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Judul Asli: A Tabu Search Approach for Optimizing Operating Conditions of Anaerobic Digester

Diunggah oleh Jonghyuck Park

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of Anaerobic Digester

Jonghyuck Park1, Hee-Deung Park2, Young Haeng Lee3, Hyun-Jin Kang2, Taekjun Lee3,

Jun-Geol Baek4,*

1

Republic of Korea

Republic of Korea

Water Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Date of Acceptance:

Mailing Address: School of Industrial Management Engineering, Korea University,

Sung-buk, Seoul, 136-713, Republic of Korea

Telephones: +82-2-3290-3396(office), +82-10-5699-5978 (Mobile)

Fax: +82-2-929-5888

E-mail: jungeol@korea.ac.kr

Authortowhomcorrespondenceshouldbeaddressed.

Abstract:

In this paper, a tabu search approach for optimizing operating conditions of anaerobic digester is

proposed. Biogas production attracts fields interests due to the regulations in treating sewages and

energy consumptions. Many researches have been conducted to find better operating conditions;

however, they are limited to laboratory sized and specific inputted anaerobic digester. Anaerobic

digestion model No. 1 (ADM1) is used to break those limitations. In modeling, a specific digester

concerned is able to be characterized by modifying its setting constant - kinetic parameters and

stoichiometric coefficient. Repetitive experiments by changing operating conditions are possible

without any risk and burden. Tabu Search, a neighbor search meta-heuristic, is considered to find the

optimal operating conditions. It prevents from converging into a local optimal solution with the

management of tabu list. A full-scale anaerobic digester, Jungnang (J3) located in Seoul, South Korea,

is modeled and the optimal operating condition for J3 is calculated with use of model to measure the

performance of proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Tabu Search, Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1), Simulation, Bio Gas Production

1. INTRODUCTION

Low sludge production is the most desirable goal of sewage treatments. Most researches about sewage

treatment, therefore, are conducted for high-rate treatment process in order to meet the requirements

of regulations: ocean dumping, especially in Korea, like many other countries, is strictly prohibited.

Besides the main purpose of sewage treatment, bio gas production becomes to be regarded as an

important aim due to some incentives of producing renewable energy, such as sunlight, wind, rain and

biomass1.

Anaerobic digestion is the most effective way to treat sewage in these reasons: it reduces the

amount of sludge, moreover, and produces bio-based energy which can be utilized in many industrial

and household uses like methane gas, which have an energy value equivalent to 35.8 kJ per liter2, 3.

This method, which produces less wastage sludge (only 5-15% of that of aerobic treatment) and

requires a lower amount of nutrient and less operational cost2, 3, can be used in treating various kinds

of organic waste: municipal sludge, livestock waste water, and high-strength food wastewater.4, 5.

Since the amounts of reduced sludge are generated into the methane gas, anaerobic digestion serves a

double purpose.

In spite of those merits mentioned, anaerobic digestion has some defects: slow reaction rate, rancid

substances such as H2S generated by digesting process, difficulties in operating digesters, and

unsuitability for treating low-strength organic wastewater2, 3. In practice, that not all composite

particulate waste and inactive biomass are disintegrated to smaller particulates that produce bio gas,

leads to the needs for finding better operating conditions of anaerobic digesters in terms of the amount

of bio gas produced.

A large number of studies have been conducted to find the optimal operating condition for given

anaerobic digesters. The performances of anaerobic digesters by changing mixing conditions between

municipal solid waste and waste activated sludge have been evaluated6. Biogas production using

anaerobic digestion from sugar industry waste water7 and fruit-vegetable waste8 are also reviewed.

The influences of pH adjustment and inoculum to biogas production are also researched9.

Even though the operating conditions proposed by former researches are good enough in

comparison to the conventional results, they are not apt to the real-world digesters due to the

limitation that those experiments are conducted based on laboratory-scale digesters. The estimation of

what will be happened in real-world digesters performs well, moreover, time needed for conducting

experiments, even in laboratory, is not possible to shorten. That same time is required to predict

results for a given period causes high experimental costs.

