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Archaeology in Anatolia

Author(s): Machteld J. Mellink


Source: American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 95, No. 1 (Jan., 1991), pp. 123-153
Published by: Archaeological Institute of America
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Archaeology in Anatolia
MACHTELDJ. MELLINK
In the region of the upper Euphrates and Tigris in
eastern Turkey, major ancient developments have
been brought to light by regular as well as emergency
excavations. The sites in the flood zones of the Karakaya and Atatuirkdams in the Euphrates are nearly
all drowned, including the great mound of Samsat,
where Late Uruk levels were reached on a limited
scale. Iron Age Kummuh was retrieved in samples of
its fortifications and bits of ruined sculptures. The
major effort was the recording of the sumptuous
palace of King Mithradates of Commagene. The prehistory and history of the Euphrates area will be put
together in a composite manner with the aid of results
from a series of mounds sampled by rescue teams
from Samsat in the south to Kalek6y and $emgiyetepe
in the north. Tille is still accessible and yielding early
Iron Age strata. Nevall (ori, slowly endangered by
the Atatfirk Dam lake, has given us impressive evidence for art and architecture of Aceramic Neolithic,
notably the ritual complex that held tall stelae carved
with anthropomorphic figures in a formal setting
(figs. 1-2).
The nature and development of Aceramic Neolithic
settlements in the Euphrates and upper Tigris area
become better known annually also through surveys
in the Qaybnii-Ergani area; archaeometallurgists are
studying the incipient working of copper at Qay6nii.
In central Anatolia, Aplkh Hdyiik will contribute its
own chapter to the story of Aceramic Neolithic ramifications.

This review of excavations, survey, and research in


Anatolia in 1989 is again selective. Whatever subjective emphasis may be applied, the overall trends are
evident. They come to light at the annual symposium
for excavators and researchers organized by the Turkish Ministry of Culture and its Directorate of Antiquities and Museums. These symposia are a blessing to
all Anatolian archaeologists who are called in to report
to a general forum and who thus have the opportunity
to learn about the vast range of annual excavations
and surveys in progress. The blessing is strenuous. In
1989 over 150 papers were presented in five days,
including the survey and archaeometry reports; time
for discussion in the official sessions is limited. Yet
the principle of this unique international event is
excellent, the more so since the reports appear in
print within a year. Generous hospitality provides
relaxation and opportunity for symposiastic discourse.
The 1990 session was saddened by the loss of one
of the leading archaeologists in eastern Turkey, Alba
Palmieri, who died in Rome on 10 April 1990. Her
leadership in the excavations of Arslantepe-Malatya,
her illuminating study of this site in the upper Euphrates valley and its confrontation of Transcaucasians and Late Uruk pioneers, her eloquent
discussions of Arslantepe in Anatolian and Mesopotamian context, and her generous friendship to colleagues will continue to be a source of admiration and
affection.

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AmericanJournal of Archaeology95 (1991)

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123

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ANATOLIA

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124

MACHTELD J. MELLINK

Plans for new dams in the Euphrates south of Birecik now put a major challenge to excavators to
rescue the Late Uruk sites close to Carchemish. The
city itself will just escape flooding but it is in a precarious position astride the Turkish-Syrian border. The
dams in the Tigris area will engulf a less known world,
with victims from Seljuk (Hasan Keyf) and Roman
(Bezabde) to Aceramic and Palaeolithic eras. New
teams will have to be recruited to match the energy
of the veterans of the Keban and lower Euphrates
campaigns. The march of technology is unstoppable,
as is also evident from interviews by Diane Raines
Ward (Smithsonian 21:5 [August 1990] 28-41).
Outside of the floodzones, two mounds east and
west of the Euphrates will enlighten us on Syro-Mesopotamian transit routes to Anatolia in the third millennium B.C. At Girnavaz near Nusaybin, a cemetery
of the Early Dynastic II period is providing ample
evidence for burial customs and ceramic, metallurgical, and glyptic crafts; at Oylum Hdytik, southwest of
Gaziantep, good comparative data are beginning to
emerge from a series of burials of late EB-early MB
date.
In central Anatolia, excavations have been resumed
at Acemh6yiik-Burushattum (?) where the layout of
the palaces and public building area of the 18th century B.C. will be investigated. At Kiiltepe the Karum
Ib and Ia levels bring us closer to the link with Old
Hittite history. At Bogazk6y the South Citadel and
adjoining territory, in addition to the built chamber
of Shuppiluliuma II with its reliefs and texts, revealed
Hittite fortifications of subsidiary areas of the capital,
as well as the remodeling and reuse of this citadel in
several stages by Phrygian newcomers.
The arrival of the Phrygians at Gordion seems to
become tangible. The trenches excavated in the central plaza of the Midas citadel revealed three levels of
architectural remains in the form of "pit-houses," the
earliest two with some use of orthostatic stones and
an inventory of handmade, "barbaric" pottery, the
third a burnt wattle-and-daub house in which the
pottery was wheelmade and of Phrygian type (fig. 14).
The Phrygians were the subject of a symposium
organized by the Middle East Technical University at
Ankara and Anatolian University at Eski"ehir in June
1990; the great asset of this venture as planned by
Prof. Sevim Bulug was the discussion of Phrygian facts
and problems at the major sites and in front of the
monuments in and west of Ankara (Hacltugrul, newly
activated; Gordion; Yazlihkaya; and other highland
sites).
Western Anatolia is gradually revealing its contribution to the pre-Bronze Age development of southeastern Europe and Anatolia in general. Yarimburgaz

[AJA 95

on the coast near Istanbul, in addition to its Lower


Palaeolithic deposits, has a Neolithic-Chalcolithic sequence, also observed at Toptepe-Eregli. In the region of Iznik, Ilhplnar will yield a reliable stratification
and a much needed study of West Anatolian timber
architecture.
At Troy, the EB Age is being scrutinized especially
in its Troy I phases; the results will be helpful for the
understanding of Troy I period sites along the Thracian and Anatolian coasts, and will aid the future
excavators of EB harbor stations along the West Anatolian coast such as Bayrakli-Old Smyrna and Limantepe-Klazomenai.
For the contact zones with the Aegean in the second
millennium B.C., Troy will contribute evidence from
the lower city. In Panaztepe, a test case of interaction
in the lower Hermus valley is under investigation.
The most articulate context is coming from the shipwrecks off the Lycian coast at Ka?-Uluburun and Cape
Gelidonya, meticulously excavated and analyzed.
In the Classical era, two trends remain noticeable.
One is that more and more temples, theaters, stoas,
and gateways are being partially restored and protected against the elements and human carelessness.
Anastylosis and guidelines will help the visitors, who
arrive in steadily larger numbers. The second trend
is that historical and prehistoric stratification is being
looked at or at least thought about under many of the
spectacular marble sites. Miletus has a steady program, at Pergamon the earlier building levels and
fortifications are being systematically examined, and
the old city and cemetery levels of Ephesus are being
probed. On the other hand, at Troy the neglected
Classical remains overlying the famous citadels and
lower city of VI and VII now will have the full attention of the new excavation program.
Bibliography. The main resource of year-by-year
information are the illustrated reports of the Annual
Archaeological Symposium, XI. Kazz Sonuglarz Toplantzsz I-II, referred to below as Symposium 11:1 and
2 (1989); VII. Arahtzrma Sonuglarz Toplantzsz, here
Research Symposium 7 (1989); and V. ArkeometriSonuglarz Toplantzsz, here Archaeometry Symposium 5
(1989), all published in 1990 by the Turkish Ministry
of Culture, General Directorate of Monuments and
Museums, Ankara.
Brief accounts can also be found in AnatSt 39 (1989)
175-85; general articles in a new journal Miize-Museum, published by the Ministry of Culture in Ankara;
issues 1 (1989) and 2-3 (1989-1990) have appeared
in attractive format, with ample illustrations in color.
The Newsletterfor Anatolian Studies 5/2 (1989) and 6/
1 (1990) add historical and philological bibliography.
In the Festschrift category two prolific volumes

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ARCHAEOLOGY
IN ANATOLIA

1991]

have appeared: Anatolia and the Ancient Near East:


Studies in Honor of Tahsin Ozgii( (Ankara 1989), here
referred to as FestschriftOzgii(; and the second volume of Akurgal'a Armagan, FestschriftEkrem Akurgal,

which is Anadolu-Anatolia22 (1981-1983), published


in 1989.
A double issue of BiblArch52:2-3 (1989) is devoted
to the Hittites. In the field of linguistics, food for
thought is offered byJIES 17:3-4 (1989), which carries the first part of the Proceedings of the Second
Conference of the Transformationof EuropeanCulture 4500-2500 B.C., with articles by M. Gimbutas
and T.V. Gamkrelidze.
Acknowledgment. The following reports are
based on the informationand illustrationsgenerously
and patientlyprovidedby the excavators,researchers,
museum directorsand curators,and membersof the
Departmentof Antiquities,to all of whom I am deeply
indebted and express my warm thanks.
PALAEOLITHIC,

NEOLITHIC,

CHALCOLITHIC

Yarnmburgaz.In 1989, as reported by Professors


Gfiven Arsebfik, F. Clark Howell, and MihribanOzbagaran, geomorphological and palaeoecological
study of the upper and lower caves made good progress. In addition to aves, chiroptera, insectivora, rodentia, and lagomorpha, this year pisces emerged from fine

sieving, whether brought in by humans or animals.


The largest group among mammalsis ursus.Equidae,
suidae, cervidae, and bovidae are represented. Some

fossilized bones have stone tool marksas evidence of


butchering.
In the lower cave, work concentrated in three
trenches. In trench S, measuring 3 x 4 m, 2 m of
deposit were excavated; bedrock was not reached.
Seven stratawere distinguished.Level4 has the greatest quantity of Lower Palaeolithictools and faunal
evidence. In trench T (4 x 4 m) levels 3 and 4 were
the most prolific. In general, among over 1200 stone
tools collected so far, flaked tools are about 80% of
the total. Large pebbles,chunks, cores, choppers,and
hammerstonesmake up the remainder.There are no
bifacial Acheulean types, and no signs of Levallois
technique. Choppers are rare. The Yarimburgazindustry in general is simple but functional.
Archaeomagnetictests have given provisionalages
of 350,000 and 400,000 B.P. for the Lower Palaeolithic strata.All availabledata belong to the first half
of the Middle Pleistocene.
An illustrated report on the 1989 campaign appeared in Symposium11:1 (1989) 9-38; electron spin
resonance analyses of bones in Archaeometry
Symposium 5 (1989) 133-46; a discussion of molluscs in Arkeoloji ve Sanat 40-41 (1988) 28-32. A general

125

introductionto the site is found in Miize 1 (1989) 7780.


Karain. Prof. ImlnYalqnkayaexpanded and deepened the excavation in area E, where late Upper
Palaeolithicand Middle Palaeolithiclevels were examined. A second majorpart of the cave system,area
F, was explored in a sample. A new topographicplan
of the Karaincave was made. In the nearby cave of
Okizini, previouslyexcavated by the late Kili K6kten, the profile of the old excavationwas cleaned and
studied in the context of the ecological environment
of Karainalong the north edge of the Antalya Plain.
Reports appeared in Symposium11:1 (1989) 39-57
and ArchaeometrySymposium5 (1989) 77-86.

