect devices in keyboards and sensor
B. Circuit description
This circuit is designed to control the load. The load may be motor or any other load. The
load is turned ON and OFF through relay. The relay ON and OFF is controlled by the pair of
switching transistors (BC 547). The relay is connected in the Q2 transistor collector terminal. A
Relay is nothing but electromagnetic switching device which consists of three pins. They are
Common, Normally close (NC) and normally open (NO). The relay common pin is connected to
supply voltage. The normally open (NO) pin connected to load. When high pulse signal is given

to base of the Q1 transistors, the transistor is conducting and shorts the collector and emitter
terminal and zero signals is given to base of the Q2 transistor. So the relay is turned OFF state.
When low pulse is given to base of transistor Q1 transistor, the transistor is turned OFF. Now
12v is given to base of Q2 transistor so the transistor is conducting and relay is turned ON.
Hence the common terminal and NO terminal of relay are shorted. Now load gets the supply
voltage through relay.
C. Applications

For Anti-theft
To measure RPM of the vehicle
Side stand indication
Fuel cut-off system at over speed

D. Advantages

Biometric is used to accomplish the anti-theft.

It is compact ability in all models
Ease of use
To reduce the accidents due to over speed

3.5 Power supply

The ac voltage, typically 220V rms, is connected to a transformer, which steps that ac
voltage down to the level of the desired dc output. A diode rectifier then provides a full-wave
rectified voltage that is initially filtered by a simple capacitor filter to produce a dc voltage. This
resulting dc voltage usually has some ripple or ac voltage variation.
A regulator circuit removes the ripples and also remains the same dc value even if the
input dc voltage varies, or the load connected to the output dc voltage changes. This voltage
regulation is usually obtained using one of the popular voltage regulator IC units.



In order to ensure a fair comparison of various fingerprint recognition algorithms,
acommon evaluation framework has to be defined. In this section a reference systemthat can be
used as a baseline for future improvements and comparisons is firstdefined. The database and the
corresponding protocols are then described along withthe associated performance measures. The
benchmarking experiments presented inthis section can be easily reproduced using the material
and relevant informationprovided on the companion site

4.1 NFIS2
The reference system for the fingerprint modality in the BioSecure Network of Excellence is
the minutiae-based NIST Fingerprint Image Software (NFIS2rel.282.2) . NFIS2 contains
software technology, developed for the Federal Bureauof Investigation (FBI), designed to
facilitate and support the automated manipulationand processing of fingerprint images. Source
code for over 50 different utilitiesor packages and an extensive Users Guide are distributed on
CD-ROM free of charge . For the evaluations and tests with the NFIS2 software presented in
thischapter, two packages are used: the minutiae extraction MINDTCT package and the
fingerprint matching BOZORTH3 package. These two packages are described next

4.2 Minutiae Extraction Using MINDTCT


MINDTCT takes a fingerprint image and locates all minutiae in the image, assigningto
each minutia point its location, orientation, type, and quality. The architecture ofMINDTCT is
shown in Fig

System architecture of the MINDTCT package of the NIST FingerprintImage

Software2 (NFIS2)
it can be divided in the following phases: a) generation of image quality map; b)
binarization; c) minutiae detection; d) removalof false minutiae (including islands, lakes, holes,
minutiae in regions of poor imagequality, side minutiae, hooks, overlaps,minutiae that are too
wide,and minutiae thatare too narrow-pores); e) counting of ridges between a minutia point and
its nearest neighbours; and f ) minutiae quality assessment. Additional details of these phasesare
given below.
Because of the variation of image quality within a fingerprint,NFIS2 analyzes the image
and determines areas that are degraded. Several characteristics are measured,including regions of
low contrast, incoherent ridge flow, and high curvature. Thesethree conditions represent unstable
areas in the image where minutiae detection isunreliable, and together they are used to represent
levels of quality in the image.An image quality map is generated integrating these three