In this case, simulation is the one of most adaptable techniques to forecast the result of real-world

digesters. Simulation, a methodology which builds up a mathematical model that well reflects the

actual phenomenon concerned, is able to be used in reproducing the result of the phenomenon.

Several computations are conducted to estimate the result if a phenomenon happens in a given

condition. Simulation approach has so many merits: low operating cost, rapid results than actual

experiment, safeness, ability of estimating a virtual system which doesnt exist and so forth10.

Mathematical relations of chemical and physical process in an anaerobic digester should be

analyzed before building up a simulation model. ADM1 (Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1),

generalized model of anaerobic digestion, serves to the model which implements a full-scale plants

directly1,11. It exposes the processes in a digester, biochemical and physico-chemical, as a form of

differential equation that could be built as a simulation model. Bastone and Keller12 illustrate two

examples of ADM1, the effects of adding acids and the benefits of thermophilic for reduced ammonia

inhibition. Simulation approach based on ADM1 dramatically reduces the cost and time consumed

than conducting an exemplary experiment. Different mixing conditions13 and input sludges14 does not

matter for ADM1, and even complex structure of digesters, such as two-stage anaerobic digestion15, is

able to be considered by using ADM1.

The best solution obtained from several operating conditions does not mean that it is the optimal

solution which maximizes the performance of anaerobic digester among all possible operating

conditions. The solution acquired known as best has only small possibility of being global optimum, a

selection from a given domain which provides most preferred value16. Since the performance function

of anaerobic digester is not defined as a mathematical formula, simulation should be conducted to

estimate results of a given condition. So, it requires a lot of time to find among the optimal solution

among all possible operating conditions even in using simulation, surely much less than actual

experiments.

Tabu search, proposed by F. Glover, is a neighbor search meta-heuristic that prevents from

converging into local optimum by the management of tabu list, which has the information of searched

solutions before17, 18. Though tabu search algorithm does not guarantee the optimal condition always,

it needs less computational time than exhaustive search method and produces better solution than

local search methods. In general, tabu search is able to be applied to solve various combinatorial

optimization problems such as travelling sales man problem, knapsack problem and scheduling

problem17, 18. Besides typical optimization problems, tabu search are also implemented to solve the

problem of chemical process19, 20 even in biology21.

In this paper, tabu search is considered to find the optimal operating condition of anaerobic digester.

Simulation engine, used for estimating result of given operating condition, is implemented based on

ADM1. In chapter 2 and 3, ADM1 and tabu search is introduced. After then, proposed framework and

developed program for finding optimal condition of anaerobic digester are explained, and instances

are shown.

ADM1, mathematical implementation of anaerobic digestion, developed by task group of the IWA

(International Water Association), is presented in 2000. ADM1 is composed of biochemical processes

processes liquid-liquid process, liquid-gas process, and liquid-solid process1. Kinetic parameters and

stoichiometric coefficients are also included in ADM1.

The essential parts of anaerobic digestion processes are biochemical processes and

physico-chemical processes. Composite particulate is transformed into dissolved small molecules

through disintegration and hydrolysis, and these dissolved small molecules are decomposed by

biologically mediated reactions of microorganisms. Ion association/disassociation, precipitation,

solubilization, and liquid-gas transfer compose the physico-chemical processes in anaerobic digesters.

When complex composite particulates flow into the anaerobic digester, they are decomposed to

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and inert materials soluble and particulate. Three of them,

carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, absorb a water molecule resulting in the splits of original materials,

is transformed into sugars, amino acids and long chain fatty acids (LCFA), and become methane or

carbon dioxide finally. Fig. 1. shows the overall biochemical processes in ADM1.