Gaziantep Area, Hatay. Dr. Angela MinzoniDeroche has worked for four campaigns in the area of
the west bank of the Euphrates, where artifacts of
Middle Acheuleanand Middle Palaeolithictype were
collected and a workshop of Levallois type was located. In the Hatay, ample evidence is found for an
Upper Palaeolithicindustryin coastalcaves ca. 18-20
m above sea level. The study of lithic traditions in
Anatoliaand the Levantcontinues.
Tigris Area Survey. In the context of the survey
project of Dr. Guillermo Algaze, considerable evidence was gathered for the Palaeolithicera by Dr.
MichaelRosenbergwho reportsextensivelithicscatter
on the ridges extending out from Ramandag, from
where the Batman Riverjoins the Tigris east in the
direction of Hasankeyf, and also on the less steep
ridges on the other side of the Tigris. The industryis
tentativelycalled Ramanian,dominated by choppers,
discoidalcores, Levalloiscores, pyramidalflake cores,
side scrapers,and transversescrapers.Less common
are hand axes and denticulates. In addition, many
caves contain artifactsof Upper Palaeolithictype.
Cay6nii. In 1989, Dr. Mehmet Ozdo an reports,
the ceramic Neolithic and later habitationof the site
was investigated. The ceramic mound overlies the
slopes of the aceramicsite, which developed on two
natural hills separated by a streambed. The upper
ceramic layers contain dark-facedburnished pottery
just antedating the Halaf period. Below this, monochrome burnished ware appears with some knobbed
and incisedornament;there also is painted pottery in
some varietywith red stripes,triangles,and chevrons.
Husking trays, animal figurines, and stylized human
figurinesturn up in these levels, the preservedarchitecture of which consistsof terrace walls and rows of
stones set on edge serving as foundations. The affinities of the pre-Halafwares remain to be studied.
The report on 1988 in Symposium11:1 (1989) 5979 gives a stratigraphicanalysisof the architectural
development;this is discussedin more detail by Meh-

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MACHTELDJ. MELLINK

126

met Ozdogan in ColloquePrthistoire du Levant 2 (Paris

1989) 65-74, and by W. Schirmer in WorldArch21


(1990) 363-87. Clayfigurinesand other clay artifacts
(buildingmodels) from (2ay6nuiare publishedby Vi-

vian Broman Morales, Figurines and OtherClay Objects


from Sarab and Qayiinii (OIC 25, Chicago 1990). Hu-

man skeletal material from the Skull Building and


elsewhereat Qayonuiis analyzedby Prof. MetinOzbek
in ArchaeometrySymposium 5 (1989) 161-72; Tamara

Stech discussesnative copper artifactsand annealing


4 (1990) 55-61. For an analysisof
in Archeomaterials
the blood residue on the stone slabin the SkullBuilding, see Thomas H. Loy and A.R. Wood in JFA 16
(1989) 451-60.
Surveyactivitiesin the Diyarbakirarea by the Cayo6ni staff are reported on in ResearchSymposium7
(1989) 459-66.
Nevalih ori. In 1989, the Aceramic Neolithic
building with stelae (House 13) was completelyexcavated, Prof. Harald Hauptmannreports."Thisstructure in plan, construction,and locationclearlydiffers
from the rectangularstorage and habitationunits of
whichwe have severalexcavatedexamples.The stelabuilding measures 14 x 14 m. A stone wall of 1.40 m
thicknessenclosed an open space with rounded inner
corners(fig. 1). Along the inner face of the enclosure
wall smoothed stone slabs (average size 1.00 x 1.50
m) are laid flat, separatedby upright stones. The 1.80

[AJA 95

m high north wall has a niche of 1.00 x 0.80 m


opposite the presumed entrance. An open court of
ca. 10 x 10 m has the 2.50 m tall stela illustratedin
AJA 94 (1990) 128 fig. 1 in the center. The lower
parts of two similarstelae come from the debris. The
sculptured stelae and the paving slabs are of hard
limestone.The main stela has, in low relief, long bent
arms, the hands of which meet on the lower narrow
side. The upper part of this stela is worn away by
erosion;a projectionon the north upper side suggests
that a head existed here. Such heads are attested by
a stela fragment that was built into the north foundations of House 3 (fig. 2). This head, 0.27 m high,
projectsfrom the stela-face,and surprisesby its good
modeling and the clear outlining of the eyelids. The
hair is marked by incised lines. It is not yet clear if
this head came from one of the stelae in House 13. A
fragmentaryhuman torso, AJA 94 (1990) 128 fig. 2,
came to light in 1987 among the rubble in front of
the niche; additional sculpture fragments were stylized heads of a lion and panther.
"The building had an outer shell that adjoins the
north wall but leaves a space of 1.20 m free along the
east and west walls. Terracing was added along the
north side. One notes resemblancesto the skull-,flagstone-,and terrazo-buildingsof Qay6nii,but the monumental sculpturesof NevahQori are the true marks
of a sanctuary.

ror

Neolithicstructurewithstelae.
Fig.1. NevahQori.Aceramic

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1991]

ARCHAEOLOGYIN ANATOLIA

Fig. 4. NevallCori. House 8, Aceramiclayer 3.


Fig. 2. Nevall Cori. Human face in high relief on stela.

Fig. 3. NevallCori. House 6, Aceramiclayer 3.

Fig. 5. NevallCori. Halaf period complex.

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127

128

MACHTELD
J. MELLINK

"Layer3 at Nevalih ori had at least three parallel


houses. House 3 was the smallest,measuring 8.00 x
5.30 m, with two long rooms and one broad room, set
on a stone platform with three channels covered by
stone slabs, over which a stone chip layer runs, supporting a clay floor. House 2 is larger, 16.00 x 6.80
m, with long rooms flanking cells. Stone bases along
the exterior must have been supports for roof-posts.
Skulls and long bones were buried in a pit in the
northeast.House 6 measured 12.00 x 5.90 m; it had
six rooms. After removal of the clay floor the stone
underpinningappeared with five covered cross-channels (fig. 3). This house had a place for the making
of stone tools as well as two hearths, roasting places,
whichmaynot belong to this level. House 8 is probably
also of layer 3 (fig. 4). It is at least 9.50 m long but
partly eroded; four channels divide it into five units.
Layer4 is attested by an earlier, largely demolished,
structure,House 14, under House 3.
"Artifactsare flint tools and points of PPNB type,
ground stone axes, quartzite grinding stones, limestone bowls and mortars,human stylizedfigurinesof
baked clay and of soft lime, and some animal figurines.
"Habitationis also attested for the Halaf period,
with a complex of unusual plan (fig. 5). A tholos of
5.20 m diameter has a rectangularannex of 10.00 x
2.80 m to the west and two annexes to the northeast
measuring8.00 x 2.80 m, enclosing an open area. A
small tholos to the east (diameter3.80 m) had a contracted burial of a woman. The pottery includes
painted ware analogous to Halaf wares from (avi
Tarlasi.
"Remnantsof EB I wallsdid not yield house plans,
but much EB I pottery comes from pits, as well as
copper slag and fragments of crucibles. Two cistgraves had contractedburials,one with three vessels
and a copper hammer."
Apkkh Hoyuk. This AceramicNeolithic site on the
MelendizRiver, ca. 25 km southeast of Aksaray,was
discussed by I. Todd in AnatSt 16 (1966) 139-63. It
will now be partly submerged by a dam to be put in
the river.A rescue excavationwas undertakenin 1989
by Prof. Ufuk Esin. Trenches were opened on the
north and west slopes. The houses found were rectangularin plan and stood closelytogether.The walls
are made of long mudbricksof irregular sizes. One
structurehad a red floor and red-paintedwalls, perhaps of ceremonialcharacter.Burialswere contracted
inhumationsfound below floors, without gifts. Obsidian is used for chipped stone tools. Grindingstones,
mortars, small polished celts, beads, and bone and
horn tools are common. Hunting was evidently an
important resource at Aplkh. Sheep and goat may
have been domesticated.

[AJA95

The architectureand inventory of Aplkl give evidence of an early,hithertounknownaceramiccultural


tradition.Eleven skeletons from the graves were analyzed by Prof. Metin Ozbek. The age of the adults
ranged from 18 to 57 years; one female had undergone and surviveda trepanation.
Ceramic Neolithic: K6ok H6yik-NigOde. Prof.
Ugur Silistreliexpanded his excavationto the northeast and northwest. The houses of the upper levels
have walls on stone foundations with well-preserved
hard floors. In a workingarea three ovens were standing side by side with firepits in front. The domestic
inventory includes dark gray pottery, storage jars,
stone vessels,grindingstonesand mortars,and female
figurines.Some of the potteryhas ornamentsin relief.
Most of the chipped stone tools are of obsidian (ca.
90%).Contractedchild burialswere found under the
house floors, with some tomb gifts: sipping vessels, a
small fruitstand,obsidian tools, and stone beads. On
a floor of level 3 was found a human skull covered
with a coating of red plaster.The eyes were inlaid in
black stone. Some of the modeling (e.g., of the ear)
was well preserved.
Among the relief-decoratedpottery are fragments
with human figures, animals, horns, boukrania,
snakes, and braids. One anthropomorphicvase has
red-on-whitedecoration;the head is that of a woman
with a small polos. Reports appeared in Symposium
11:1 (1989) 91-97, FestschriftOzgii(461-63, and Belleten53 (1989) 361-74 withillustrationsof relief ware.
Seeher reports his idenCogkuntepe. Dr. JuOrgen
tificationof a Neolithic site south of Gfilplnaron the
south coast of the Troad. The earliest occupation of
the site, which is about 100 masl, is attested by redpolishedjars and bowlsof HacilarIX-VI type. Southwest AnatolianNeolithic monochrome ware is therefore diffused as far as the northwest coast. The
evidence will be published in IstMitt40 (1990).
Marmara Ereglisi-Toptepe. Dr. Mehmet Ozdogan conducted a rescue excavationjointly with the
Tekirdag Museum at the mound of Toptepe, which
in 1988-1989 had been largely destroyed by developers of a holiday village. The prehistoricdeposit in
the remainingsegmentof the mound was investigated
to virgin soil. There had been a long sequence with
Kumtepe IA materialat the top down to levels correspondingto VinEa.In the MiddleChalcolithicrange
a seriesof phasescould be distinguishedin levels with
thick strataof seashells.In the lower phases, a sizable
building came to light. One room had an anthropomorphic storage vessel about 1 m in height, with
angular body, and arms, hands, and facial features
rendered in relief. The vessel was painted in red on
buff with spirals, triangles, and parallel lines. European links are evident, but the main deposits of this

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IN ANATOLIA
ARCHAEOLOGY

1991]

phase were lost at Toptepe, along with the entire 10


m of the upper deposits of the Bronze Age and the
Classicalperiods.
Ihpinar. Dr.J.J. Roodenbergreportsthat this Neolithic-Chalcolithicsite on the west shore of the lake of
Iznik shows a series of building phases. Phases 6-10
are EarlyChalcolithic.The architectureis wattle-anddaub as at Fikirtepe. Walls have vertical posts and
horizontalwattling. Floors can be recognized as having been covered with wood. The houses are rectangular and freestanding. Under some wallstransverse
timbersserve as bedding.
The pottery development shows affinities to Fikirtepe, Yarimburgazupper levels, and southeast Europe. Radiocarbondates for phase 10 point to the
seventh millennium B.C. A report of 1988 is found
in Symposium11:1 (1989) 99-101; and in Anatolica16
(1989-1990) 61-144.
Mehmet Ozdogan comments on the problems of
correlatingNeolithicdevelopmentsin westand northwest Turkey, with special reference to Fikirtepe,Demircih6yfik, Yarimburgaz and Ilhpmnarin Varia
Archaeologica Hungarica 2 (1989) 201-15.

H6yiicek. A new excavation was begun by Prof.


Refik Duru and Burdur Museum Director Selguk
Bayerat the small prehistoricsite of H6yuicek-Bucak,
35 km south of Burdur. In three trial trenches remnants of wallsmade of oak saplingsand mud-packing
came to light. No mudbrick was found in situ, but
burnt fragments of walling lay in the upper levels.
The potteryshowed affinitiesto the monochromeand
Early Chalcolithic painted wares of Kurupay.Some
relief ware resembles that of K6ok.Among the small
finds are oblong terracottastamp-sealswith geometric
designs, spoons, green stone celts, beads,and chipped
stone and bone tools.
Kurugay. The results of the final (1988) campaign
are reported by Prof. Refik Duru in Symposium11:1
(1989) 81-90 with discussion of the Early Neolithic
levels 12 and 13.
Burdur-Senirkent Area. Prof. Mehmet Ozsaitrecorded eight mounds with Neolithic and Chalcolithic
habitation in the region south of Burdur, JKF 11
(1989) 1-22. In the course of his survey of mounds
between Senirkent and Hoyran Lake, he identified
some Chalcolithicas well as EB I-II material,Research
Symposium 7 (1989) 381-89.

Eskigehir. Dr. Turan Efe discussed the pottery


found at a site on the north bank of the Porsuk,6 km
southwestof Eskigehir,Orman Fidanhgl,in Germania
68 (1990) 67-113. He assigns it to a Middle Chalcolithic phase following Hacllar I, and examines ties
with other regions of Anatolia and the Balkans. See
also Anatolica16 (1989-1990) 7-19.