characteristics. Images are divided into non overlapping blocks, where one out of five levels of
quality is assigned to each block.
The minutiae detection step scans the binary image of the fingerprint, identifying local
pixel patterns that indicate the ending or splitting of a ridge. A set of minutiapatterns is used to
detect candidate minutia points. Subsequently, false minutiaeare removed and the remaining
candidates are considered as the true minutiae ofthe image. Fingerprint minutiae marchers often
use other information in additionto just the points themselves. Apart from minutias position,
direction, and type,MINDTCT computes ridge counts between a minutia point and each of its
In the last step, a quality/reliability measure is associated with each detected minutia
point. Even after performing the removal step, false minutiae potentially remain in the list. A
robust quality measure can help to manage this. Two factors are combined to produce a quality
measure for each detected minutia point. The first factor is taken directly from the location of the
minutia point within the qualitymap described before. The second factor is based on simple pixel
intensity statistics(mean and standard deviation) within the immediate neighbourhood of the
minutia point.A high quality region within a fingerprint image is expected to have
significantcontrast that will cover the full grayscale spectrum

The BOZORTH3 matching algorithm computes a match score between the minutiae from
any two fingerprints to help determine if they are from the same finger. This matcher uses only
the location and orientation of the minutia points to match the fingerprints. It is rotation and
translation invariant. The algorithm can be described by the following three steps: a)
construction of two IntraFingerprint Minutia Comparison Tables, one table for each of the two
fingerprints; b) construction of an InterFingerprint Compatibility Table; and c) generation of the
matching score using the InterFingerprint Compatibility Table. The first step is to compute
relative measurements from each minutia in a fingerprint toall other minutia in the same
fingerprint. These relative measurements are storedin the IntraFingerprint Minutia Comparison
Table and are used to provide rotationand translation invariance. The invariant measurements
computed are the distance between two minutiae and angle between each minutias orientation

and the intervening line between both minutiae. A comparison table is constructed for each of the
two fingerprints.
The next step is to take the IntraFingerprint Minutia Comparison Tables from thetwo
fingerprints and look for compatible entries between the two tables. Table entriesare
compatible if: a) the corresponding distances and b) the relative minutia angles are within a
specified tolerance. An InterFingerprint Compatibility Table is generated, only including entries
that are compatible. A compatibility table entrytherefore incorporates two pairs of minutia, one
pair from the template fingerprint and one pair from the test fingerprint. Theentry into the
compatibility table indicatesthat the minutiae pair of the template fingerprint corresponds to the
minutiaepair of the test fingerprint.
At the end of the second step, we have constructed a compatibility table that consists of a
list of compatibility associations between two pairs of potentially corresponding minutiae. These
associations represent single links in a compatibility graph. The matching algorithm then
traverses and links table entries into clusters,combining compatible clusters and accumulating a
match score. The larger the number of linked compatibility associations, the higher the match
score, and the more likely the two fingerprints originate from the same person.


5.1 Interfacing through the PC Parallel Port
External devices (hardware) can be controlled through the PC parallel port. This is known
as hardwareinterfacing. It enables communication between a designed hardware and a digital
computer. The modesof communication and the system operation are controlled by a program or
codes that are resident onthe digital computer.The parallel port is a simple and inexpensive tool
for building computer controlled devices andprojects. It is often used in computer controlled
robots, Atmel/PIC programmers, home automation etc.
The primary use of a parallel port is to connect printers to computers but many other
types of hardwarefor that port is available today. Thus it is often called the printer port or
centronics port (after a popular printer manufacturing company centronics who devised some
standards for the parallel port)
The parallel port connector is located in the rear panel of a PC. It is a 25pin D-shaped
(DB25) female connector to which the printer or other devices may be connected. Not all25 pins
are needed always. Usually only 8 output pins (data lines) and signal ground are used. The
parallel port data pins are TTL outputs, that can both sink and source current. In ordinary parallel
port implementations the data outputs are 74LS374 IC totem-pole TTL outputs which can source
2.6Maand sink 24mA (Engdahl, 2005). On almost all PCs only one parallel port is present, but
more can beadded by buying and inserting ISA/PCI parallel ports cards. When a PC sends data to
a printer or other device using a parallel port, it sends 8 bits (1 byte) of data at a time. These 8
bits are transmitted parallel to each other; as opposed to the same 8 bits being transmitted serially
through a serial a serialport. The standard parallel port is capable of sending 50 to 100 kilobytes
of data per second.
The lines that connect to the DB25 connector are divided into three groups: data lines
(pins 2-9), control lines (pin 1, pin 14-16) and status lines (pins 10-13, pin 17). As their names
depict data is transferred over data lines, control lines are used to control peripheral devices and
the peripheral returns status signals back computer through status lines. These lines are

