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Assignment No 1
Objective: Discuss about natural disasters held in last five years and there occurrence,
causes, impacts and preventive measures.

Natural Disaster
According to Wikipedia- A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from
natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, volcanic eruptions,
earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life
or property damage and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of
which depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability to recover.1
As the oxford dictionaries defines - A natural event such as a flood, earthquake,
or hurricane that causes great damage or loss of life.2
According to IFRC (International Federation of Red Cross and Red crescent Societies)(3)
defines it- Natural hazards are naturally occurring physical phenomena caused either by
be geophysical (earthquakes,
landslides, tsunamis and volcanic
activity), hydrological (avalanches and
floods), climatological (extreme temperatures, drought and wildfires), meteorological
(cyclones and storms/wave surges) or biological (disease epidemics and insect/animal
Types of natural disasters
Volcanic eruption
Cyclonic storms


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An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earths crust that
creates seismic waves. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by vibration,
shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. The vibrations may vary in magnitude.
Earthquakes are caused mostly by slippage within geological faults, but also by other events
such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests. The underground point of
origin of the earthquake is called the focus. The point directly above the focus on the surface
is called the epicenter. Earthquakes by themselves rarely kill people or wildlife. It is usually
the secondary events that they trigger, such as building collapse, fires, tsunamis (seismic sea
waves) and volcanoes, that are actually the human disaster. Many of these could possibly be
avoided by better construction, safety systems, early warning and planning.1

Nepal Earthquake
The April 2015 Nepal earthquake (also known as the Gorkha earthquake) killed more
than 9,000 people and injured more than 23,000. It occurred at 11:56 NST on 25 April, with a
magnitude of 7.8Mw or 8.1Ms and a maximum Mercalli Intensity of IX (Violent).
Its epicenter was east of the district of Lamjung, and its hypocenter was at a depth of
approximately 15 km
Continued aftershocks occurred throughout Nepal within 1520 minute intervals, with one
shock reaching a magnitude of 6.7 on 26 April at 12:54:08 NST. The country also had a
continued risk of landslides. A major aftershock occurred on 12 May 2015 at 12:51 NST with
a moment magnitude (Mw) of 7.3. The epicentre was near the Chinese border between the
capital of Kathmandu and Mt. Everest. More than 200 people were killed and more than
2,500 were injured by this aftershock.

Nepal is particularly prone to earthquakes. It sits on the boundary of two massive tectonic
plates the Indo-Australian and Asian plates. It is the collision of these plates that has
produced the Himalaya mountains, and with them, earthquakes.
These quakes are a dramatic manifestation of the ongoing convergence between the IndoAustralian and Asian tectonic plates that has progressively built the Himalayas over the last
50 million years.


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Earthquake killed more than 9,000 people and injured more than 23,000.
Thousands of houses were destroyed across many districts of the country, with entire
villages flattened, especially those near the epicenter.
The U.S. Geological Survey initially estimated economic losses from the temblor at 9
percent to 50 percent of gross domestic product, with a best guess of 35 percent.
The most affected were the poor communities who lost their homes.
The rural death toll may have been lower than it would have been as the villagers
were outdoors, working when the quake hit. More than 450,000 people were

Rescue and Relief

About 90 percent of soldiers from the Nepalese Army were sent to the stricken areas
in the aftermath of the earthquake under Operation Sankat Mochan with volunteers
mobilized from other parts of the country.

As of 1 May 2015, international aid agencies like Mdecins Sans Frontires (Doctors
Without Borders) and the Red Cross were able to start medically evacuating the
critically wounded by helicopter from outlying areas, initially cut-off from the capital
city, Kathmandu.

Volunteers used crisis mapping to help plan emergency aid work.

UNESCO and the Ministry of Culture began strengthening damaged monuments in

danger of collapsing before the monsoon season. 4

Preventive measurements of earthquake

If you live in an area of earthquake risk, it is advisable to adopt a series of preventative
measures, such as:

Seek shelter beneath door lintels or solid furniture such as tables or desks, or next
to a column or load-bearing wall.
Stay away from windows, glass, cabinets, partitions and objects that may fall and
hit you.
Do not use the elevator, as the impact of the earthquake could result in its falling or
you could get trapped inside.


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Go to an open area and stay away from damaged buildings.

If travelling by car it is advisable to stay inside the vehicle, and be careful to stay
away from bridges, utility poles, damaged buildings or landslide areas.
If you are driving then stop the vehicle and get outside and go to open place.