129

BRONZE AGE SITES

Kiiltepe. Prof. Tahsin Ozgfiureports that in 1989


conservationand repairsof the palace of Warshama,
in the inner citadel on the mound, were undertaken
in order to protectthisoldest knownAnatolianpalace.
In the east part of the central Karum, the new excavations again found the layout of streets and houses
of the Ia and Ib periods well preserved. The houses
have severalroomsand are builtof mudbrickon stone
foundations.The wallsare reinforced by verticaltimber and stone posts. One Ib house had an archive of
30 envelopes and tablets fallen from shelves and
found lying in order at the base of a wall next to a set
of pottery vessels. This archive is among the most
informative of those recently found. We learn of a
hitherto unknown great king named Zuzu, whose
place in the king list must come in the later half of
the dynastyafter Warshama,although the relation to
Pithana and Anitta remains uncertain. Stamp- and
cylinder-sealimpressions of Ib style appear side by
side on tablets and envelopes. The pantry had an
ample collectionof pottery. Among the vessels was a
vase painted with bull and stag designs in panels, a
rare occurrence in this level. The tombs under the
floors of the house had been plundered but still
yielded considerable remains of the original inventory, e.g., a faience amuletic seal with the "omega"
sign (of a type widely known in Anatolia), gold pins
and earrings, pieces of gold foil covering the face,
and bronze weapons (dagger,axe).
In level II, two houses with well-preservedAssyrian
archiveswere uncovered.The first had a large central
unit supported by posts on stone bases; in one small
area was a group of broken, discardedenvelopes and
tablet fragments. The archive proper, which had
fallen from its shelves, consisted of ca. 100 tablets.
Among the other inventorywere two smallserpentine
weights in the shape of ducks. The second house,
north of the first, also belonged to an Old Assyrian
merchant. Here the archives and selected pottery
were found fallen from shelves along the south wall
of a long, narrow room. The envelopes carry native
Anatolian,Old Assyrian,Old Babylonian,Syrian,and
Syro-Cappadociancylinder-sealimpressions.Among
the potterywere Syrianimports.The same room also
stored tools, loomweights,and some toys.
In Festschrift OzgiiC, Dr. Veysel Donbaz publishes
severalcontractsof the KarumIb period and presents
the sequenceof Anatolianrulersof KanishIb as: Inar,
Wariuma, Harpatiwa, Labaria (?), Pithana-Anitta,
and Zuzu. In the same volume, 337-405, Prof. Nimet
Ozgui publishes the sealed bullae from Kultepe, 23
of which come from the palace of Warshama,about
170 from KarumII houses or the mound; Prof. Kutlu

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[AJA95

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J. MELLINK

130

AV

SOWN

Balloonviewof trenches,southside.
Fig.6. Kaman-Kaleh6yiik.
Emre, 111-28, studies the potteryof Karumlevels III
and IV. Tablets of Karum level II are published by
Ayge Uzunalimogluand $erife Gill in AnadoluMedeniyetleriMiizesi 1989 Yzllzgz42-59.

Bogazk6y. Dr. Peter Neve expanded his work on


the South Citadel,reported on the 1988 in AA 1989,
271-337 and Symposium11:1 (1989) 229-46. In 1989,
he reports, the Hittite building level at the north end
of the citadel revealed two large structures,the eastern one resemblingTemple 31 in plan.A smallbronze
figurine of a bull on a stand was found here.
The two Hittite vaulted chamberswere further investigated.The inscribedchamberof Shuppiluliuma
had a sunken area in front of the relief on the rear
wall. The floor of the chamber sloped down to the
relief, and the walls here consist of five courses of
limestone blocks instead of four as at the outer end.
The retainingwallseast and westof the entranceform
the bordersof an open plaza.Soundingsmadebehind
and to the sides of the vaulted chamber confirmed
that it contained no other compartments.The chamber was set in a Hittite embankment, preserved to
30 m in thicknessand 4 m in height under the Phrygian fortificationwall built partlyof Hittite spolia.
The Phrygian habitation on the South Citadel is
preservedin three levels. The first consistsof houses
and workshopsgraduallyreplacedby largerestablishments in level 2. At this time the Phrygianfortifications were built around the South Citadel with 11

bastions,two of whichflankthe west gate and its inner


chamber. In the third stage the fortificationswere
given up along the west side and single-roomhouses
began to cover the site, protected along the east by
what now became part of the Phrygiancity wall.
The plateau and slope east of the South Citadel
were also explored. A Hittite fortification wall ran
along the outer edge, connected with the wall coming
from the King'sGate and changing direction to link
up with the southeastbastionof Biyukkale. No structures were found on the plateau, but in the center a
stela-base,a pavement, and a basin came to light. In
the Phrygianperiod (BuiyikkaleII as well as I) oneroom houses, hearths, and workshopswith iron and
slag remainswere located here.
In the upper city, restoration work was done on
Temple V and its temenos wall.
The hieroglyphic inscription in the chamber of
ShuppiluliumaII is discussedby H. Otten in AA 1989,
333-37; the term designatingthe chamber,the equivalent of cuneiform D KASKAL.KURmay refer to an
entrance to the underworld (J.D. Hawkins in AA
1989, 337). The results of the 1988 season are described and illustratedby Dr. Inci Bayburtluogluin
an interviewwith Neve in Miize 1 (1989) 56-61. See
also Anatolica16 (1989-1990) 20-29.
A new publicationis by Mustafa Eren and Harry
A. Hoffner, Jr., Bogazkiy Tablets in the Archaeological
Museums of Istanbul IV (TOrk Tarih Kurumu Publ.

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1991]

ARCHAEOLOGY
IN ANATOLIA

131

Fig.7. Kaman-Kaleh6ytik.
Phrygianfibulae.

fibulae.
Phrygian
Fig.8. Kaman-Kaleh6yiik.

VI:27, Ankara 1988). These tablets are part of the


lots excavated by Makridi-Wincklerin 1906-1912;
recently the remainder of this collection has been
officiallyreturned from (East)Berlin to Turkey.
Studies of the sanctuaryat Yazilkaya appeared in
FestschriftOzgii( 33-38 by K. Bittel and 345-55 by P.
Neve.
7
Corum Area. Aygtil Stiel in ResearchSymposium
anof
the
an
341-59
on
(1989)
investigation
reports
cient road from Bogazk6y to Magat,along which a
number of small but high mounds with Hittite occupation were identified.

Alaca Hiiyiik. R. Alexander in AnatSt 39 (1989)


151-58 interprets the remnants of a relief figure on
the west sphinx of the gateway as the Hittite queen
on a two-headedeagle, counterpartof the king with
lituus on the east sphinx.
Ballbag-1anklrl. Dr. MustafaSiel reports on his
rescue excavationof a cemetery near Balhbagi,ca. 20
km east of Qankirl along the Iskilip road, in TiirkArkDerg28 (1989) 145-63. Looters had begun to
attackthis site. The excavationin 1988 wasconcerned
with cist- and pithos-gravesof EB date. The pithoi
were oriented with their rims to the northwest; the

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132

MACHTELDJ. MELLINK

[AJA 95

Phrygiantrefoiljug.
Fig. 9. Kaman-Kalehyuiik.
cists also lay in similar orientation, made of local slabs,
measuring up to 2.50 m in length and 1.15 m in width,
with longer cover slabs. Tomb gifts were pottery,
bronze and silver toggle-pins, earrings, bracelets, a
torque, spearheads, and two violin-shaped idols.
There also was a bronze "standard" consisting of a
stag figurine set in a ring, with lower attachment. This
Fig. 11. Kaman-Kaleh6yiik.Hittitestamp seal (a and b).
was found in the fill over a cist. The importance of
this cemetery for comparative study of EB burial
customs is evident.
Ikiztepe. Prof. Onder Bilgi deepened the excavation of Ikiztepe Mound I. Two levels of the EB II
period were brought to light. A spacious room contained a large oven protected by a screen wall on the
west side. The inventory consisted of much pottery,
some of it with relief decoration, terracotta animal
figurines, loomweights, brush handles, combs, bone
and horn tools, a stone macehead, whetstones, grinding stones, and casting molds for points or arrowheads. The Hellenistic tomb chamber found in 19751976 was partially restored. A report appeared in

Symposium11:1 (1989) 211-20.


Acemh6yiik. The direction of the work at Acem-

Miniaturelead figurine.
Fig. 10. Kaman-Kaleh6yuik.

h6yiikwashandedoverin 1989byProf.Nimet6zguiC
to Dr.AliyeOzten.Shereportsconservation
workon
the twopalaces,and newdiscoveriesalongthe north
side of the Sarikayapalace.Here Hellenistichouses
and pits had descendedto and throughthe floorof
the palacecourtyard.Therewasalsoa buildinglevel
of the Colonyperiodimmediately
afterthe conflagration of the palace,usingspoliafromthe burnedpal-

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1991]

ARCHAEOLOGY IN ANATOLIA

ace. In spite of these intrusions, the north court could


be traced over a distance of 15 m from the north
facade of the palace. Fragments of column bases of
two types were found here: round with a sunken
center in a first row 2.30 m from the north wall, similar
to bases along the other sides of the palace, and
rectangular bases with vertical grooves, a type found
only along the north side, at a distance of about 6.907.00 m from the north wall. The architectural continuation of porches north of the palace will be investigated further. The entrance to the Sarikaya palace
was on the north side.
Aliye Ozten in Festschrift Ozgii( 407-18 discusses
the painted "metallic ware" that is characteristic of EB
II in the Konya Plain, Acemhdyuik, and the Taurus
Mountains. In the same volume, 149-52, Paul Garelli
analyzes the references in Kuiltepe texts concerning
the nature of the trade conducted by Burughattum.
Karaman-Eregli Area. Semih Guineri in TiirkArkDerg 28 (1989) 97-144 reports on a survey of
mounds with special attention to "metallic ware" and
second-millennium pottery.
Porsuk. Prof. O. Pelon further investigated the
construction and plan of the bent-axis Hittite postern
at the west side of this large mound. Near the elbow,
several pithoi were found crushed on the floor under
the debris of fallen burnt beams. A crucible with traces
of silver and lead points to supplies from the Bolkardag area. Among the pottery was a Hittite horse head.
Kaman-Kaleh6yiik. This mound, 100 km southwest of Ankara, 3 km east of Kaman, is being excavated in a series of 10 x 10 m trenches (fig. 6) by a
team from the Middle Eastern Culture Center in
Japan. The general stratigraphy, Prof. Masao Mori
and Sachihiro Omura report, yields good information
on several levels of Phrygian habitation overlying Hittite and pre-Hittite levels. The Phrygian houses are
of stone and mudbrick with cellars. Part of a Phrygian
fortification wall came to light. The Phrygian inventory includes various types of early and late fibulae
(figs. 7 and 8), evidence for metalworking and casting
of fibulae in a terracotta mold, arrowheads, painted
and monochrome Phrygian pottery of various periods
(fig. 9), and a small lead figurine 4.9 cm in height (fig.
10). Hittite levels are represented by bullae with stamp
seal impressions, a stamp seal with tripod handle and
hieroglyphic legend (fig. 1 la, b), and by a typical
repertoire of red-polished and buff wheelmade pottery. A report appeared in Symposium 11:1 (1989)
335-53.
The team is also conducting a mound survey in the
area of Klrgehir and Yozgat, with special attention to
regional variants of painted EB wares, Research Symposium 7 (1989) 295-310.

