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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

Tahapan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris


( Steps For learning English is )

1. Alphabet ( huruf )
Coba anda tanyakan pada diri anda sendiri, sudahkah kita bisa mengeja nama
kita sendiri dengan mengeja dengan bahasa Inggris dengan benar jikalau kita
ingin bisa berbicara dengan bahasa Inggris.
2. Words ( kata )
Kata merupakan rangkaian huruf yang mempunyai makna / arti sesuatu benda,
sifat, tindakan atau dengan yang lain.
Dalam meningkatkan atau minimal mempertahankan kosa kata kita, cobalah di
saat kita mempunyai waktu kosong kita menulis kata yang mana kita menulis
kata dengan menggunakan huruf terakhir dari kata sebelumnya.
Example :
Diligent
Take
Export
Touch
Hour
Read
Etc
Secara ideal kata yang kita tulis dalam waktu satu menit minimal 7 kata
atau sampai dengan 10 kata. Jadi dalam waktu 30 menit minimal kata yang kita
tulis secara ideal 210 kata atau sampai dengan 300 kata.
3. Sentence ( kalimat )
Kalimat merupakan rangkaian kata yang mana pada susunannya adalah :
S + P + O / Kata Keterangan atau
Kata Keterangan + S + P + O

Kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris terdiri dari 2 jenis kalimat antara lain :
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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

1. Kalimat NOMINAL : S + TOBE + O / ADVERB.


Dalam tenses apapun kita akan menggunakan jenis kalimat nominal ini,
tentunya ini nanti yang membedakannya adalah kapan kejadian itu terjadi.
Macam tobe antara lain :
Am, is, are
Was, were
.....be
.....being
.....been
2. Kalimat VERBAL : S + VERB + O / ADVERB.
Membahas tentang kata kerja dalam bahasa Inggris, contoh artinya
MAKAN =
Eat
Eats
Ate
Eaten
Eating
Pertanyaannya adalah kapan masing-masing kata kerja tersebut digunakan
dalam kalimat.
Membahas tentang kalimat tentunya kita akan mengenal tentang TENSES, ini
dikarenakan waktu terjadinya kejadian tersebut berkaitan erat dengan penggunaan
tenses tersebut.
MACAM TENSES ANTARA LAIN :

Simple Present Tense.


Nominal :

( + ) S + ( am, is, are ) + O ( adjective, noun ) / adverb.


( - ) S + ( am, is, are ) + Not + O / adverb
( ? ) ( am, is, are ) + S + O / adverb ? Yes, S + am/is /are
No, S + am/is/are + Not.

Example : Are you a farmer ?


No, I am not a farmer.
I am a student.
Verbal

( + ) S + Verb 1 + O / adverb.
( - ) S + do not + Verb 1 + O / adverb.
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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

( ? ) Do + S + Verb 1 + O / adverb ? Yes, S + do.


No, S + do not.
Example : Do we study English every Friday ?
No, we do not study English every Friday.
We study English every Wednesday and Saturday.
Catatan : Penggunaan kata kerja / Verb 1 untuk Subyek ( I, You, We dan They )
:

( + ) S + Verb 1 ( s, es) + O / adverb.


( - ) S + does not + Verb 1 + O / adverb.
( ? ) Does + S + Verb 1 + O + adverb ? Yes, S + does.
No, S + does + not.
Example : Does Firman go to school every Sunday ?
No, he does not go to school every Sunday.
He goes to school from Monday to Saturday.
Catatan : Penggunaan kata kerja / Verb 1( s, es ) untuk Subyek ( He, She dan It )
Kegunaan dari Simple Present Tense.
a. Habitual action ( kebiasaan sehari-hari )
- He studies for six hours every day.
- You are always busy.
b. Generals Truth ( menyatakan kebenaran secara umum atau nyata )
- The sun rises in east and sets in the west.
c. Untuk menulis suatu kabar.
- Nazaruddin talks about corruption to mass media.
d. Menggantikan Present Continous pada kata kerja yang tidak lazim
dipakai dalam Present Continous seperti : see, need, like, love, believe
and have.
- He needs a pen.
e. Menunjukkan suatu rencana .
- We leave London at 10.00 next Tuesday and arrive at 12.00 in Paris.
f. Untuk kalimat pengandaian tipe I / conditional sentence type I
- If the weather is fine, we will go to TMII.
g. Untuk narasi drama ( untuk menggambarkan jalan urutan cerita )
- When the curtain rises, Juliet is writing at her desk
- Always
: selalu
- Seldom
: jarang
- Usually
: biasanya
: jarang
Adverb
of fruquency ( :kata
keterangan kekerapan- ) :Rarely
- Generally
biasanya
- Scarcely
: jarang
- Habitually
: biasanya
- Never
: tidak pernah
- Ever
: pernah
- Often
: sering.
- Sometimes
: kadang-kadang
- Regularly
: secara tetap
- Occasionally : kadang-kadang
- Now and then : kadang-kadang 3
- On and off
: kadang-kadang

Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

Adverb of time ( kata keterangan waktu ).


-

Every day
Every second
Every week
Today
At noon

: setiap hari.
: setiap detik.
: setiap minggu
: hari ini
: pada siang hari.

Once a day
: sekali sehari
Once a week : sekali seminggu
Once a month : sekali sebulan
On Sunday
: pada hari minggu
In the morning : dipagi hari
Now
: sekarang.

QUESTION WORD (Q W)

1. Who
kalimat.
2. What
3. Whom
kalimat.
4. Where
5. When

: siapa ( orang ) untuk menanyakan letaknya di Subyek dalam


: apa ( benda / binatang )
: siapa ( orang ) untuk menanyakan letaknya di Obyek dalam
: dimana ( tempat )
: kapan ( waktu )
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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

6.
7.
8.
9.

Why
Whose
Which
How

: mengapa ( alasan )
: milik ... siapa
: yang mana...........( untuk menyatakan pilihan )
: bagaimana ( cara keterangan )
- How many
: berapa banyak untuk benda yang bisa dihitung.
Example : table, chair, book, pencil etc
- How much
: berapa banyak untuk benda yang tidak bisa
dihitung.
Example : sugar, salt, water etc.
- How long
: berapa lama
- How far
: berapa jauh
- How often
: berapa sering / berapa kali.
10.What time
: jam berapa
11.Whom ......for : untuk siapa
12.Whom ......to : untuk siapa
Using question word in the sencences ( penggunaan kata tanya dalam kalimat
pertanyaan )
Untuk menanyakan tentang :
Subject ? = Q W + Verb 1 / Verb 1 (s,es) + O / adverb ?
Verb ?

= Q W + Do / Does + S + do ?

Object ?

= Q W + Do / Does + S + Verb 1 ?

Present Continuous Tense.


Nominal :

( + ) S + ( am, is, are ) + ( being ) + O ( adjective, noun ) / adverb.


( - ) S + ( am, is, are ) + Not + ( being ) + O / adverb
( ? ) ( am, is, are ) + S + ( being ) +O / adverb ? Yes, S + am/is /are
No, S + am/is/are +
not.

Example : Are you being at the school now ?


No, I am not being at the school.
I am being at the post office.
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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

Verbal :

( + ) S + ( am, is, are ) + Verb + ing + O ( adjective, noun ) / adverb.


( - ) S + ( am, is, are ) + not + Verb + ing + O / adverb
( ? ) ( am, is, are ) + S + Verb + ing + O / adverb ?
Yes, S + am/is /are
No, S + am/is/are + Not.
Example : Are they studying Biology ?
No, they are not. They are not studying Biology.
They are reading the books in the library.
Kegunaan dari Present Cotinuous Tense :
a. Menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung pada saat berbicara.
- I am studying English now.
b. Menyatakan rencana yang sudah pasti.
- I am meeting Irfan Bachdim tonight.
c. Jika menggunakan keterangan : always, constantly, continually, forever
untuk menunjukan :
- Rasa jengkel : he is always losing his keys.
- Rasa kagum
: he is always helping his grand mother.
Adverb of Time :
-

Now
Right now
At present
To day
Listen !
Look !

: sekarang
: sekarang ini
: sekarang ini
: hari ini
: dengar !
: lihat !

Adverb of time can be used Present Future and also Present Continous :
-

To night
Tomorrow
Next week
Soon
This evening

: malam ini / nanti malam


: besok
: minggu depan
: segera
: malam ini

Using tobe :
- Am

:I
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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

- Is
- Are

: he, she, it.


: we, you, they.

Using question word in the sencences ( penggunaan kata tanya dalam kalimat
pertanyaan )
Untuk menanyakan tentang :
Subject ? = Q W + (is, am, are) + Verb 1 + ing + O / adverb ?
Verb ?