A wildfire is an uncontrolled fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the
countryside area. Other names such as brush fire, bush fire, forest fire, desert fire, grass
fire, hill fire, peat fire, vegetation fire, and veldfire may be used to describe the same
phenomenon depending on the type of vegetation being burned, and the regional variant of
English being used. A wildfire differs from other fires by its extensive size, the speed at
which it can spread out from its original source, its potential to change direction
unexpectedly, and its ability to jump gaps such as roads, rivers and fire breaks. Wildfires are
characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties such as speed
of propagation, the combustible material present, and the effect of weather on the fire.5

Rocky Fire
The Rocky Fire is a wild land fire that started on July 29, 2015 near Morgan Valley Road and
Rocky Creek Road, east of Lower Lake, California. On Saturday August 1 the fire
dramatically progressed burning 47,000 acres (19,020 ha) and threatening 7,000
structures. As of Monday morning, the fire grew to 60,000 acres (24,281 ha), causing the
evacuation of over 12,000 residents and the deployment of 2,900 firefighters. [4] By late
Tuesday, it had burned 67,000 acres and destroyed 24 homes and 26 other buildings.6

Preventive measurements of wildfires

Wear protective clothing and footwear to protect yourself from flying sparks and

Look for a body of water such as a pond or river to crouch in.

Protect your lungs by breathing air closest to the ground, through a moist cloth, if
possible, to avoid inhaling smoke.

Keep watch on weather and listen to radio or TV.

Keep alert about the community warning systems loudspeakers, bells, conches,
drums or any traditional warning system.

Get to know the nearest cyclone shelter / safe houses and the safest route to reach
these shelters.
Do not listen to rumors.
Identify the spot where you can dig holes to store food grains, seeds, etc. in polythene
Keep distance from forests if alerts are given by the media.


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Tell your neighbors about that if they are unable to get the alerts.

Always carry a portable radio, torch, spare batteries.

Keep the lists of all emergency addresses and phone numbers.

Always keep fires resisting cloths if available.


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A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry. The European
Union (EU) Floods Directive defines a flood as a covering by water of land not normally
covered by water. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow
of the tide. Flooding may occur as an overflow of water from water bodies, such as
a river or lake, in which the water overtops or breaks levees, resulting in some of that water
escaping its usual boundaries, or it may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on
saturated ground in an aerial flood. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary
with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, these changes in size are unlikely to be
considered significant unless they flood property or drown domestic animals.
Floods can also occur in rivers when the flow rate exceeds the capacity of the river channel,
particularly at bends or meanders in the waterway. Floods often cause damage to homes and
businesses if they are in the natural flood plains of rivers. While riverine flood damage can be
eliminated by moving away from rivers and other bodies of water, people have traditionally
lived and worked by rivers because the land is usually flat and fertile and because rivers
provide easy travel and access to commerce and industry.7

June 2015 Gujarat Flood

Following heavy rain, Gujarat state of India was affected by the flood in June 2015. The
flood resulted in at least 80 deaths. The wild life of Gir Forest National Park and adjoining
area was also affected.

Incident of flood
There were heavy rains on 23 and 24 June 2015 across Gujarat. Saurashtra and south Gujarat
received 65.99% and 37.82% rain of average monsoon season in June while Central-East
Gujarat received 19.92%, north Gujarat 7.45% and Kutch 7.30% rain of average monsoon
season. Overall Gujarat received 33.95% rain of normal average monsoon season. These
heavy rain in short period resulted in flood in Saurashtra region.


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In Saurashtra, Amreli district was affected heavily facing worst flood in ninety years. Nearly
600 villages of 838 village of district were flooded. More than 400 villages were inaccessible
as road and rail was washed away due to flesh flood and they had no electricity. Shetrunji
river and its tributaries were flooded. The railway bridge near Gavadka collapsed and railway
line washed away near Borala village near Savarkundla. Paschim Gujarat Vij Company Ltd
(PGVCL) declared that 705 electricity poles damaged. In Rajkot district, more than 1700
houses damaged. Jetpur town waterlogged as gates of Bhadar dam were opened.
There were heavy damages to crops and large number of cattle died. The flood and heavy rain
resulted in more than 70 deaths across Gujarat.
The Gir Forest National Park and adjoining area housing Asiatic lions, an endangered species
with only 523 living individuals documented in May 2015, was severely affected. The
carcasses of 10 lions, 1670 Nilgai, 87 spotted deer, nine black bucks and six wild boars and
some porcupines were also recovered.
Total 1,12,217 farmers suffered major or minor damages while there has been erosion in
1,34,007 hectare land.