133

Karah6yuik-Konya. Prof. Sedat Alp reports further work along the northeast side of the mound,
where MB houses are relatively well preserved with
architectural details such as doorways, wooden
thresholds, and steps. One complex has at least 15
rooms. A number of ring-shaped, red-polished vessels
and a rhyton in the shape of a horse were among the
pottery. Loomweights with markings are characteristic of the site. For 1988 see Symposium 11:1 (1989)
275-81.
Dr. Turan Efe reKftahya-Bilecik-Eskigehir.
ports on a survey in this district, Research Symposium
7 (1989) 405-24. Materials ranged from Palaeolithic
to Classical. Notable is the good evidence for secondmillennium settlements on Kocahiuyfik near Domanim
and on the large mound and terrace of Taveanh huiyuik. For a summary see AnatSt 39 (1989) 178. Chronological problems for the West Anatolian MB Age are
reviewed by Brigitte Kull in PZ 64 (1989) 48-73.
Troy. In 1989, Prof. M. Korfmann reports, excavations in the deep Schliemann trench were expanded
to the north of House 102, area C-D/2-3, where early
and middle Troy I sublevels were examined. The west
part of House 102 is being restudied with the underlying walls of the apsidal House 103. In the main part
of the long trench, D/4-5, the walls exposed by Schliemann have been repaired with demarcation of old
and new masonry and the original floors have been
covered with sand and gravel for their protection. A
modern mudbrick retaining wall was built against the
lower (Troy I) part of the east scarp to prevent further
erosion. The east profile will be scrutinized for clues
concerning the transition of late Troy I to early
Troy II.
In E/4-5, the pinnacle over the southeast wall of
Megaron IIA was taken down through levels IV and
III with a good yield of samples. The next season will
allow the examination of the only extant remains of
the mudbrick and beam construction of the porch
wall of Megaron IIA; the southwest anta of the smaller
parallel Megaron IIB should also emerge.
For the study of Troy VI, a new trench was opened
against the outer face of the fortification wall in D/910, west of Theater C. Here deep fills with large
quantities of Hellenistic pottery came to light. Dirpfeld had examined the south face of the VI wall in
this area in a narrow trench. The new operation will
be deeper and longer, including a sounding behind
the wall in D/8, which was also started in 1989.
In the lower city, the trenches in K/12-13 and I-K/
17-18 were expanded. The wide paved Roman streets
running roughly north-south and east-west continue
to emerge, as predicted by the magnetometer survey,
as do several terracotta water supply lines. The nature

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134

MACHTELD J. MELLINK

[AJA 95

Fig. 12. Troy. LH IIIB skyphosfrom lower city.


of the houses and workshops (terracotta manufacture), and the location of public buildings (agora) will
be the special concern of Profs. Stella Miller and Brian
Rose of the University of Cincinnati team, who also
began the clearing and recording of the largest of the
three Trojan theaters, Theater A northeast of the
citadel. The search for the lower city of Troy VI so
far has consisted of probes to 2 m depth below the
Roman level in K/12-13 and I-K/17-18; ceramic material of late VI or VIIa type has turned up. A sample
is the LH IIIB skyphos fragment that was found with
local gray ware imitations (fig. 12).
A report on the 1988 season appeared in Symposium
11:1 (1989) 283-304. Further reports will be published in Studia Troica, a new series to contain studies
related to the archaeology and historical tradition of
Troy.
Korfmann has published a new edition of Schliemann's Bericht iiber die Ausgrabungen in Troja in den
Jahren 1871 bis 1873 (Zurich 1990) with a selection
of the most important plates of Schliemann's Atlas.
Begiktepe. In Miize 2-3 (1989-1990) 67-79 and
Festschrift Ozgii? 271-78, Korfmann discusses the excavations of Begiktepe in the context of Trojan and
West Anatolian prehistory. A report on the 19871988 excavations appeared in AA 1989, 473-81.
Troad. Dr. Mehmet Ozdogan in Research Symposium 7 (1989) 443-57 reports on his 1988 survey in
Thrace and Marmara, specifically in hitherto unexplored zones near Can, Yenice, Biga, and Bayrami.
Although Upper Palaeolithic and Neolithic materials
were collected, Chalcolithic and EB occupation was
difficult to establish in the plain of Can. One site near
Kurmak6y has a sequence from Kumtepe Ib to Troy
V and thus promises evidence for the elusive Troy II
and III-IV periods. Many sites and tumuli are suffering from the side effects of modern engineering
and agricultural developments.
The excavation season of
Arslantepe-Malatya.
1989 was the last in which Alba Palmieri participated.

Her work has made a great difference in the interpretation of prehistory in the border zone of MesoDr.
potamian and Transcaucasian expansion.
Marcella Frangipane reports on the 1989 campaign
in which the EB III levels were further investigated.
The latest EB III strata are characterized by rectangular buildings with stone foundations and a drainage
channel built of large stones. A slightly earlier level
had mudbrick houses with clay benches, some with
central hearths; one room yielded a workshop inventory, clay human figurines, a cart model, and pottery
including EB III painted ware and a ribbed Syrian
bottle. An intermediate level has the now familiar
circular structures with a diameter of ca. 2.50 m, at
the beginning of EB IIIb. One single level belongs to
EB IIIa, damaged by the circular structures.
For level VIA (EB Ia) at the end of the fourth
millennium B.C. restoration work continued on the
wall painting discovered previously in the central
room of the storage complex. A counterpart painting
with a similar representation was discovered on the
other side of the niche, again painted in red and black
on a greenish plaster. A figure with triangular face
and wavy hair is represented under a canopy of
branches both straight and curved. The figure may
be seated on a bench.
A new trench north of the main excavated area
revealed Late Chalcolithic levels fairly high near the
surface with mudbrick structures and a jar burial of
a child. Clay sealings were found in a rectangular
room with 1 m thick walls. One of the stamp seal
impressions is of a quadruple spiral design resembling
the silver belt (?) clasp found earlier. Conical bowls,
some coarse, some with string-cut base, are associated
with this level. A report on 1988 is found in Symposium
11:1 (1989) 191-201. In Festschrift Ozgik 419-30 is a
study by Alba Palmieri of the storage and distribution
system attested at Arslantepe in the Late Uruk period,
a frontier site unlike the colonies of Habuba Kabira
or Hassek type.

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1991]

ARCHAEOLOGY IN ANATOLIA

Oylum Huiyiik. Dr. Engin Ozgen reports that


trenches on the surface of the mound are exposing
Hellenistic building remains. A hoard of 134 silver
tetradrachms of early Hellenistic date was found in a
jar embedded in the upper level.
On the east slope, stratigraphic explorations were
undertaken by Prof. Elizabeth Carter. The upper levels are of the advanced EB period and were cut by
tombs of EB IV-MB I date. Previously, some chamber
tombs had been plundered by villagers. The new
trenches yielded pithos burials containing simple inhumations, and infant burials in cooking pots. Tomb
gifts included pottery (pedestaled bowls, bottles, goblets, tripodic jars, and simple bowls), bronze rings,
toggle-pins, bracelets, and torques. One special pithos
burial had a gold' frontlet with rosette-like ornament,
a silver pin and bead, and a set of five very small
cylinder seals of ivory or shell in a local version of
Early Dynastic style.
For 1988, see Symposium 11:1 (1989) 203-10 and
Anatolica 16 (1989-1990) 20-29.
Girnavaz. At this mound in the Nusaybin area
Prof. Hayat Erkanal had approached third-millennium levels on the north terrace and tombs of the
Early Dynastic II period had come to light, as reported
in Symposium 11:1 (1989) 261-73. In 1989, a fortification wall of the early second millennium was discovered along the west side of the north terrace. The
work in the Early Dynastic II cemetery continued with
the excavation of 32 additional tombs. These are burials in jars and mudbrick cists with tomb gifts of ample
pottery including Ninevite 5 and metallic wares, as
well as bronze vessels, weapons (one Sumerian axe),
and pins with curved ends, lapis, shell, and carnelian
beads, and stamp- and cylinder seals made of limestone. One cylinder seal carries a remarkable scene of
a four-wheeled chariot in which a seated figure is
being conveyed.
Harran. Dr. Nurettin Yardimci continued the systematic excavation of the habitation area on the
mound. In the course of the 1989 season reused
stamped bricks from the Sin temple came to light, the
inscription of which was studied by Dr. Veysel Donbaz,
who kindly provides the following translation: "Nabonidus, the king of Babylon . . . the Temple of
Ehulhul, inside Harran, for the gods Sin, Ningal,
Nusku and Sadarnunna my lords, I (indeed) rebuilt."
Van-Dilkaya. The early Transcaucasian pottery
from Dilkaya is discussed by Gilriz Kozbe in Research
Symposium7 (1989) 533-54; for the site see Symposium
11:1 (1989) 247-54.
Bayburt-Kelkit. A. Sagona in 1988 started a survey
project in the region of Bayburt and Kelkit southeast

135

and south of Giimiighane. Chalcolithic, EB, and Iron


Age sites were investigated in the expansion of the
original survey by Killu K6kten, Research Symposium
7 (1989) 425-33.
EUPHRATES AREA, SALVAGE EXCAVATIONS

Samsat. Prof. Nimet Ozgiiu conducted a final season at this great historical and prehistoric mound in
the fall of 1989. She kindly reports the following
details. In the east trench, deep soundings continued
into levels 25-27 of the Late Uruk period. In level
27, 10 child burials were excavated. The children were
buried intramurally below house floors, in wide jars
covered with bowls as lids. One burial was a plain
inhumation. Beads and small vessels served as tomb
gifts. The pottery repertoire of the Late Uruk phase
is well represented. In level 29, painted pottery of
earlier Chalcolithic type came to light, transitional to
the Halaf period.
In the southwest area f-g/15-16 an altar of the
early Hellenistic period was found to have been constructed of reused and partly trimmed blocks belonging to the kingdom of Kummuh, carrying parts of
lines in Luwian hieroglyphs. These blocks seemed to
have belonged to the city gate of Kummuh. Fragments
of reliefs of this period, both in limestone and in
basalt, had previously come to light, with details of
faces, hair, beard, and hieroglyphs. One hieroglyphic
bulla was found.
Glazed bricks with circle decoration, found in some
quantity, may have belonged to walls of the Kummuh
gate complex. The most spectacular monument of the
Kummuh period is a postern, a staircase-tunnel constructed in limestone on the northeast side of the
mound (q-s/14-15). Its vertical walls are built of masonry with clay mortar, but the roofing is made of
Cyclopean blocks in Hittite fashion. The tunnel gives
access from the Kummuh fortification system down
to the slope of the mound to the level of a spring. A
total of 63 steps were cleared. Near the lower end is
a cistern with steps leading down. The construction
system of this tunnel has strong affinities to the postern and stairs of Yerkapi in Bogazkoy.
The palace of Mithridates was further explored to
the east and north. It continued on the east side under
the previously excavated small Byzantine baths. Under the Roman building in opus reticulatum, also exposed previously, the palace continued to the north,
where a corridor, rooms, and frescoed walls were
added to the record.
The history of Kummuh has by now architecturally
come to light in the remains of fortifications, water
supply system, orthostats, and inscriptions at Samsat.

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136

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For the dynasty of Kummuh see J.D. Hawkins in RLA


VI (1983) 338-40 and AnatSt 39 (1989) 107-12 (with
M. Kalaq) on the inscription of Malplnar near
Adiyaman.
Tille. In 1989, Dr. David French and Geoffrey
Summers report, the burnt level that was previously
interpreted as LB was investigated. The removal of
various Iron Age structures is reported in Symposium
11:1 (1989) 305-16. The major burnt level has a
gateway on the west side through which a street rises
to the east. Two pairs of buttresses articulate the
roofed gateway; burnt chambers stand to the north
and south of the gate. Burnt oak roof timbers will be
examined for dendrochronological clues. Ceramically, the burnt level, which has some painted pottery,
is considered to belong to the Iron Age, perhaps to
the 12th or Ilth century B.C. After the fire, new
structures were built on the ruins and a gradual development is noticeable. A preview of LB was a small
bronze foundation peg with the upper part in human
shape, stylized arms outstretched, and head with
earrings.
Ikiztepe. Prof. Ufuk Esin undertook a rescue campaign at this double mound south of the Euphrates
near Kulugagi k6yi and in the Karakaya dam flood
zone. When the water level receded in 1989 Palaeolithic remains and an extensive Ubaid settlement were
noted. Soundings exposed two Ubaid levels with
painted and monochrome (Coba bowls) wares and a
lower, earlier level. The Ubaid artifacts resemble
those of Degirmentepe.
Iavi Tarlasi. The Halaf site excavated 4.5 km east
of Hassek h6ytik in 1983-1984 is published in some
detail by A. von Wickede and S. Herbordt in IstMitt
38 (1988) 5-35. There are three levels of tholoi and
annexes belonging to the Middle Halaf period. Burials were found in the upper level, mostly of children
but two double burials had an adult and child each.
The animal bones from Qavi Tarlasi are discussed by
J. Schiffer and J. Boessneck in IstMitt 38 (1988) 3762. Qavi Tarlasi is a good example of the evidence for
Halaf expansion along the Euphrates that has accumulated through the recent rescue excavations.
Sempiyetepe. Prof. Muhibbe Darga reports in
some detail on the cist-grave cemetery she excavated
in 1988 at Suyatagi-MarmaraS, 8 km north of now
submerged Semaiyetepe along the east bank of the
Euphrates, Festschrift Ozgiig 67-73. The cists had
floors of potsherds and were irregular in orientation.
Similar cist-graves were observed in large numbers
(80) near Kalekty, south of Suyatagi. The date of
these cemeteries seems to be EB I, but they are now
lost under the rising waters of the Karakaya dam.