Fig. 1. Biochemical Changes of materials in ADM1

Mass balance equation of ADM11,11 components in liquid state is shown in (1).

dS

q S

q S

liq, i

out liq, i

in in, i

, j {1,

j i, j

dt

V

V

j 1 19

liq

liq

, 24}

(1)

liquid, and Sin ,i is the i th component concentration of influx. qin and qout means the amount of

sludge which flow into and out respectively. As characteristics of a given anaerobic digester, Vliq is

defined as a liquid volume of an anaerobic digester, and j , mostly proportional to the component

concentration, denotes the rate of process j . Stoichiometric coefficient, i , j , implies the number of

Kinetic parameters, which reflect the characteristics of anaerobic digester, related to the rate of

process should be set to imitate what really happens in an anaerobic digester. Also, stoichiometric

coefficients are affected by the mixture of input sludge. Preceding researches propose the most

probable value of kinetic parameters and stoichiometric coefficients11. They are not fixed, however,

but vary by the conditions of anaerobic digestion. So, they have to be measured and adjusted in

reflecting of the condition of the specific aerobic digester concerned.

In this research, several kinetic parameters and stoichiometric coefficients are measured by the

experiments of batch processed and proposed as to reflect the operating conditions of anaerobic

digester. Also, some processes are added to imitate the generation of H2S for measuring the

performance. Table. 1. illustrates the process concerned in this research, and Table. 2. shows the parts

of modified kinetic parameters and stoichiometric coefficients used.

Table. 1. Biochemical Processes of Revised Model Considered

Table. 2. Kinetic Parameters and Stoichiometric Coefficients in Comparison to Default Setting of

ADM1 (Jungnang 2)

2.2. Physico-chemical Processes

Physico-chemical processes, commonly occur in anaerobic digestion, are defined as non-biologically

mediated processes. There are 3 types of physical-chemical processes: liquid-liquid processes,

liquid-gas processes, and liquid-solid processes. Since a number of biological inhibition factors are

able to be expressed such as pH, free acids and bases, and dissolved gas concentrations, and

performances variables like gas flow and operating costs related to pH control are dependent on

physico-chemical processes, they should be well-modeled for accurate anaerobic digestion model1.

Acid-base equilibrium process, a type of liquid-liquid processes, is relatively rapid to the

biochemical process, so the balance equations between acid and base are denoted as a form of

algebraic equation, not as dynamic equations like (1). Equation (2) shows the algebraic equation for

calculating the inorganic carbon acid-base equilibrium1.

S HCO

3

K a ,CO2 S IC

K a ,CO2 S H

(2)

S HCO , S IC and S H denote the concentration of bicarbonate, inorganic carbon, and hydrogen

3

ion respectively. K a ,CO2 is CO2 acidity constant with the temperature correction. With the equation

above, differential algebraic equations (DAE) solver is needed to solve the systems of algebraic

equations and dynamic equations. DAE solver, however, is much slower than differential equation

(DE) solver; an alternative equation which expresses physico-chemical process is considered rather

than using algebraic equation like (2). Differential equation for the process that algebraic equation (2)

express can be formulated as (3).

(3)

IC is the rate of inorganic carbon acid-base equilibrium process that bicarbonate( HCO3 ) is

translated to soluble carbon dioxide ( CO2 ). When IC is less than 0, backward reaction happens:

soluble carbon dioxide are translated to bicarbonate. K A/ BCO 2 is the kinetic constant for CO2-HCO3acid-base reaction. Equilibrium processes between valerate, butyrate, propionate, acetate, inorganic

carbon, and inorganic nitrogen acid-base can be modeled as a system of differential equation; no need

of DAE solver.

Besides liquid phase process, liquid-gas processes are regarded as significant since the most

favorable performance measure is the amount of generated bio gas. Performance is not possible to be

measured without modeling of liquid-gas processes. Stationary state between liquid and gas phase can

be described by using Henrys law; the concentration in the liquid phase is proportional to the gas

phase partial pressure. Henrys law for the CH4 is expressed in (4) 1.

K H ,CH 4 pgas ,CH 4 Sliq ,CH 4 0

(4)

K H is the Henrys law coefficient (M bar-1) regarded as the characteristic of specific gas. For CH4,

K H ,CH 4 is 0.0014. pgas ,CH 4 is the partial pressure (bar) of CH4 in head space of anaerobic digester as

gas, and Sliq ,CH 4 is the concentration (M) of CH4 in liquid state. The rate of diffusion process from

liquid state to gas state is defined as (5) 1.