= Q W + (is, am, are) + S + doing ?

Object ?

= Q W + (is, am, are) + S + Verb 1+ ing ?

Catatan :
Beberapa kata kerja yang tidak lazim di-continuous-kan :
1. A. Verb of tenses (kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan panca indra)
- See
: melihat tak disengaja.
- Hear
: mendengar tak disengaja
- Feel
: merasa.
- Smell : membau
- Notice : memperhatikan
- Observe : mengawasi.
B. Yang berhubungan dengan panca indra yang menjadi continuous
- Look at : melihat disengaja
- Listen to : mendengarkan disengaja
- Watch : menyaksikan.
2. Verb of feeling and emotions (kata kerja yang menyatakan perasaan dan emosi)
- Like
: suka
- Love : mencintai
- Want : ingin
- Hate
: benci
- Expect : mengharapkan.
- Appreciate : menghargai
Example : I like English
Bukan

I am liking English.

3. Verb of thinking (kata kerja yang berhubungan dengan pikiran)


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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

Understand
Think
Forget
Recognize
Believe
Remember
Realize
Know

: mengerti
: mengira / berpendapat
: lupa
: mengenali
: percaya
: ingat
: menyadari
: mengetahui

Example

: we believe in God.

Bukan

: we are believing in a God.

Present Perfect Tense.


Nominal :

( + ) S + ( have, has ) + been + O ( adjective, noun ) / adverb.


( - ) S + ( have, has ) + Not + been+ O / adverb
( ? ) ( have, has ) + S + been +O / adverb ? Yes, S + (have, has)
No, S + (have, has + not )
Example : has she been a lazy student ?
No, she has not. She hasnot been a lazy student.
She has been a diligent student.
Verbal :

( + ) S + ( have, has ) + Verb 3 + O ( adjective, noun ) / adverb.


( - ) S + ( have, has ) + not + Verb 3 + O / adverb
( ? ) ( have, has ) + S + Verb 3 + O / adverb ? Yes, S + (have, has)
No, S + (have, has + not )

Example : has she called a stupid student ?


No, she has not. She hasnot called a stupid student.
She has called a clever student.
Catatan :
Have
: I, you, we, they.
Has
: he, she, it.

Kegunaan :

Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

a. Menyatakan perbuatan yang telah selesai dilakukan tetapi hasilnya masih


dirasakan sampai sekarang dan tidak menggunakan Time Duration.
- He has spoken English.
- They have just gone out.
b. Menyatakan perbuatan telah, berlangsung sampai sekarang.
- I have studied English for three hours.

Adverb of Time :
-

For.....
: selama
For an hour
: selama satu jam
Since
: sejak
Already
: sudah
Just
: baru saja
Ever since
: sejak saat ini
All day/night/week : sepanjang.....
Since last year : sejak tahun lalu.

Using question word in the sencences ( penggunaan kata tanya dalam kalimat
pertanyaan )
Untuk menanyakan tentang :
Subject ? = Q W + (have, has) + Verb 3 + O / adverb ?
Verb 3 ?

= Q W + (have, has) + S + done ?

Object ?

= Q W + (have, has) + S + Verb 3 ?

Present Perfect ContinuousTense.


Nominal :

( + ) S + ( have, has ) + been + ( being ) + O / adverb.


( - ) S + ( have, has ) + Not + been+ ( being ) + O / adverb
( ? ) ( have, has ) + S + been +( being )+ O / adverb ?
Yes, S + (have, has)
No, S + (have, has + not )
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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

Example :
Have you been being in the class ?
No, I have not. I have not been being in the class.
I have been being in the library.
Verbal :

( + ) S + ( have, has ) + been + V ing + O / adverb.


( - ) S + ( have, has ) + not + been + V ing + O / adverb
( ? ) ( have, has ) + S + been + Ving + O / adverb ?
Yes, S + (have, has)
No, S + (have, has + not )

Example :
Has Jim Kurniawan been joining in PSSI ?
No, he has not. He has not been joining in PSSI.
He has been joining in Persema.
Menyatakan kejadian yang telah sedang berlangsung / dilakukan pada waktu sekarang.
- She has been sleeping on the floor lately.
Adverb of Time :
-

For.....
: selama
For an hour
: selama satu jam
Since
: sejak
All day/night/week : sepanjang.....
Since last year : sejak tahun lalu.
So far
: sejauh ini
Ever since
: sejak saat ini
Lately
: akhir-akhir ini
Recently
: akhir-akhir ini

Using question word in the sencences ( penggunaan kata tanya dalam kalimat
pertanyaan )
Untuk menanyakan tentang :
Subject ? = Q W + (have, has) + been + V ing + O / adverb ?
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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

Verb ing ? = Q W + (have, has) + S + been + doing ?