[AJA 95

EUPHRATES AND TIGRIS AREA SURVEY

Dr. Guillermo Algaze and his colleagues spent a


third season on reconnaissance in the areas to be
flooded by five new dams: two in the Euphrates, two
in the Tigris, and one in the Batman River. He published reports on the 1988 season inJNES 48 (1989)
241-81 and Research Symposium 7 (1989) 391-403.
Dr. Algaze reports: "In 1989, a geomorphologist
worked with the archaeologists. A total of 130 sites
were recorded west of the Batman River and in the
Tigris basin up to Bismil. Apart from Palaeolithic
open air sites and flint scatter, the earliest was Demirci
Tepe, an Aceramic Neolithic site on the banks of the
Batman River across from the town of Batman. At
least 7 m of occupational debris can be seen in a
section 330 m long, with plastered pebbled floors.
Only 8% of the tools were of obsidian. Two Late
Neolithic sites, several Halaf and Ubaid sites, and
numerous Late Chalcolithic (Amuq F) sites were
noted. EB materials (metallic wares) and some Karaz
wares were seen at a small number of Tigris sites, but
EB I wares (Ninevite 5 and diagonally patterned reserved slip wares) were absent; EB is poorly represented in general. MB seemed to be absent, LB
difficult to recognize. Iron Age of Keban type was
common, and a neo-Assyrian site seems to exist at
Ziyaret Tepe on the south bank of the Tigris. Hellenistic and Roman are strongly represented along the
edge of the plateau near the Batman River and along
the Tigris, and a bridge crossed the Tigris near the
Batman confluence.
"In the Cizre-Silopi plain more than 40 small sites
were identified in addition to 18 large mounds recorded in 1988. The MB Age was the most important
period of settlement. There is also substantial evidence for Late Assyrian presence.
"In the Euphrates basin from Halfeti to Carchemish
more than 100 sites were discovered. Palaeolithic remains are abundant. Teleilat and Akarpay are substantial Aceramic and Late Neolithic sites east of the
Euphrates. Ten Late Uruk sites with beveled rim
bowls were found south of Birecik, some small. Four
Uruk 'colony' sites closer to Carchemish are more
substantial. The largest is Tiladir Tepe, 600 x 200 m
on the ridge overlooking the east bank of the river
some 3.5 km north of Carchemish. Sadi Tepe on the
opposite bank has two satellites, and is notable for the
presence of clay mosaic cones. North of Birecik, Hacnebi Tepe was a native site with an Amuq F repertoire and a few Uruk types; a heavy mudbrick
fortification wall appears in the scarp. EB wares are
of Amuq G-H-I types. The EB III-MB era is a
flourishing period marked by local characteristics. Ti-

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1991]

ARCHAEOLOGY IN ANATOLIA

ladir Tepe was entirely occupied at that time. The


later MB and LB sequence is less clear.
"By far the most sites along the Euphrates date to
the Classical era. Zeugma (70 ha) and Apamea (35 ha)
span both banks of the river, situated barely 500 m
upstream of the site where the Birecik dam will be
erected. Observations were made to supplement the
work done here by J. Wagner. Stamped tiles record
the legio IV Scythica.
"In 1990, the survey is continuing with the Garzan
and Bitlis river basins and the Tigris itself between
the Bohtan confluence and the Ilisu Dam site."

137

socketed spearhead no. 6 has a hieroglyphic Luwian


inscription giving its owner's name as Walwaziti, Great
Scribe, who may be the official who played a historical
role in the days of Puduhepa, as Ali Dincol explains
in an appendix and in Festschrift Ozgiiy 29-31.
DENDROCHRONOLOGY

Prof. P.I. Kuniholm reports on progress in Archaeometry Symposium 5 (1989) 87-96 and in Festschrift
Ozgiik 279-93. Important analyses are those of Hittite
timbers from the postern at Porsuk (overlapping with
those from Acemh6yuk and Kiiltepe) and a juniper
from the Sakarya River near Gordion, overlapping
with those from the Midas tumulus.

METALLURGY

Taurus Mountains. Dr. Aslihan Yener discussed


her work in the Nigde-Camardi area in Archaeometry
Symposium 5 (1989) 1-12 and 13-31 (tools and slag
discussed by Ergun Kaptan). The Bolkardag area is
the subject of an extensive report in NGR 5 (1989)
477-94. Fieldwork by archaeologists and metallurgists
has started at Camardi sites in 1990.
Acemhoyiik. Analyses of copper ingots found at
Acemh6yiik are published by Dr. Alaaddin Qukur and
Prof. Seref Kun? in ArchaeometrySymposium5 (1989)

33-39.
Tepecik and Tiilintepe. Qukur and Kun? also
present analyses of metal artifacts from Tepecik and
Tulintepe in the Keban area, AnatSt (1989) 113-20.
The samples ranged from Chalcolithic through the
Bronze Age, including a large number of Hittite period items from Tepecik.
C. Caneva, Alba Palmieri,
Malatya-Arslantepe.
and Kemal Sertok published a progress report on
their studies of copper ores in the Malatya region,
and on smelting experiments, ArchaeometrySymposium 5 (1989) 53-65.
Weapons. Sixty weapons from the former Kocaba?
collection are now published in an exemplary catalogue of the Sadberk Hanim Museum by Cetin Anlagan and Onder Bilgi, Weapons of the Prehistoric Age
(Istanbul 1989). There are spearheads, daggers, flat
axes, lugged axes, shaft-hole axes including double
axes, adzes, and arrowheads, and a two-piece mold
for a double axe. All these objects are described and
illustrated in photographs and drawings and 50 specimens are analyzed for trace elements by absorption
spectroscopy.
The KocabaS collection, now on display in the Sadberk Hanlm Museum, had no recorded provenance
for these weapons, although KocabaS knew of some
alleged findspots that the dealers of his more innocent
era reported. Several pieces are evidently West Anatolian and presumably come from EB cemeteries. The

MINOAN AND MYCENAEAN SITES AND FINDS

Ka?-Uluburun. The shipwreck with its heavy cargo


of copper and tin ingots and diversified other materials and artifacts is being systematically mapped and
excavated. Cemal Pulak reports that along the west
side, 18 oxhide ingots were brought up after consolidation under water, and some 100 ingots still await
skillful removal. Among the artifacts recovered in
1989 are three more stone anchors (bringing the total
to 23), 266 lead fishnet weights in a group, beads of
faience, agate, rock crystal, glass, and quartz, two
cylinder seals, bronze tools and weapons, hematite
balance pan weights, one tiny weight in the shape of
a fly, a lid fragment of an ivory pyxis, and more
Cypriot and Mycenaean pottery. Wooden elements of
the ship's hull are left under sand cover for further
study. Cross sections are being drawn of the site and
its row of ingots, giving clues to the curvature of the
hull. Reports appeared in Symposium11:1 (1989) 31733 and INA Newsletter 16:4 (1989) 4-10; also in Miize
1 (1989) 68-76.
Cape Gelidonya. George F. Bass in INA Newsletter
16:4 (1989) 12-13 reports that "the Bronze Age ship
ripped her bottom open on the rock pinnacle southeast of the wreck, spilling small jars, a bronze spit,
and other bronze items before it drifted downward. . . . A line of additional finds stretches to the
southeast: fragments of copper ingots, unique bronze
implements, and the largest balance-pan weight ever
to come from the site." Investigations will continue in
1990.
Panaztepe. Prof. Armagan Erkanal reports on this
Aeolic site with its Mycenaean connections in Symposium 11:1 (1989) 255-60 and AnatSt 39 (1989) 17980. On the citadel, the north fortification wall of the
second millennium B.C. is partly exposed. A small
megaron and other building remains can be assigned
to the same period. A major campaign is planned for
1990.

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138

MACHTELDJ. MELLINK

[AJA 95

Fig. 13. Gordion.Burnt EarlyPhrygianpit-house,detail.

Gavurtepe-Alagehir (Philadelphia). In 1989,


Prof. Recep Meriu investigated the area of the megaron on the mound of Gavurtepe in a long trench,
which revealed a stratum of Late Antique tombs, a
soft fill, and a thick conflagration level. The floor of
the megaron along the west wall was found to be
made of schist paving on a rubble bedding. On the
floor lay a Mycenaean handle fragment and a bowl of
Beycesultan IVb type. The megaron may have been
built in the 15th century B.C.; it was burned down
late in the second millennium. For 1988, see Symposium 11:1 (1989) 179-90. Prof. Meri? also found sub-

stantial evidence for second-millennium occupation


at Asartepe near Turgutlu and Qataltepe near Kemalpaga, Research Symposium7 (1989) 361-64.
Troy. Mycenaean pottery appeared both within the
walls of Troy VI and in the lower city; see above
under Bronze Age sites.
URARTU

Van. The work of excavation, study, and historical


preservation of the citadel continues annually under
the direction of Profs. M. Taner Tarhan and Veli

Fig. 14. Gordion.Potteryfrom Phrygianpit-house.

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1991]

ARCHAEOLOGYIN ANATOLIA

139

Fig. 15. Gordion.Cellar,annex of MiddlePhrygianBuilding I.


Sevin, who report on progress in Symposium 11:1
(1989) 355-75. In 1989 excavations continued in the
new palace (Argivti I), the upper citadel, and the rockcut hall of Menua with its inscription. The mound of
Van kalesi, ca. 70 m to the north of the citadel, is the
largest prehistoric mound in the area. A trench made
by earlier excavators was widened and taken down to
the Urartian level, where a building of four units was
exposed. The base of the mound is of the EB Age. A
general introduction to Van is a monograph by Prof.
Oktay Belli, Van. The Capital of Urartu (Net 1989).

Prof. Veli Sevin has traced stretches of the Urartian


highway between the cities of Elazig and Mug over a
distance of some 100 km. Seven roadside stations of
Urartian type with buttressed corners and tiled floors
have been found. Belli reports on his investigations
of Urartian dams and irrigation systems in Research
Symposium7 (1989) 311-22.
Altlntepe. Prof. Tahsin Ozgfiu discusses the horsebits found in one of the three chamber tombs of the
rulers of Altlntepe in Archaeologia Iranica et Orientalis
(FestschriftLouis VandenBerghe, Gent 1989) 409-13.

Fig. 16. Gordion.South trench. MiddlePhrygianpottery.

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MACHTELD
J. MELLINK

140

WIN

Fig.17.Gordion.Smalljar fragmentwithPersianfigure.
NEO-HITTITE

AND PHRYGIAN SITES

Karatepe. Prof. Halet Cambelrestoredmore sculptures at both sites: the statue base with bulls at Domuztepe, with a weathered hieroglyphicinscription,
and a new chariot scene at Karatepe. Hundreds of
sculpture fragments remain to be restored to their
originalcontext.
Malpinar. J.D. Hawkins and Dr. Mustafa Kala?
discuss the hieroglyphic Luwian rock inscription of
Malpinaron the banksof the G6ksuin the districtof
Adiyaman. The author of the inscription,Atayazas,
refers to his ruler Hattusilis "in the city Kumaha,"
viz., the dynastyof Kummuhwith its names continuing the imperial Hittite tradition, AnatSt 39 (1989)
107-12.
Kaman-KalehiyUk. See above (Bronze Age Sites)
for the Phrygianlevels of this mound acrossthe Halys
along the modern road to Kirsehirand Kayseri.
Gordion. The 1989 season yielded excellent new
evidence for the levels postdatingthe Hittite Empire.
In the expanded soundings in the open area between
Phrygianmegara 2 and 10 (AJA94 [1990] 132, figs.
6-7), a Hittite basementyielded wheelmadebuff and
orange pottery of 13th-centurytype. Prof. M. Voigt
reports:"The abandonmentof this building presumably coincided with the end of the Hittite Empire.
New buildings were soon under construction. The
earliestwas a small house set in a shallowrectangular
pit edged with stones and bricks.The floor and wall
faces were coated with mud plaster. Interior fittings
included a small domed oven, two stone and plaster
bins, and smallstorage pits in the floor. A second and
larger 'pit-house' was more substantiallybuilt, with
stone slabs lining the inner faces of some walls. The
pottery found on the floors as well as in outside trash
depositsand pits, was handmade,lightlyfired, usually
burnished, and sometimes decorated with impressions or incisions: bowls and bag-shapedjars. This