4

(5)

K L a denotes the dynamic gas-liquid transfer coefficient (day-1). Since the diffusion processes are

also possible to be formulated as a differential equation form, all processes occur in anaerobic

digesters are estimable by solving the system of differential equations. How ADM1 is implemented to

develop simulation engine of anaerobic digestion will be discussed in Chapter 4.

3. TABU SEARCH

Tabu search, neighbor search based meta-heuristic, utilizes the characteristic of solution space in order

to search the most attractive values. It defines neighbor and move and manages tabu memory to give

opportunities searching in undiscovered regions, so that it leads not to converge into local optimum,

but to find global optimum22. The most strength of tabu search algorithm is due to the management of

tabu list. In this chapter, special feature of tabu search algorithm is expressed in comparison to hill

climbing heuristic, a typical local search algorithm.

As a combinatorial optimization problem17, optimizing operating condition of anaerobic digester

max p( x)

s.t.

x X

(5)

p ( x) is the objective function of anaerobic digestion, which illustrate the performance, in example,

forming amount of methane gas on specific operating condition x among the set of all possible

operating conditions ( X ) .

Local maximal solutions of problem (5), x * , are defined as all points that p( x*) p ( x) holds for

all x X which

problem to find a solution in local optimization problem. Hill climbing heuristic is proper method to

find a local solution. Like its name, hill climbing heuristic searches neighbors of current solution xc ,

and calculates the value of objective function p ( x) for all x S ( xc ) where S ( xc ) is the set of

neighbors. The value of xc is replaced to the solution xa , which provides the most largest objective

function value in S ( xc ) , only if p ( xa ) p ( xc ) . Hill climbing search is terminated if there is no such

This simple algorithm always provides the global optimal solution only when the objective function

is concave23. However, in case that objective function is not concave, solution obtained by hill

climbing heuristic is only local optimal solution, which means there would be a better solution. Fig. 2.

illustrates the fallacy of local search algorithm. Global maximum is 6 on right-upper corner, but

heuristics stops on 5. Accordingly, for finding the global optimal solution, methods which prevent not

to stop on local optimal solution are needed.

Fig. 2. Local Search and Tabu Search : Use of Tabu List

Tabu list and descending movement make the searching area of tabu search broader than local

search. Tabu search, even though based on local search, does not terminate on local solution. In the

case of Fig. 2., movement does not stop on 5, since the terminating condition of tabu search is not

restricted by the state of current solution. Unlikely hill climbing heuristic, not all movements make

improvements in objective function. Also, tabu list are set not to search the solution visited before.

Tabu search algorithm is illustrated in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. The procedure of Tabu Search

Tabu list, T , a set of solutions of which elements are visited before, prevents falling in cyclic

loops and accommodates searching in feasible region, a set of all feasible solutions. In Fig. 2., dappled

arrows illustrate the case that movements in tabu search are banned by tabu list.

The performance of tabu search is depend on how to manage tabu list, when to terminate search,

and where to initialize. Aspiration level, re-initialization22, and other many advanced techniques are

considered to improve the performance of tabu search18; only a simple tabu search algorithm is

applied in this paper.

This research is conducted for full-scale anaerobic digester, Jungnang 3(J3), located in municipal

wastewater treatment plants in Seoul, South Korea. Input sludge of J3 is analyzed in 10-liter

laboratory sized batch process digester to simulate the full-scale digester more precisely. As a result,

adjusted kinetic parameters and stoichiometric coefficients, illustrated in Table. 2., are obtained by the

curve fitting techniques in adapting the experimental result.

Fig. 4. Estimated Gas Production: Revised ADM1 Coefficient Model

For revised ADM1 coefficient model of this study, simulations are conducted by using GPS-X, a

popular commercial simulation package24, in comparison to actual result of batch process. Fig. 4.

illustrates the simulated result of gas production when revised ADM1 coefficient model is used in

comparison to actual experimental data and default ADM1. Revised model is better to simulate actual

digester rather than default ADM1.

Simulation engine is developed with use of revised model in order to evaluate the performance of

tabu search in finding optimal operating condition. Proposed tabu search framework is applied on

developed simulation engine. Discussion on methodologies to build simulation engine and to find the

optimal operating condition is followed.