Rescue and Relief

The state government deployed the Indian Air Force (IAF) and National Disaster Response
Force (NDRF) for rescue and relief operation. on 25 June 2015, IAF helicopters delivered
more than 2 lakh food packets to villages affected by flood. Around 4000 people were
evacuated from seventeen villages downstream of Bhadar dam. More than 200 people were
rescued from various places caught in flood. Chief Minister of Gujarat, Anandiben
Patel declared Rs 4 lakh as compensation to the kin of each of the deceased.8

Preventive measurements of floods

Listen to the radio or television for information.

Do not walk through moving water. Six inches of moving water can make you fall.


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Be aware of areas where floodwaters have receded. Roads may have weakened and
could collapse under the weight of a car.
Stay out of any building if it is surrounded by floodwaters.
Make sure you unplug all the electrical items in your house.
Be aware that flash flooding can occur. If there is any possibility of a flash flood,
move immediately to higher ground. Do not wait for instructions to move.


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A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from Japanese: , lit. "harbor wave"; English
pronunciation: /tsunmi/) , also known as a seismic sea wave or as a tidal wave, is a series
of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in



a large

explosions (including

lake. Earthquakes, volcanic



eruptions and

underwater nuclear

other underwater

devices), landslides, glacier

calving, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential
to generate a tsunami. In being generated by the displacement of water, a tsunami contrasts
both with a normal ocean wave generated by wind and with tides, which are generated by the
gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun on bodies of water.
Tsunami waves do not resemble normal sea waves, because their wavelength is far longer.
Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially resemble a rapidly
rising tide, and for this reason they are often referred to astidal waves. Tsunamis generally
consist of a series of waves with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a socalled "wave train". Wave heights of tens of meters can be generated by large events.
Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be
enormous and they can affect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among
the deadliest natural disasters in human history with at least 230,000 people killed or missing
in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean.9

Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami 2004

The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with
an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The event is known by the scientific
community as the SumatraAndaman earthquake. The resulting tsunami was given
various names, including the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, South Asian
tsunami, Indonesian tsunami, the Christmas tsunami and the Boxing Day tsunami.
The undersea mega thrust earthquake was caused when the Indian Plate was sub ducted by
the Burma Plate and triggered a series of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most
landmasses bordering the Indian Ocean, killing 230,000 people in 14 countries, and
inundating coastal communities with waves up to 30 metres (100 ft) high. It was one of
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the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history. Indonesia was the hardest-hit country,
followed by Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand.

The earthquake resulted from complex slip on the fault where the oceanic
portion of the Indian Plate slides under Sumatra, part of the Eurasian Plate. This
movement of the Indian-Australian plate about six to seven centimeters towards
the north-east every year caused this.

According to the U.S. Geological Survey a total of 227,898 people died (see table below for
details). Measured in lives lost, this is one of the ten worst earthquakes in recorded history, as
well as the single worst tsunami in history. Indonesia was the worst affected area, with most
death toll estimates at around 170,000. However, another report by Siti Fadilah Supari, the
Indonesian Minister of Health at the time, estimated the death total to be as high as 220,000
in Indonesia alone, giving a total of 280,000 casualties.
A great deal of humanitarian aid was needed because of widespread damage of the
infrastructure, shortages of food and water, and economic damage. Epidemics were of special
concern due to the high population density and tropical climate of the affected areas. The
main concern of humanitarian and government agencies was to provide sanitation facilities
fresh drinking
to contain
of diseases
as cholera, diphtheria, dysentery, typhoid and hepatitis A and B.10

Preventive Measurements Of tsunami

Plan an evacuation route that leads to higher ground.

Know the warning signs of a tsunami: rapidly rising or falling coastal waters
and rumblings of an offshore earthquake.

A tsunami is a series of waves. Do not return to an affected coastal area until

authorities say it is safe.

As tsunami occurs near the sea area so the tribes who are there should leave the place
and go to the safe place

Dont pay attentions to the rumors.

Pack two three days meal along with you so that you can survive.

Keep watch on weather and listen to radio or TV.


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Always carry a portable radio, torch, spare batteries.

Keep the lists of all emergency addresses and phone numbers

Trim all the trees and cut off dead trees as they are hazardous.