[AJA95

early Iron Age handmade ware has generic parallels


in Thrace and the Balkans.
"Avery different ceramicassemblagewas found on
the floor of another pit-house that had been burned
(fig. 13). It had a narrowledge around the inner edge.
Large posts in the corners of the pit and small posts
set into the ledge formed the frameworkfor a lightweight superstructureof reeds and mud plaster. Interior fittings of plastered clay included a twochamberedoven, an adjacent potstand with depressions for three vessels,and a large rectangularfeature
withtwo narrowbins,decoratedwith narrowpilasters.
On the floor lay a clay spindle whorl, a stone weight
or mace, charredwooden planks,iron nails, grain, an
impression of a wicker basket, and grinding stones.
The wheelmade pottery vessels from this structure
(fig. 14) are withinthe traditionthat characterizesthe
destructionlevel of 700 B.C., i.e., Phrygianware.This
pit-house therefore seems to represent an early stage
of Phrygianoccupationat Gordion,before the initiation of the formal building program. All aspects of
material culture will be examined for evidence of
continuity or change, particularlyfood preferences
and butcheringpractices.
"The anteroom of Terrace Building unit 2, destroyedca. 700 B.C., was found to contain numerous
potteryvesselsand objectsassociatedwith textile production. Severalpots contained seeds: barley,lentils,
and sesame. The walls of the burnt building were
leveled soon after the conflagration in preparation
for the Middle Phrygianrebuilding of the site.
"Architecturalremainsof the latter period include
a subterraneanroom reached by a slab stairwayleading from Building I (fig. 15), one of the Middle Phrygian megara excavatedby Rodney Young.
"Stratigraphiccuts were made in the 1950 trial
trench along the southwestedge of the mound. Pottery from the lowest Middle Phrygian level (fig. 16)
was very similar to that lying on the floor of the
Building I cellar. At the base of the sounding was a
deep layer of clay. This evidence suggests that the
MiddlePhrygianclayfoundationextends over at least
part of the southwestsector of the mound.
"Withthe final abandonmentof the Middle Phrygian buildings, the entire area cleared in the upper
trencheswasused for industrialpurposes.Cellarsand
adjacent trash deposits contained evidence of stone
working (alabastervessels, flint bowls, tesserae), and
workingof bone, ivory,and metal. Imports,including
fine Attic pottery, suggest that Gordion was a prosperous town at this period early in the fifth century
B.C. A remarkablereference to the Persian rulers is
a painted sherd with the head of a Persian in characteristicpose (fig. 17).Residentialareasof the Middle

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ARCHAEOLOGY
IN ANATOLIA

1991]

and Late Phrygianperiods may have lain primarilyin


a lower town located acrossthe SakaryaRiver,discovered in 1987 through surface survey."
Prof. G.K. Samsreports that his investigationof the
monumental Phrygian Gate Building revealed that
the flanking walls are bedded on earlier Phrygian
wallswith courses of stone and timber.
In 1989, low altitude balloon photographs were
made of Gordion by J. Wilson Myers and Eleanor
Myers.
Reportsappearedin Symposium11:2 (1989) 77-105
and Miize 2-3 (1989-1990) 80-86. Keith DeVries
reported on the excavationsof 1969-1973 in AJA 94
(1990) 371-406. ElizabethSimpsoncontinuesher deciphermentof the Midasfurniturewith the discussion
of the log-coffin in which the king was buried, JFA
17 (1990) 69-87. For wood identificationof Tumulus
P furniture see B. Aytug and S. Pehlivan in Aksay

141

..........:

joy-

-i;
r,:i~:~i-ii~iiii-iimop~
'41W
op-,-

Unitesi Bilimsel ToplantzBildirileri 1 (1989) 136-48.

Gordion, Mama Deresi. A tumulusacrossthe Sakarya River in Beylikkopriiterritorywas attackedby