connected internally to theData, Control and Status registers internally. By manipulating these
registers in program, the parallelport can easily be read to or written from with programming
languages like Delphi, Visual basic, C,C++ and BASIC. The word connection does not mean that
there is some physical connection betweendata/control/status lines. The registers are virtually
connected to the corresponding lines such thatwhatever is written to these registers appear in
corresponding lines as voltages, which can be measuredwith a voltmeter. Whatever is given to
the parallel port as voltages can be read from these registers. Forinstance, if a 1 is written to the
data register, the data line D0 will be driven to +5v. In the same way,the data lines and the
control lines can be programmatically turned on and off.
In most PCs, the aforementioned registers are input/output mapped and will therefore
haveunique addresses. These addresses work with the parallel port. For a typical PC, the base
address of theprinter port LPT1 is 0x378 and LPT2 is 0x278. The data register resides at this
base address, statusregister at base address + 1 and the control register at base address + 2.With
the base address, theaddress of each address of each register can be calculated.

5.2 Parallel Port Programming

Programming languages like Visual Basic, Visual C, Visual C++, C#, Delphi etc are fast
and easy tools for developing user friendly applications. They however lack important
functionalities like direct access to the parallel port. Writing programs that communicate with the
parallel port is easier withoperating systems such as DOS (Desktop Operating System) and
Windows 95/98 through the use of functions such as inporb and outporbor _inp() or _outp() in
program codes. However newer operating systems such as Windows 2000, XP, NT etc do not
allow this simplicity. This is as a result of thesecurity privileges and restrictions they assign to
different types of programs running on them. They classify all programs into two categories,
namely: User mode and Kernel mode. User mode programs run in ring 3 mode and kernel mode
programs run in ring0 modeUser programs/software falls into the user mode category and is
restricted in the use of certain instructions such as IN and OUT to read or write to the parallel
port. When they attempt executing such instructions, the operating system halts and displays an
error message. Kernel mode programs are however not restricted in executing these instructions.
Since device drivers are capable of running in the kernel mode, the work around for problem

stated above is to write a kernel mode device driver capable of reading and writing to the parallel
port. The user mode program is then made to communicate with the written device driver. Some
of these kernel mode drivers are already written and available as share ware and they include
hwintaface.dll, io.dll, IOPORT.ocx, Porttalk.dll,NTportLibrary, Vitport, Inpout32.dll, and so on.
5.3 Ignition Systems of Vehicles
The ignition system of an internal-combustion engine is an important part of the overall
engine system that provides for the timely burning of the fuel mixture within the engine. All
conventional petrol(gasoline) engines require an ignition system. The ignition system is usually
switched on/off through alock switch, operated with a key or code patch.The ignition system
works in perfect concert with therest of the engine of a vehicle. The goal is to ignite the fuel at
exactly the right time so that the expanding gases can do the maximum amount of work that in
line with the processes to make thevehicle move. If the ignition system fires at the wrong time,
power will fall and gas consumption and emissions can increase.
The part of the ignition system that first initiates the process of moving a vehicle is the
key system in conjunction with the kick starter. A wire from the battery in the vehicle connects to
the kick starter and other wires connect the kick starter to the key system. When the car key in
the ignition system is turned once, two wires coming from the kick starter to the key system are
bridged. This causes the engine and some other parts of the vehicle to be put in a READY or ON
state. Turning the key again makes a third wire to temporarily join the already bridged wires,
causing voltage to flowfrom the battery to the necessary parts vehicle so as to enable the vehicle