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In meteorology, a cyclone is an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the same
direction as the Earth. This is usually characterized by inward spiraling winds that
rotate counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern
Hemisphere of the Earth. Most large-scale cyclonic circulations are centered on areas of low
atmospheric pressure. The largest low-pressure systems are cold-core polar cyclones
and extra tropical cyclones which lie on the synoptic scale. According to the National
Hurricane Center glossary, warm-core cyclones such as tropical cyclones and subtropical
cyclones also lie within the synoptic scale. Mesocyclones, tornadoes and dust devils lie
within the smaller mesoscale. Upper level cyclones can exist without the presence of a
surface low, and can pinch off from the base of the Tropical Upper Tropospheric
Trough during the summer months in the Northern Hemisphere. Cyclones have also been
seen on extraterrestrial planets, such as Mars and Neptune. Cyclogenesis describes the
process of cyclone formation and intensification. Extra tropical cyclones form as waves in
large regions of enhanced mid-latitude temperature contrasts called baroclinic zones. These
zones contract to form weather fronts as the cyclonic circulation closes and intensifies. Later
in their life cycle, cyclones occlude as cold core systems. A cyclone's track is guided over the
course of its 2 to 6 day life cycle by the steering flow of the cancer or subtropical jet stream.11

Cyclone Nargis, Burma (Myanmar), 2nd May 2008

Cyclone Nargis was a rare, eastward moving at low-latitude strong tropical cyclone that
caused the worst natural disaster in the recorded history of Myanmar. The cyclone
made landfall in Myanmar on Friday, 2 May 2008, sending a storm surge 40 kilometers up
the densely populated Irrawaddy delta, causing catastrophic destruction and at least 138,000
fatalities. The Labutta Township alone was reported to have 80,000 dead, with about 10,000
more deaths in Bogale. There were around 55,000 people missing and many other deaths
were found in other towns and areas, although the Myanmar government's official death toll
may have been under-reported, and there have been allegations that government officials
stopped updating the death toll after 138,000 to minimise political fallout. The feared 'second
wave' of fatalities from disease and lack of relief efforts never materialised.

Cyclone Nargis was generated in the same way a typhoon or hurricane is generated, since
they are all the same type of storm system. A tropical low pressure area strengthened over the
warm waters of the tropical Indian Ocean and proceeded to move north and northeastward,
eventually making landfall at Burma (Myanmar).


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The United Nations estimated that 1.50 million people were "severely affected" by this
cyclone. Estimates of the people missing were 53,836, with 84,537 confirmed dead. Some
NGO estimated that the final death toll would be over 100,000. At least 10,000 people were
reported to have perished in the delta town of Bogale alone.
Nargis was the deadliest tropical cyclone worldwide since the 1970 Bhola cyclone, which
killed nearly 500,000 people. One aid worker claimed that the death toll from the cyclone and
its aftermath might reach 300,000; if correct, Nargis would be the second deadliest cyclone
ever and the fifth deadliest natural disaster of the 20th century, after the Yellow River floods,
the 1976 Tangshan earthquake and the Bhola Cyclone in Bangladesh.
Because Myanmar's military leaders did not count the full death toll from Nargis (leaving the
area shortly after it hit), and the fact that thousands more people were missing or washed out
at sea, it was feared up to 1 million people might have died in this disaster. If this proves to be
the case, Nargis would be the deadliest cyclone ever recorded and the third deadliest natural
disaster recorded, behind the Yellow River floods of 1887 and 1931 in China. The final death
toll from Nargis was at least 146,000, because there were 90,000 people confirmed dead at
one point and 56,000 were missing. They were never found, so it was assumed that these
56,000 people were killed. Thus, its death toll would exceed that of the 1991 storm and make
it the deadliest since the 1970 storm. It is now thought that hundreds of thousands of people
will never be found after Nargis because their bodies have decayed, been buried, or were
washed out to sea.12

Preventive measurements of cyclone

These preventions must be taken if there is any chance of wild fire

Keep watch on weather and listen to radio or TV. Keep alert about the community
warning systems loudspeakers, bells, conches, drums or any traditional warning

Get to know the nearest cyclone shelter / safe houses and the safest route to reach
these shelters.

Do not listen to rumors.


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Identify the spot where you can dig holes to store food grains, seeds, etc. in polythene

Keep distance from forests if alerts are given by the media.

Tell your neighbors about that if they are unable to get the alerts.


Type of natural










Wild fire


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Burma, India
and Sri Lanka.
Indonesia, Sri
Lanka, Bangladesh
India, Thailand.
Morgan Valley Road
and Rocky Creek
Road, east of Lower
Lake, California,




Fatal more than

9,000 people and
injured more than


More than 80
people were died.


2nd May

1.50 million
people were
severely affected

The United


Killed 230,000
people in 14

29 July 2015

Waste of At least
$360.05 million

April 2015

June 2015

Government of




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