looters August 1988. A rescue excavation by Melih
Aslan, reported in Miize 1 (1989) 62-66, revealed a
collapsed wooden tomb chamber with one skeleton,
wooden furniture,bronzebelts, fragmentsof a bronze
bowl,and 80 fibulae.An ancientrobber'sskeletonwas
found in the disturbedfill over the tomb.
~~~:iis?iziiiii~

i-:::-:-~~?-~-~~_:r:;I::-i-l:i--iiiii--?iliiiii:i:
:-I;_:i:iiiiiii?i;:-i?:::--:?:::-::-::-:i""''-''-:-'?"-:"?'-`'"~-~-:
--:::::i:?i--~
iiii:i
.:-.
iiiiiiiiii
ii:i
:.iiii ii:-:ii:ii:i:i--:-i:ii-iii
?::::: i.
-ii i~iiii
ijiijiijii-i:_i:
i- ::::?
::: :
-~,__:-----:;-:-:-_:i
- : ::iiiii?-~'
L~~P*iiiii~ii
-:iiiiiiii:i:iiji:i
jii-i:i
----;-:::s:--;,,?-r
-:--::::-;-:::::i:
:iiiiiiii~ili3i-i-ji~ii:
-::::_::---.:..:z

-::--::_
-:-?:
-::
:::
-_i: :-i-:ii-i

Fig. 19.Xanthos,Letoon.Beddingof mosaicin Templeof


Apollo.
Gordion, Kizlarkayasi. A rescueexcavationof two
tumuli in the area between Gordion and Saban6ziiis
reported on by Tahsin Saatgiand Asim Kopar,Anadolu Medeniyetleri Miizesi Yallzgi 1989, 68-78. The

larger tumulus had a timber chamberwith remnants


of Phrygianpottery.
Phrygian Art. Prof. Fahri I?lkin TirkArkDerg28
(1989) 1-24 continueshis studiesof the debt of Phrygian art to neo-Hittiteand Urartianinspiration.G.K.
Sams in FestschriftOzgii* 447-54 advocates ninthcentury neo-Hittite affinities of Gordion orthostats.
O. Muscarellarepresentsa different point of view in
his analysis of Midas's relations with the Greeks,
FestschriftOzgii 333-44. Phrygianblack-polishedvessels with strainer and trough-spout are discussed by
Aykut mlnaroglu,Anadolu MedeniyetleriMiizesi Ydzllzg

1989, 79-100.

CLASSICAL, HELLENISTIC, AND ROMAN SITES

PAMPHYLIA, PISIDIA

:::i
::::::::;
:
::::-:'- :::
::-:::
~ ~~~:~i:~;
:--;_~-i-:I-'---------':
::-:-I?.,?
.:ildi:ai~Pi-i-_~:~_~~-_::::;:i:::

Fig.18.Xanthos,Letoon.Atticsquataryballos.

Perge. Prof. Haluk Abbasoglu in 1989 extended


the excavationof shops along the east side of the main
colonnaded street. These shops were used into Byzantine times. In the residentialarea, an insula in the
east quarternear the Hellenisticfortificationwall was
cleared. An interim report appeared in Symposium
11:1 (1989) 211-27.
Side. Prof. Jale Inan continued the restorationof
the architraveand frieze blocksof the Apollo temple.

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142

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J. MELLINK

[AJA95

Ptolemaion.
Fig.20. Limyra.Torsoof horsewithsaddlecloth,
Dr. UlkiuIzmirligilis in charge of preservationof the
theater and restoration of the scaenae frons; Sympos-

ium 11:1 (1989) 151-60.


Sagalassus. Profs. S. Mitchell and M. Waelkens
expanded their survey,begun in 1986, to the Corinthian temple of Antoninus Pius with its colonnaded
courtyard,the main north-south street leading from
the temple to the lower agora, built in three sections
connected by staircases,and the Roman Baths east of
the lower agora. Three aqueductswere mapped, two
of them rock-cutin the cliffs, the third built of boulders. Waelkensand SelgukBaser made a sounding in
the potter's quarter east of the theater. A 7 x 7 m
trench in the dump yielded over 3000 kg of pottery
from the first until the fifth century A.C., with ample
evidence for potters' wheels, molds, and misfired
pieces.Reportson the 1988 seasonappearedin AnatSt
39 (1989) 63-77, where work at Ariassos is also included, and in Research Symposium7 (1989) 119-52.
LYCIA

Xanthos-Letoon. Prof. C. Leroy reports on work


in the southwesternarea of the sanctuary:"The temenos wall was cleared north and south of the main
entrance, which revealed three inscriptions on the
outer face. Soundings in the portico went through
layersof the seventh centuryA.C. to the sixth century
B.C. with Ionian banded hydriaeand Attic squatlek-

ythoi of the late fifth century B.C. (fig. 18). Thus the
extent of the Archaic sanctuarymatched that of its
Hellenisticcounterpart.
"The study of the theater was resumed. A plan and
elevationof the caveaand Romanstage buildingwere
drawn; soundings revealed the contours of the Hellenistic orchestra and the Hellenistic parodos. The
two stages of the Roman theater, pre- and post-gladiatorialcombats,were analyzed.
"The mosaic in Temple B (Apollo) was lifted. The
bedding on a lime mortarand underpinningof stone
flakesoverlaya fill on bedrock(fig. 19), which did not
contain helpful dating evidence.
"Views from the French satellite SPOT allow the
study of the changes in the course of the Xanthos
River,its submergeddelta, and the sanding up of the
port of Patara."
A majornew publicationis by PierreDemargneand
W.P. Childs, Xanthos VIII. Le Monument des Ntirides.

Le dicorsculpti (Paris 1989). For the 1988 season see


Symposium11:2 (1989) 177-84.
Patara. Prof. Fahri Iplkis continuing his exploration of the site and his soundings near the triple arch
of Mettius Modestus; see Symposium11:2 (1989) 121.
Limyra. Prof. J. Borchhardtreports: "Excavation
in the west town of Limyrashowed occupation from
early Archaic to Late Antique. Clearing of the resi-

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IN ANATOLIA
ARCHAEOLOGY

1991]

143

five square rooms seem to have been built for ritual


dining, with off-center doorwaysto the west.
Discussions of Labraundaarchitecture as well as
Maussolleionproblems can be found in T. Linders
and P. Hellstr6m eds., Architectureand Society in He-

catomnidCaria(Proceedingsof the Uppsala Symposium 1987, Uppsala 1989).


Alabanda. Dr. Ahmet Tirpan has made a new
study of the fortificationsof Alabanda,ResearchSymposium7 (1989) 171-90.
Datoa Peninsula. The work on the pottery factories at Regadiyeis reported on by Drs. Numan Tuna
and J.-Y. Empereur in Research Symposium 7 (1989)

Fig.21. Limyra.Byzantinechurch,parapet.
dential complex A on the slope made progress;these
houses date back to the fourth century B.C.
"InNecropolisV more evidencewasfound for later
quarryingoperations.
"The naos of the Ptolemaion with its imbricated
roof had an akroterionin the form of a Corinthian
capital with three rows of akanthoi and two snakes
coiling up amidst the foliage. A marble torso of a
saddledhorse (fig. 20) belongs to the sculptureof the
temenos. In the east part of the Ptolemaionthe excavationcame upon a church, the apse of which was
probablybuilt over the Hellenistictemenos. The Byzantine sculpturaldecoration, to judge by a parapet
slab with scenes of paradise (fig. 21), is of high quality."For 1988 see Symposium11:2 (1989) 185-210.
Arycanda. Prof. Cevdet Bayburtluogluworked in
the tomb areasto the east and northwest,in the bathgymnasiumcomplex, and in the commercialagora,
where sculpture fragmentsof Roman and Byzantine
date came to light as well as a fragment of a bronze
portrait(Gallienus?).
CARIA

lasos. Prof. Fede Berti reportson a group of tombs


of the first century B.C. in Symposium11:2 (1989)
224-43. In 1989 the sanctuary that yielded votive
double axes was further examined, and its north border was defined. Four rectangularbases stood in a
construction with heavy walls. Double axes were
found as well as kantharoi.
Labraunda. Prof. Pontus Hellstr6mconductedexcavationand study in 1988 and 1989. In the northeast
partof the sanctuary,north of the propylaea,a building with a south facadewas explored to the east. Here

555-67. Excavationsin 1989 again exposed stratified


remains of datable kilns and basins; 1850 stamped
amphorahandleswere inventoried.Underlyinglevels
of the sixth century B.C. will be investigatednext.
Knidos. In 1988, Prof. Ramazan Ozgan started
work at this site, which had remained unattended
archaeologicallyafter the interruption of the campaigns by Prof. Iris Love (AJA 77 [1973] 413-24).
Firston the new programis the preparationof a new
survey plan of the entire site. Small soundings were
made near the circularmonopterosidentifiedby Love
as the Temple of Aphrodite Euploia. To the northeast, Byzantine structures came to light. A report
11:2 (1989) 167-75. R. Ozgan
appearedin Symposium
published an Archaic seated statue from Knidos in
Festschriftfiir Nikolaus Himmelmann (Mainz 1989) 47-

51.
Nysa. The theater at Nysa is being excavated by
Director Vural Sezer of the Aydln Museum; he re23 (1989) 307-22. The scene
ports in TiirkArkDerg
building is decorated with well-preservedfriezes of
the Dionysoscycle.
Aphrodisias. Prof. Kenan Erim reports on the
1989 season:
The major focus of the campaignwas
"Tetrapylon.
the Tetrapylonrestorationproject.All of the western
half of the structureis now fully restored. The architrave and frieze blocks of the western facade were
restored and consolidated in their original position,
as was the central semicircularlunette panel with its
relief decorationsof Erotes,animals,and Nikaiamidst
acanthusscrollsof the broken tympanum,topped by
geison and simaelements,includingthe coffered ceilings betweenits two rowsof columns. Four architrave
and friezeblocksof the easternhalf were alsoreplaced
over their fully restoredcolumns.
"Theater.Restoration of the stage building is in
progress. A large number of frieze and architrave
blocks of the three orders above the proskenion-logeion were rejoined and consolidated.All fragments
were organized for study in the open space of the
fourth-centurytetrastoonbehind the stage building.

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144

MACHTELD
J. MELLINK

"AgoraComplex.The focal point of investigations


in the Portico of Tiberius was the pool stretching
along the length of its north and south colonnades.
Excavationswere continued at both westernand eastern semicircularextremities. The west one yielded
much statuary,including a seated full portraitstatue
of a high officialof the late fifth or earlysixth century.
The almost intact head of an older bearded man
probablybelongs to a torso of an old fishermanfound
in 1904 by Paul Gaudin in the nearby Baths of Hadrian. The head is now in Berlin. At the east end of
the pool were discovered a female portrait and another under-life-sizehead of a running horse, a companion to the one recorded here last year. The most
remarkablefind wasa large carvedwooden panel with
a well-preserved band of meander pattern. It was
transferredto the Bodrum Museumfor conservation.
The arrangementof seats along the outer edge of the
pool and the north and west stylobatesof the colonnades of the portico suggests the presence of spectators. Consequently, the function of the Portico of
Tiberius was that of a gymnasiumand/or a palaestra
for the HadrianicBaths, which lackedsuch a feature.
"An importantstep in the historyof the site finally
became a reality: the expropriation of the whole of
Aphrodisias within the circuit of the late RomanByzantine fortification system was completed. Illicit
excavationsin the southeast necropolis led to an investigation that revealed part of a hypogaeum and
four sarcophagi.At least two of these were only partially carved. We have suggested to the Turkish au-

[AJA95

thorities the need for continued expropriationof at


least partof Aphrodisias'sextensive necropoliswithin
a minimumradius of 500 m beyond the circuitof the
city walls."
A report on the 1986-1988 campaignsappearedin
CharlotteRouech6and Kenan T. Erimeds., Aphrodi-

sias Papers. Recent Workon Architectureand Sculpture

(JRA Suppl. 1, Ann Arbor 1990) 9-36.


IONIA

Miletus. Profs. W. Mfiller-Wiener and V. von


Graevereport excavationson Kalabaktepein continuation of the work of 1986-1988, IstMitt 37 (1987)
5-79. In 1989 work in the adjoining east sector revealed building activitiesthrough the entire Archaic
period. The south slope was densely settled. The first
fortificationwall cut off some of the houses built in
the first half of the seventh century B.C. (fig. 22);
later house walls run parallelto the inner face of the
circuit (fig. 23). Much pottery of remarkablequality,
including a high percentage of Milesianware, came
to light: wild goat style, an oinochoe with a horseprotome on the shoulder, sixth-century Fikellura
ware, an amphorawith a bird frieze on the shoulder.
In the olive grove on the west slope of Kalabaktepea
one-room structurewith a bench, partlycut into bedrock, dates to the seventh century. It was filled with
Perserschutt,and may have been a shrine, to judge
by slate revetmentslabsand carefullyworked slabsof
serpentinite that may have belonged to a cult statue
base.

1'

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Fig. 22. Miletus,Kalabaktepe.
fortification
wall,700-650 B.C.

walls,650-600 B.C.
Fig.23. Miletus.Kalabaktepe

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ARCHAEOLOGY IN ANATOLIA

1991]

--------------

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Romantetemple
Roman
of of CalCaligula
MiMiletus.
letus.
2424.
.
igula
FiFig.
g.
mple
()(?).
In the area of the large church, the sequence of
building phases was clarified: I. Hellenistic habitation;
II. large court with west propylon, rooms to east and
Doric temple on north side, late second to early first
century B.C.; III. podium with hexastyle temple, perhaps built for Caligula by the koinon of the Asiatics
(fig. 24); IV. in the Antonine-Severan period, a large
apsidal structure replaced the temple; V. the church;
VI. a large residential unit.
For interim reports on Miletus see Symposium 11:2
(1989) 53-59; IstMitt 38 (1988) 251-90.
Didyma. Prof. K. Tuchelt reports that 75 m of the
sacred road were exposed to the northwest. Here
Trajanic, Hellenistic, and Archaic levels came to light.
"In Archaic times votives were set up in this area, as
attested by two completely preserved Ionic capitals
(width 1.28 m) with fluted echinus, a column fragment, and half of a round base with dowel hole, all
supports of votive offerings. Metal finds, otherwise
rare at Didyma, were a cast griffin protome and two
omphalos bowls with charred animal bones.
"The Trajanic paving of the sacred road was cleared
over an additional 35 m between the Artemis sanctuary and the Apollo precinct; on both sides are stylobates for porticoes. This brings the exposed length
of the road to over 200 m.
"The study of the Archaic tiled roof from the east
building in the temenos along the road to Miletus (AA
1989, 147-80) was completed by P. Schneider."

Reports appeared in Symposium 11:2 (1989) 43-52

and AA 1989, 143-217.


Herakleia under Latmos. Dr. Anneliese Peschlow
resumed her work in 1988 with the investigation of
the necropolis: "We registered ca. 2500 tombs, all
anciently looted. They consist of simple rock-cut compartments with gneiss coverslabs or gabled lids (figs.
25 and 26). Decoration is rare. Cuttings for stelai
occur on or near the monuments. Cremations comprise only 4% of the total, to judge by round cuttings.
Tombs are cut in prominent rocks, which often are
shaped with platforms, stairs, and drainage channels.
There are two chamber tombs built of ashlar masonry,
two simple rock-cut chambers, and krepis remnants
of two small tumuli. The tombs cannot be dated by
shape alone. The cemeteries of the new city and the
old (Latmos) overlap." For a report see Research Symposium 7 (1989) 153-69.
Magnesia on the Maeander. Prof. Orhan Bing6l
in 1988 and 1989 worked in the theater and started
a survey of the tumuli in the area. A building between
the Artemision and the Odeion has columns on pedestals and capitals with sculptural decoration of Nereids and Scylla; Symposium 11:2 (1989) 61-68.
Ephesus. Prof. G. Langmann reports that in the
lower agora early (eighth-century?) levels were
reached on the east side in waterlogged condition.
Bird bowls and wavy line decoration appear in the
stratified habitation area. In 1988 an oval house was

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146

MACHTELDJ. MELLINK

Fig. 25. Herakleiaunder Latmos.Rock-cuttombs.

Fig. 26. Herakleiaunder Latmos.Tomb with gabledlid.

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[AJA 95

1991]

ARCHAEOLOGY IN ANATOLIA

found below Archaic houses. In the harbor area,


soundings continue; structures near the harbor are
being studied.
In the Artemision, a Geometric temple foundation
of 13.50 x 8.40 m was found in the center of the
temple; 8 x 4 columns are attested by bluish slate
bases.
For comments on the basic continuity of the location
of Ephesus see Omer Ozyigit, IstMitt 38 (1988) 83-

96.
Klaros. Prof. Juliette de la Geniere in her second
campaign at the sanctuary reports clearance of the
site and individual structures, e.g., the Propylon.
Soundingscontinued between the temple and altarof
Apollo. Here 18 blocks with iron rings stood in two
rows to the west and south of the altar; these served
to tie the animals destined for sacrifice. An earlier

foundation may belong to an older altar. Sherds go


back to the Protogeometricperiod. Near the Artemis
temple, deep soundings also yielded early potteryand