In chapter 2, that ADM1 consists of several processes able to be coded as a system of differential

equations is illustrated. Accordingly, differential equation solver is necessary to solve the systems of

differential equations. Implicit Runge-Kutta algorithm is chosen as the solver of differential equations.

Even though more precise solvers exist, the main reason of choosing implicit Runge-Kutta algorithm

is the computational performance, much faster than others; in addition, it provides reasonably precise

values25.

DotNumerics26, a numerical library, composed of modules related to mathematical computation,

has differential equation solver which implements implicit Runge-Kutta algorithm. Since

DotNumerics offers numerical computing on Microsoft C#.NET environment, proposed framework

is also developed on same environment.

Fig. 5. Gas Production Predicted by Developed Simulator in Comparison to GPS-X

Fig. 5. shows the result of developed simulator in comparison to that of GPS-X; simulation is

conducted for the 1 year input data of J3 from January 2010. Both results are able to be regarded as

same: Pearson correlation of methane gas productions is 0.790, and its P-value is <0.001. The validity

of development is proved, because GPS-X provides reasonable estimations for J3 anaerobic digester

as shown in Fig. 4. Developed simulation is not only providing accurate result, but also solving the

problem fast. GPS-X, based on Gears integration, needs around 30 seconds or more to simulate 1

year problem; developed simulator requires only 5 or less seconds.

Gas production is affected by many factors. The most effective factor among them is the amount and

concentration of complex composite particulates: what gets in to anaerobic digester is most important.

Even though input sludge is the key factor of methane gas production, however, it is almost

impossible to control the amount and concentration, since sewage water treatment center cannot

refuse to treat sewage. However pH and temperature, which can be controlled easily, effects the

production of methane gas quite.

Temperature and pH are considered as decision variables, which denote operating conditions and

affect the amount of methane production. It is assumed that concentration and amount of input sludge

follow historical data. pH is adjusted by 0.05 and temperature can be controlled by 1 degree. The

possible range of operating temperature is assumed as 25C~65C, and that of pH is set to 6.0~8.0.

Total 1681 cases, 41 temperature conditions are multiplied to 41 pH conditions, are possible to be

regarded as operating conditions. Current operating condition of J3, 43C and neutral, is regarded as

initial solution of tabu search and the size of tabu list is set to 30.

4.3 Result

Fig. 6 illustrates the amount of daily gas production on each operating conditions. High temperature

condition is preferred to increase the amount of gas production. Following to the result, small changes

in pH do not show significant changes in gas production.

Fig. 6. Estimated Gas Production by Different Operating Conditions

Table 3. Performance Table for Search Methods

From the initial solution, default operating condition of J3 (43C and pH 7.0), best solution

obtained by tabu search is 65C and pH 6.8. Tabu search provide its best solution in only 45

movements, simulating 102 conditions; exhaustive search needs total 1681 simulation results of all

possible conditions in order to obtain the optimal solution. Moreover, though any local search stops

on the condition of 65C and pH 7.0 since the condition is local optimum, proposed tabu search finds

operating condition in broader space. Table. 3. shows the performance, solutions accuracy of three

methods.

5. CONCLUSION

In this paper, tabu search is used for optimizing operating conditions of anaerobic digester. Simulation

model is developed to imitate the reactions in anaerobic digester. Process condition, which controls

pH and temperature, is assumed. Process conditions which generate more methane gas are searched

by modifying them. Proposed method provides better solution than local search algorithm and faster

result than exhaustive search.

Even though only pH and temperature are used as the factors that effects on the production of

methane gas, there are still many factors which effect on the amount of bio gas generated. If methods,

assumed as impossibility in this paper, to control the concentration and amount of input sludge exist,

should be considered for better performance. Also, other meta-heuristic methods, such as genetic

algorithm, are possible to be considered in order to examine the suitability of solution searching

methods. In the view of economy, increasing the temperature or adding acids/bases to digester causes

more operational cost; what is the most profitable solution should be researched.