Object ?

= Q W + (have, has) + S + been + V ing ?

Simple Past Tense.


Nominal :

( + ) S + ( was, were ) + O / adverb.


( - ) S + ( was, were ) + Not + O / adverb
( ? ) ( was, were ) + S + O / adverb ?
Yes, S + ( was, were)
No, S + ( was, were + not )

Catatan : Was is used for Subject ( I, He, She, It )


Were is used for Subject ( We, You, They )
Example :
Was he at home last night ?
No, he was not. He was not home last night.
He was at the hospital last night.

Verbal :

( + ) S + Verb 2 + O / adverb.
( - ) S + did + not + Verb. 1 + O / adverb
( ? ) Did + S + Verb. 1 + O / adverb ?
Yes, S + did
No, S + did + not

Example :
Did they do their homework last night ?
No, they did not. They did not do their home work last night.
They watched football match PSSI vs M U

Kegunaan :
a. Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan di waktu lampau.
- He went to Surabaya yesterday
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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

b. Menyatakan kebiasaan di masa lampau.


- They always smoked when he was child.
c. Juga bisa menggunakan used to( dulu biasanya )
- He used to smoke when he was child.
- He didnot use to smoke when he was child.
Adverb of time Simple Past :
-

Yesterday
: kemarin
Last.....
: ....... lalu
Last week
: minggu lalu
Last time
: tadi
......ago
: ...... yang lalu
Two hours ago : yang dua jam yang lalu.
Just now
: baru saja
This morning : tadi pagi.

Using question word in the sencences ( penggunaan kata tanya dalam kalimat
pertanyaan )
Untuk menanyakan tentang :
Subject ? = Q W + V 2 + O / adverb ?
Verb 2 ?

= Q W + did + S + do ?

Object ?

= Q W + did + S + V 1 ?

Past Contionuous Tense.


Nominal :

( + ) S + be ( was / were ) + being + O / adverb.


( - ) S + be ( was / were ) + not + being + O / adverb
( ? ) Be ( was / were) + S + being + O / adverb ?
Yes, S + be ( was / were )
No, S + be ( was / were ) + not

Example :

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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

Was he being a fat boy ?


No, he was not. He was not a fat boy ?
He was being a thin boy.
Verbal

( + ) S + be ( was / were ) + V ing + O / adverb.


( - ) S + be ( was / were ) + not + V ing + O / adverb
( ? ) Be ( was / were) + S + V ing + O / adverb ?
Yes, S + be ( was / were )
No, S + be ( was / were ) + not

Example :
Were you watching the football match Indonesia vs Jordania ?
No, I was not. I was not wathing the football match Indonesia vs Jordania.
I was visiting my grand parents house.
Kegunaan :
a. Menyatakan pekerjaan / kejadian pada waktu tertentu di masa lampau.
-. Last year at this time I was attending school
b. Menyatakan 2 kejadian yang terjadi secara berurutan dimasa lampau.
- While I was watching TV, he knocked the door.
c. Menyatakan 2 kejadian yang sedang terjadi secara bersamaan di waktu
lampau. Dengan memakai while ( sedangkan ) dan where as (sementara).
- We were studying where as my sister was listening the radio.
d. Menyatakan rasa jengkel dan kagum.
- He was always calling her at night.

Adverb of time Past Continuous Tense :


-

At .......oclock yesterday : pada pukul .........kemarin


Last.....
: ....... lalu
........when .......
: .........ketika .......
When S. Past
: ketika
......ago
: ...... yang lalu
Two hours ago
: yang dua jam yang lalu.
While + past continuous : saat / sementara................

Using question word in the sencences ( penggunaan kata tanya dalam kalimat
pertanyaan )
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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

Untuk menanyakan tentang :


Subject ? = Q W + ( was / were ) + V ing + O / adverb ?
Verb ing ? = Q W + ( was / were ) + S + doing ?
Object ?