terracottasof the late fifth to early fourth century
B.C. The Apollo temple is being studied for selective
restoration.It was revealed that bronzeastragalswere
used as decorativeoracularsymbolsat thejunction of
krepis blocks. Reports are found in Symposium11:2
23 (1989) 293-306.
(1989) 324-40 and TiirkArkDerg
Metropolis-Torball.

Prof. Recep
and the
Merit

Ephesus Museum in 1989 started excavation at this


site 22 km north of Ephesus, which he previously
discussedin his monographMetropolisin lonien (K6n-

igstein 1982); see also Inschriften von Ephesos 7:1

(Bonn 1981) 236-94.


The entrance gate dates to the third century B.C.
and was used into the Byzantine period. A long stoa
under the Byzantine fortificationwall is also under
investigation. The Uyuz Dere cave, the site of an
ancient cult, was partly excavated. A rough rock-cut
altar stood in the center. Hellenistic terracottas rep-

resent a mother goddess, Meter Gallesia.The general


range of finds (lamps, pottery, glass vessels, knuckle-

bones, and coins) dates from the sixth to the second


century B.C. A handsome pamphlet illustratingthe
first year's results was published by the municipality
of Torbah, which sponsors the enterprise: Torbalz
Metropolis Kazzsz '89.
Klazomenai. Prof. Giuven Baklr is annually accu-

mulating evidence for the settlement and burial history and topographyof the mainlandand the island.
Trenches dug in 1989 again yielded evidence for
sixth-centuryhouses abandonedin 499 B.C. when the
residentsmoved to the island. An apsidalhouse stood
next to a rectangular one, used in three periods. The

abandonment lasts until the fourth century, when


habitation resumes. Below the sixth-century stratum,

147

burnt levels are attested for ca. 650 and 700 B.C.,
destructionspossiblycausedby Kimmerianraids.The
seventh- and sixth-centuryhouses yield local and imported painted pottery of Ionian type. In a context
of 650-600 dated by skyphoi, a hoard of 10 electrum

staterswas found in a smallbandedjug. These are of


much importance for the question of the beginning
of coinage and the date of the Ephesian Artemision

deposit. The types are partly familiar (bull and lion


protomes),partlynew to the record (slender,bearded
men confronted). The history of more than Klazomenai itself will be illuminated by the study of this
hoard.

LYDIA
Sardis. Prof. Crawford H. Greenewalt, jr., reports

that in 1989 workcontinued auspiciouslyon the great


Lydianfortificationwall (MMS)."Limitedexcavation
in the artificialhill immediatelysouth of MMSshowed
that the mudbrickwall can be traced to the south for
80 m and probablyan additional60-70 m. The recess
in the west side of MMS was mostly cleared. On its
cobble floor were iron nails and slight wood remains
in patternssuggestingshuttersor doors. The skeleton
found in the debris here in 1988 was that of a man
22-26 years old, a soldier to whom the iron helmet
found nearby may have belonged, killed during the

siege of Sardisby Cyrus.


"On the acropolis spur, sector ByzFort, excavation
exposed the beautifully cut and trimmed marble
foundations of a colonnade belonging to a small, pavilion-like building, on the outer end of the spur

summit. From earlier deposits much painted pottery


of the seventh century B.C. was recovered, notably

stemmed dishes (some 100) and storagejars.


"In the late Roman district more of a colonnaded
street, several spaces belonging to three building complexes, and parts of a colonnaded ambulatory flanking an avenue were uncovered. All these architectural

features date from the fourth through the sixth century A.C."
A report on the 1986 campaign appeared in BASOR Suppl. 26 (1990) 137-77; for 1988 see Symposium

11:2 (1989) 23-41.


Salvage excavations were again carried out by the
Manisa Museum Directorate in Bintepe in 1989, as

on previous occasions. A built chamber tomb with


kline in the west of Bintepe had been robbed but
important remnants were found in the dromos.
Lydian jewelry and tableware rescued from a tu-

mulus near Akhisar-Gokgelerin 1970 are illustrated


by Director Hasan Dedeoglu in Image of Turkey 24
(1989) 27-30.

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148

MACHTELDJ. MELLINK
.

[AJA 95

92102

2239S

PG

AG

21o

0
._

...4050
PERGAMON-

STADTGRABUNG

BYZANTINISCHEBEBAUUNG
antik
-spatbyzantinisch
C
o .21
Tr2
fung
O
Tr6ffnung
gesetzt

1989

......._

FPflaster
F Feuersbt2le

22300hellenssch
..
10A?0

Grabungsgrenze
5

Pithos

(
- +---

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Rohrl ing
mb

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70

250

Fig. 27. Pergamon,Planof Byzantinelevel.

ra

---

ugsrez

2
17.0

069.32028

4050

10

2m

.3050

PERGAMONSTADTGRABUNG1989

HERA
HEILGTUno)

Fig. 28. Pergamon.Earlyfortificationwalls.


vothellenisnesch
e

GEZWULF

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1991]

ARCHAEOLOGY
IN ANATOLIA

AEOLIS-MYSIA

Pergamon. Dr. Wolfgang Radt reports on the


progress of his work in the habitationarea between
the Hera sanctuaryand an east-west street. "Thearea
was expanded to the west in a 25-m wide zone (fig.
27). Only the upper, mostlylate Byzantine,stratawere
excavated. In 1980 excavation had reached the adjoining zone north of the east-west street.In the newly
exposed area, a small church, cemetery, and long
building (monastery) seem to have served a small
community.The tombsare of 12th-14th centurytype,
also seen elsewhere at Pergamon, and have hardly
any gifts. The church once had fresco decoration.Its
masonrywasbuiltwith lime mortar,unlikemost house
walls,whichhad plain mud mortar.The oppositelong
building had a stone staircasealong its front leading
to the upper story, presumablyliving quarters over
workrooms.
"Inthe westernzone of the excavation,typicallarge,
barely worked stones belonging to the Archaic fortification wall turned up in secondary context. In the
soundings east of the Hera terracejust a few reused
blocks survive. Here the main discoverywas the anta
of the previouslysuspected Classicalsouth gatejamb
(fig. 28, directlywest of the Archaicblocksat 205.14).
The gate was of overlap type, approached from the
southeast via a narrow ramp (level 204.83) with a
battered retaining wall (see AA 1989, 401-402). The

149

gatejamb must have continued to the south, perhaps


in the form of a bastion,but it was partlyremoved by
the constructionof the Philetairanpaved glacis (level
203.85). The north entrancewall of the Classicalgate
has been traced for 32 m (levels 208.95 to 204.52),
with a thicknessof 4.20 m, perhaps including a passage for circulation.
"The Philetairanwall (Hellenistic I in fig. 28) was
further exposed. This wall was built on fill and hence
had a paved glacis set on bedrock at its outer base,
sloping at a 480 angle (fig. 29). Fig. 30 shows the glacis
YL from the south, based on bedrock,with its rubble
fill. YM is the southernmost preserved end of the
Classicalgate jamb. In fig. 29 the glacis is seen from
the east; YG is the east wall of the Hera terrace; to
the left is a Hellenistic tufa wall of the gymnasium.
For the rear face of the Philetairanwall, with embrasure, see fig. 31.
"Other projectsare soundings to establish the ancient street system between the excavated area and
the upper agora, study of mosaics excavated previously in preparationof a corpus, and magnetometer
soundings for the study of the tumuli in the plain of
Pergamon.
"Trajaneum:study and restoration of the temple
and its foundations are proceeding with the aid of
modern techniquesand media. The northeastcorner
architraveswere put in place at the end of the season.

wall.
Glacisof Philetairan
Fig.29. Pergamon.

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150

MACHTELDJ. MELLINK

[AJA 95

Fig. 30. Pergamon.Glacisfrom south with rubblefill.


The restored column drums are being fluted (fig.

32)."
Reports have appeared in Symposium 11:2 (1989)
135-53; AA 1989, 387-412 and TiirkArkDerg 28
(1989) 225-61. Studies appeared in IstMitt 38 (1988)
179-87 (Pergamene West Slope ware) and 201-36
(late Hellenistic structures on the acropolis).
Phocaea. Prof. Omer Ozyigit started excavation of

a hill in the Ismetpapadistrict,where a ceramicfactory


dump of the first and second centuries A.C. overlies

a Hellenistic necropolis with sarcophagi and tilegraves. Lower levels attest to Classical and Archaic
habitation.
Kyme. Excavations under the direction of Prof.
Sebastiana Lagona in 1988-1989 were concerned with
a Mediaeval building near the harbor, a Hellenistic
structure on the south hill, where earlier pottery came
to light as well, and the orchestra of the theater. A
new plan of the site is being prepared. Symposium
11:2 (1989) 64-76.

Fig. 31. Pergamon.Inner face of Philetairanwall.

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ARCHAEOLOGYIN ANATOLIA

1991]

..::::: i............
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151

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iiiiiiiiiiii-i~iii:;:i:i: i:-

:::::
:--:-:
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Fig. 32. Pergamon.Trajaneum,north side, from northeast.


TROAD

A report appeared in Symposium 11:2 (1989) 125-

Troy. For Hellenisticand Romanlevels, see above


(Bronze Age Sites), especially for the lower city and

Theater A.
Assos. Prof. Umit Serdarogluworked in the nec-

34. Prof. Orhan Bingol comments on the columnae


caelatae of the Smintheion in Festschrift Akurgal (Anatolia-Anadolu 23, 1989) 115-26.

ropolis adjoining the west gate. The upper level has

PROPONTIS-THRACE-BITHYNIA

Hellenisticsarcophagi,12 of which were opened. Below these lie pithos burialsof the Classicalperiod in
regular alignment. Cremations are found in amphorae or hydriae,with kylikesor plates as lids.

Prokonnesos: Saraylar. Dr. Nuyin Asgari annually


studies and rescues ancient quarries and unfinished
and/or rejected blocks and carvings. The workshop

Prof. Cogkun Ozgfinel is


Smintheion-Giilpinar.
the
restoration
of the temple and
supervising
partial

its stepped platform at the southwest corner. Excavation continues to yield new frieze fragments (part
of a battle scene). In 1990 the remaining modern
building over the temple will be removed, with expectationof additionalevidence for architectureand
sculpture.

proceduresfor the carving of sarcophaguslids were


studiedwiththe aid of 28 specimensfound at Saraylar.
An interim report is in Research Symposium 7 (1989)

93-109.
Daskyleion. Prof. Tomris Bakir completed a second season. She reports that there probablyis a prehistoricstratum,attestedby strayfinds: a green stone
celt, flintpoints,and blades.In the Classicalsite, burnt
levelsmarkthe warof Agesilaosin 395 and the arrival

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152

MACHTELD
J. MELLINK

of Alexander. The site is disturbed by silos and robbers' pits. The ceramic record is rich, starting with
bird bowls, East Greek wares, Protocorinthianand
Corinthianwares,supplementedby Lydianfragments
of the late seventh and sixth centuriesB.C. Fragments
of ivory point to former luxuries. A terracottarevetment with meanders and small crosses is a promising
sample of local tradition.
The program will include the tumuli to the southwest and east of the mound (total 14).
Kyzikos. Prof. Abdullah Yaylaliundertook a first
campaign in 1989. South of the Temple of Hadrian
a sounding yielded many fragmentsof the sculptured
frieze and of architecture.The general topographyis
being studied.
PHRYGIA

Aizanoi. Dr. A. Hoffman reports on his work in


the stadium in Symposium11:2 (1989) 261-74.
Pessinus. Prof. Devreker worked in the cemetery
on the acropolis,which containssmall individualburials as well as larger stone-built tombs for multiple
burials.The lattercontinue into the fifth centuryA.C.
Later the site was fortified as a Byzantine citadel.
Symposium 11:2 (1989) 275-99 and TiirkArkDerg 28

(1989) 165-75.
Amorium. Prof. R.M. Harrisonreports on his second season of excavation of this town near Emirdag
northeast of Afyon. "Our main aim is to trace the
social and economic changes within the city from the
Hellenisticperiod to early Byzantine.We carried out
a general survey of the upper town, the htiyuik,of ca.
5 ha. The principal periods seem to be Byzantine,
Selcuk, and later, but prehistoric and Phrygian/Hellenistic sherds occur. A small fort (ca. 60 x 30 m)
stands in the southwestcorner. A large church in the
northeastcorner is associatedwith a concentrationof
blocks,glass, stone tesserae, and painted wall plaster.
Evidence for industrial activity was kiln waste and
some iron slag. On the southern edge of the upper
town we encountered the city wall, a narrowgateway,
and a square tower built of dressed stone faces on a
hard white mortar rubble core. Eight Roman-Phrygian funerary stelae, all reused, were found in the
upper stratum.
"In the lower town, a large building probablyof the
sixth century A.C. was further explored. On the
southwest part of the lower town wall a triangular
tower and the south flank of a gateway of the late
Roman or earlier period and road were clarified.
"The pottery (ca. 10,000 sherds) is predominantly
late Roman and early Byzantine, with a good group
of late Roman fine wares. Hellenistic and Augustan

[AJA95

examples also occur at Amorium."


Forinterimreportssee Symposium11:2 (1989) 15565 and AnatSt39 (1989) 167-74.
Docimium. J. Clayton Fant continued his studies
of the Docimian quarries in ResearchSymposium7
(1989) 111-18 and published Cavum AntrumPhrygiae. Roman Imperial Marble Quarries in Phrygia
(BAR-IS 482, 1989).

Hierapolis. Prof. Daria De Bernardo Ferrari reports on the work in the agora and necropolis in
Symposium11:2 (1989) 245-55. In the Late Antique
period the east side of the agora was the site of tile
factoriesborderedby an east-west wallbuilt of spolia;
north of this wasters were dumped. Along the west
side fifth-sixth century Byzantine houses were built
over the marblestoa. In the northeast necropolisthe
examination and recording of over 200 built tombs
was begun. The study of sarcophagi also continues
(1650 had been studied by 1988).
CAPPADOCIA

Kayseri Tumuli. Director Mehmet Eskioglu publishes a tumulus with barrel-vaultedchambers excavated intact by the Kayseri Museum at Garipler in
1971, TiirkArkDerg23 (1989) 189-224. The burial
had one gold coin dated to year 2 of Augustus, and
in its rich inventory now on display in the museum
resembles that of two similar tumuli excavated at
Beatepelerin 1940 and 1960, which had gold coins of
46 B.C. and 90 B.C.
CILICIA

Meydancik. Dr. Alain Davesne reports that he investigated the north entrance road and the tower of
the fortified entrance of the citadel in 1989. Several
periods came to light, both Hellenistic (with a burnt
third-centuryB.C. level) and a lower Iron Age, Luwian structure.The fortificationsencircledthe entire
site over a distance of 2 km. Partly collapsed, partly
traced by rock cuttings, they are being studied in
context. Large ashlar blocks form the lower courses
where preserved. The rock-cut and built tombs on
the east slope were cleaned and drawn. The statues
from the front of the larger tomb are now in the
museum of Silifke. The smaller tomb is of the same
style and period (first half of the sixth century B.C.).
For 1988 see Symposium11:2 (1989) 257-60.
Kelenderis. Dr. LeventZoroglureportsthat a new
1:1000 survey map has been made of the site and its
cemeteries. The rock-cuttombs are of several types.
Tomb gifts are Greek and local wares of the late fifth
and early fourth centuries B.C. Clearingof the Harbor Baths is making progress.

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1991]

IN ANATOLIA
ARCHAEOLOGY

Rock Reliefs. A study of rock-cut funerary and


cult reliefs in Rough Ciliciabetween the Lamos and
Kalykadnosrivers in Serra Durugoniil,Die Felsreliefs
im RauhenKilikien(BAR-IS511, 1989).
Tarsus: Donuk Ta?. Prof. Nezahat Bayduris continuing her investigationof the long neglected monument of Donuk Ta?, which she reports on in
Symposium11:1 (1989) 161-77 and Arkeolojive Sanat
40-41 (1988) 9-13. The temple can be dated to the
late Antonine period, probably to Commodus, and
may be connected with the emperor cult. It probably
was left unfinished and destroyed in the early fourth
century.

153

PONTUS

Satala. Dr. C.S. Lightfoot has been surveying this


site, 25 km south of Kelkit,a legionaryfortressguarding the Roman frontier in northern Anatolia. Previous work by Biliottiwas reported by T.B. Mitford in
AnatSt24 (1974) 221-44. A new plan is being made
of the fortressand settlement.
DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICAL AND
NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY
BRYN MAWR COLLEGE
BRYN MAWR, PENNSYLVANIA

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19010