5.4 Fingerprint Based Ignition System Design

The program codes driving the fingerprint recognition software for ignition system
control was writtenin visual basic 6.0 Enterprise Edition and ran on a PC. It uses a set of
fingerprint images stored in animage folder in its directory. The test images can be enrolled into
its database after it has gone through the stages of image enhancement, minutiae extraction and
image post-processing (eliminates falseminutiae). An image to be recognized is loaded into the
image area and its extracted minutiae is compared with all the images in the database in the case
of a 1 to many match, and with just a particular image in the case of a 1 to 1 match. A sufficient
number of similar minutiae points between the two images compared, indicates that the input
fingerprint image has a match which exists in thedatabase. An insufficient number of similar
minutiae points between the two images compared implythat the input fingerprint image has no
match which exists in the database.
The results from the matching process are communicated to a section of the recognition
software which manipulates two data pins of the parallel port. A fingerprint match causes the
data pinsto be in a high logic level and ideally output about 5volts while a fingerprint mismatch
makes the datapins to be in a low logic level and ideally output 0volts.
An interface control circuit was constructed to link the PC parallel port to the ignition system ofa
vehicle. This circuit provides a high degree of electrical isolation between the PC and the
ignition system which operate at different voltage levels, through the use of components called
The circuit also provides capabilities for the controlling the ignition system via the
interconnection of electronic components such as relays, bipolar junction transistors, resistors
and diodes.Three wires from the ignition system of a vehicle are required to be connected to the
interface circuit. When the parallel port data pins which form part of the connection to the
interface circuit are in a HIGH logic level, the interface circuit is triggered to ignite the vehicle.
On the other hand, the vehicleis not ignited when the circuit is in a LOW logic level.


The principal components of the prototype system are the fingerprint recognition software andthe
interface control circuit which are to form a continuous connection with a vehicles ignition
The block diagram of the system architecture is shown below

5.5 The Parallel Port Interface Control Circuit

The circuit was constructed using two optocouplers, two relays, four resistors, two diode,
two NPN transistors, and jumper wires. They components were connected together on a circuit
board accordingto the arrangement shown in the diagram below


Controlling the Ignition System

The mechanism of the ignition system comprise amongst other things, three wires that are
connected to the key system and used with the keys to ignite the vehicle. Two of these wires are
bridged when the key is turned first, causing current to flow from the car batteries to all parts of
the car requiring some form of electricity for operation. When the key is turned again, the third
wire bridges momentarily with the two wires already connected. This causes the cranking of the
engine, which ignites the vehicle.
For the purpose of this research work, the three wires were disconnected from the key
system. The first two wires were connected to the first relay, and the third wire was connected to
the second relay. This was done to simulate the action of bridging two of the wires together when
the first relay is activated. Activating the second relay for a short time causes a temporary
connection between the two relays. This connects all three wires together, thus igniting the
vehicle. The relays were activated or deactivated by sending appropriate control signals from the
fingerprint recognition software, via the parallel port to the interface circuit. A correctly
identified or verified image causes the parallel port control codes in the fingerprint recognition
software to send about 5volts to pin 2 of the parallel port. This voltage passes on to the interface
control circuit and subsequently activates the first relay. After five seconds, about 5volts is sent
again to the pin 3 of the parallel port for three seconds. This activates the second relay for five

seconds and deactivates it. The continuous activation of the first relay and the momentary
activation ofthe second relay cause the vehicle to be ignited.
Conversely, an incorrectly identified image causes the parallel port control codes in
thefingerprint recognition software to send about 0volts to pin 2 and pin 3 of the parallel port.
Thus, no voltage passes on to the interface control circuit and the two relays remain deactivated.
This preventsthe vehicle from being ignited.


Virtually eliminates unauthorized access

Reduces possibility of auto-theft
Foolproof means of restricting the ignition of vehicles
Authorised users can only ignite the vehicle.
Authentication through the fingerprint images to ignite the Vehicle
Easy to use
Compactable in any model vehicle
Small storage space is required
Fingerprint is most economical biometric technology




Mistakes may happen because of dry and dirt skin

Not applicable for children
Authorised users can only ignite the Vehicle
Average acceptance
Chances for hacking
Not always accurate


Appeals to security-conscious customers

Appeals to tech-savvy customers
Usefull to Police Department
Usefull for Industrial purpose
Usefull for Banks
Less completion



Chances of hacking

Now a days theft of a vehicles are increasing. To prevent from this problem The
Fingerprint Ignition System is used. The theft is controlled by the Finger print matching process.
Thus fingerprint identification enhances the security of a vehicle and makes it possible only for
some selected people to start the car. By using the Fingerprint Ignition System the can enter and
start the vehicle without the use of keys. This system will provide a unique type of security for
the customers. The Fingerprint based ignition system will be very usefull to Banks and Finance
based companies where security for the highly confidential vehicles and

for the vehicles

carrying money are very important. This system can be used by the public too. It will appealing
to the Security Conscious and Tech-Savvy customers. Like the positives ,the system is also
having its own negatives. There are some chances for hacking of the system,and the people who
are authorised can only use the system.