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IC Packages

DefinitionIC package is what encapsulates the actual integrated chip and converts it into a
usable device by connecting the outer connections of the chip to the pins of the package via a
material like Gold.
Characteristics
An IC package is characterised by various aspects like Polarity marking and pin
numbering, mounting styles etc.
1. Polarity Marking- Each IC is polarized. Each pin has different function and each IC
has a way to convey it to the user. Most of the ICs use notch or dot. They indicate the
first pin of the IC package.
2. Mounting Style- There are two prominent mounting styles useda. Surface Mount- As name suggests, these devices are mounted on a surface.
There are further many types of surface mount devices and are abbreviated as
SMD.

The above figure shows the SMD package. The pins are flat as shown. There
are three main types of the leads as shown in figure below-

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Following are the prime types of the SMD packages used SOIC - Small Outline IC. This has dual-in-line configuration and has a
plastic-moulded case. It has Gull Wing leads with 1.27mm lead pitch.
There are other types such as SOM (Small outline medium), SOL
(Small outline large) etc. The popular SOP package is nothing but the
SOL package. Figure shows the SOIC general design.

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TSOP Thin Small Outline Package. They are low-profile (1.0 mm


height) and have tight spacing between the pins. Thus their size is
small. Following figure shows the TSOP package. They also use the
gull-wing leads.

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Flat Packs This is the oldest package type and has limited
applications like military, aerospace etc. They have leads coming out
only from two opposite sides of their body. They are often of 14 or 28
pins. Some are of 80 pins. They are only available with 1.27mm lead
pitch.

QFP Quad Flat Packs. They are largely used packages. They are
advantageous because they reduce the size of the device drastically.
They are known as fine pitch devices as their pitch is 0.65mm or
0.3mm only. Though they are famous, still some development work is
going on regarding them. They generally provide a high count of pins
up to 304. There are many types of the QFP based on the structure and
material variants such as Ceramic QFP, Thin QFP, and Metric QFP etc.

BGA Ball Grid Array. These are most convenient for the
permanently mounted devices like microprocessors. They dont have
conventional lead structure but have an array of spherical metal ends,
which are far more convenient than other types of leads. BGA also
provides more number of leads that other packages.

b. Through-hole package
Through-hole packages have a structure in which the lead pins are
inserted and soldered into holes (0.8 to 1.0mm in diameter) drilled through
the printed circuit (PC) board, and find wide applications in electronic
equipment where board space is not at a premium or where costs are a
constraint. DIPs, and PGAs are typical packages in this group. ZIPs, skinny
DIPs, and shrink DIPs are high-pin-density IC packages which can be used
in these applications. The size and fitting of the IC is perfect for testing it on
the breadboard.

There are many types of through-hole packages. The most famous is the DIP
package, which is also known as DIL package. DIL package is used for more
other applications than DIP.
There is another type of through-hole packages which is SIL Single-In-Line
package. It has a single row of leads e.g. 78XX series.
There are still other types like Ceramic DIP, Ceramic pin grid array etc.
There is one special type of this package- QIP or QIL. It has zigzag
configuration of the pins and has same dimensions as the DIL package.

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