Acknowledgments: This research was supported by the MKE (Ministry of Knowledge Economy),

Korea, under the IT R&D Infrastructure Program supervised by the NIPA (National IT Industry

Promotion Agency) (NIPA-2011-(B1110-1101-0002)).

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Table 2. Kinetic Parameters and Stoichiometric Coefficients in Comparison to Default Setting of

ADM1 (Jungnang 3)

Fig. 1. Biochemical Changes of materials in ADM1

Fig. 2. Local Search and Tabu Search : Use of Tabu List

Fig. 3. The procedure of Tabu Search

Fig. 4. Estimated Gas Production: Revised ADM1 Coefficients Model

Fig. 5. Gas Production Predicted by Developed Simulator in Comparison to GPS-X

Fig. 6. Estimated Gas Production by Different Operating Conditions

Author(s): Jonghyuck Park, Hee-Deung Park, Young Haeng Lee, Hyun-Jin Kang, Taekjun Lee,

Jun-Geol Baek

Title: A Tabu Search Approach for Optimizing Operating Conditions of Anaerobic Digester.

Process Type

List

Disintegration, Hydrolysis carbohydrates, Hydrolysis of proteins, Hydrolysis of lipids,

Uptake of Sugar, Uptake of amino acids, Uptake of LCFA, Uptake of valerate,

Biochemical

Process

Uptake of Hydrogen srb*, Uptake of Propionate srb*, Uptake of Acetate srb*,

Decay of X_su, Decay of X_aa, Decay of X_fa, Decay of X_c4, Decay of X_pro, Decay

of X_ac, Decay of X_h2, Decay of Xsrb*,

Physico-chemical

Process

Author(s): Jonghyuck Park, Hee-Deung Park, Young Haeng Lee, Hyun-Jin Kang, Taekjun Lee,

Jun-Geol Baek

Title: A Tabu Search Approach for Optimizing Operating Conditions of Anaerobic Digester.

ADM1 (Jungnang 3)

Parameter

Description

Default value

This study

Kdis (d-1)

0.5

0.4971

Khyd_ch (d-1)

10

1.02

Khyd_pr (d-1)

10

0.1778

Khyd_li (d-1)

10

0.999

f_ac_su (gCOD/gCOD)

0.41

0.0159

f_pro_su (gCOD/gCOD)

0.27

0.252

f_ac_aa (gCOD/gCOD)

0.4

0.689

f_pro_aa (gCOD/gCOD)

0.05

0.0672

km_pro (d-1)

13

10.6

Ks_pro (mgCOD/L)

100

106

km_ac (d-1)

7.39

Ks_ac (mgCOD/L)

150

256

Kdec_x_su

0.02

0.0198

Kdec_x_aa

0.02

0.0186

Kdec_x_fa

0.02

0.0192

Kdec_x_c4

0.02

0.018

Kdec_x_pro

0.02

0.0158

Kdec_x_ac

0.02

0.0195

Kdec_x_h2

0.02

0.0183

Author(s): Jonghyuck Park, Hee-Deung Park, Young Haeng Lee, Hyun-Jin Kang, Taekjun Lee,

Jun-Geol Baek

Title: A Tabu Search Approach for Optimizing Operating Conditions of Anaerobic Digester.

Daily Amount of

Gas Production in AVG.

Exhaustive

Search

Local

Search

Tabu

Search

58364*

58356

58363

1681

67

102

(m )

3

Search Region

Size

(# of conditions)

Jun-Geol Baek

Title: A Tabu Search Approach for Optimizing Operating Conditions of Anaerobic Digester.

Jun-Geol Baek

Title: A Tabu Search Approach for Optimizing Operating Conditions of Anaerobic Digester.

Jun-Geol Baek

Title: A Tabu Search Approach for Optimizing Operating Conditions of Anaerobic Digester.

Jun-Geol Baek

Title: A Tabu Search Approach for Optimizing Operating Conditions of Anaerobic Digester.

Jun-Geol Baek

Title: A Tabu Search Approach for Optimizing Operating Conditions of Anaerobic Digester.

Jun-Geol Baek

Title: A Tabu Search Approach for Optimizing Operating Conditions of Anaerobic Digester.

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