= Q W + ( was / were ) + S + V ing ?

Past Perfect Tense.


Nominal :

( + ) S + had + been + O / adverb.


( - ) S + had + not + been + O / adverb
( ? ) Had + S + been + O / adverb ?
Yes, S + had
No, S + had + not

Example :
Had he been an Indonesian ?
No, he hadnot. He hadnot an Indonesian.
He had been a chinese.

Verbal

( + ) S + had + Verb 3 + O / adverb.


( - ) S + had + not + Verb 3 + O / adverb
( ? ) Had + S + Verb 3 + O / adverb ?
Yes, S + had
No, S + had + not

Example :
Had he taken an English course ?
No, he hadnot. He hadnot taken an English course.
He had taken a mandarin course.

Kegunaan :

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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

a. Hampir sama dengan present perfect tense tapi kejadiannya telah terjadi
di waktu lampau.
- He had taught in this school when I came to this school.
b. Biasa digunakan dalam 2 kejadian.
- After the rain had stopped, we went home.
Adverb of time Past Perfect Tense :
- After : setelah / sesudah
- When : ketika.
- Before : sebelum
Catatan :
Had artinya sudah / telah untuk semua Subyek ( I, you, we, they, he, she and it )

Using question word in the sencences ( penggunaan kata tanya dalam kalimat
pertanyaan )
Untuk menanyakan tentang :
Subject ? = Q W + had + V 3 + O / adverb ?
Verb 3 ?

= Q W + had + S + done ?

Object ?

= Q W + had + S + V 3 ?

Past Perfect ContinuousTense.

Nominal :

( + ) S + had + been + (being) + O / adverb.


( - ) S + had + not + been + (being) + O / adverb
( ? ) Had + S + been + (being) + O / adverb ?
Yes, S + had
No, S + had + not

Example :
Had you been (being) a driver ?
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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

No, I had not. I had not been (being) a driver.


I had not been (being) a teacher.
Verbal :

( + ) S + had + been + V ing + O / adverb.


( - ) S + had + not + been + V ing + O / adverb
( ? ) Had + S + been + V ing + O / adverb ?
Yes, S + had
No, S + had + not

Example :
Had we been helping the poor people ?
No, we had not. We had not been helping the poor people.
We had been suggesting them.

Kegunaan :
Untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang telah sedang terjadi dimasa lampau dengan
penekanan pada dimensi waktu.
She finally picked us up at ten oclock, we had beenwaiting for her since seven
oclock.
Adverb of time
-

Since
For
By last
By yesterday

: sejak
: selama
: menjelang......lalu
: menjelang kemarin.

Using question word in the sencences ( penggunaan kata tanya dalam kalimat
pertanyaan )
Untuk menanyakan tentang :
Subject ? = Q W + had + V ing + O / adverb ?
Verb ing ? = Q W + had + S + doing ?
Object ?

= Q W + had + S + V ing ?
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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

Present Future Tense.


Nominal :

( + ) S + will / shall + be + O / adverb.


( - ) S + will / shall + not + be + O / adverb
( ? ) Will / shall + S + be + O / adverb ?
Yes, S + will / shall
No, S + will / shall + not

Example :
Will we be fail in the future ?
No, we will not. We will not be fail in the future.
We will be successfull in the future.

Verbal :

( + ) S + will / shall + Verb 1 + O / adverb.


( - ) S + will / shall + not + Verb 1 + O / adverb
( ? ) Will / shall + S + Verb 1 + O / adverb ?
Yes, S + will / shall
No, S + will / shall + not

Example :
Will they go to the Jatim Park tomorrow ?
No, they will not. They will not go to the Jatim Park tomorrow.
They will go to Bali tomorrow.

Kegunaan :
a. Menyatakan perbuatan yang akan terjadi/dilakukan dimasa yang akan
datang.
b. Untuk membuat kalimat bersyaarat atau kalimat pengandaian tipe I
(conditional sentence tipe I)
- If Simple present tense, Present Future.
If I have much money, I will buy a motorcycle.
Syarat
- Present future if simple present tense.
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Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Khusus Angkatan Laut - 1

I will love you if you love me.


Adverb of time :
-

Tomorrow : besok
Next .......
: .......depan
Next week : minggu depan
......later
: .......lagi
Two days later
: dua hari lagi
Soon
: segera

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