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A PROJECT REPORT ON

SUMMER TRAINING PROGRAMME


UNDER
FABRICATION MECHANICAL
MAINTAINANCE
DONE AT

HINDALCO INDUSTRIES LTD.


RENUKOOT, U.P.
SUBMITTED TO

SUBMITTED BY

MR. ANUBHAV SINGH

SUMIT KUMAR GUPTA

DEPT. FABRICATION MECH MAIN.


ALLAHABAD

B.TECH. 2ND YEAR NIT

Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
INTRODUCTION OF HINDALCO INDUSTRIES LTD.
Aluminium
Copper
Mines
Vision, Mission & Values
ALUMINIUM PROPERTIES
APPLICATIONS OF ALUMINIUM
PRIMARY ALUMINIUM PRODUCTS
Ingots
Wire Rods
Billets
PRODUCTION PROCESS
Fabrication
MAIN PLANTS OF THE COMPANY
ALUMINA PLANT
ALUMINIUM SMELTER
FABRICATION PLANT
FABRICATION PLANT LAYOUT
ROLLING MILL
HOT ROLLING
COLD ROLLING
PROCESS FLOW CHART OF HOT ROLLING MILL
PROCESS FLOW CHART OF COLD ROLING MILL
EXTRUSION
Classification
Terminology
Principle variables
Isothermal temperature
Die Types

Parts of Extrusion Press


Press Operation
Press Specifications
Billet Temp. Range for Aluminium Alloys
Application of major Aluminium Alloys
Aging
Defects

HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS
Hydraulic Cylinders
Types
Parts
Hydraulic Cylinder Designs

TO DETERMINE THE WORKING CONDITIONS OF FURNACE FOR PROPANE GAS


WHEN CONDITIONS FOR METHANE GAS IS GIVEN
GASEOUS FULES
Types of Gaseous fuels
Properties of Gaseous fuels
Calorific Values
Combustion
Waste heat recovery
SOME EQUIPMENTS IN GAS FIRED ALUMINIUM LOG HEATING FURNACE
Recuperator
Centrifugal Fan
Orifice Plate and parameters on which flow through orifice plate depends
Data given for the methane gas working as fuel in furnace
Table : Volume flow rate and pressure difference Delta P for The Air Orifice Flange
Table : Volume flow rate and pressure difference Delta P for The Gas Orifice Flange
for natural gas (methane).
Volume flow rate and pressure difference Delta P for Air Orifice Flange and Gas
Orifice Flange for Zone 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 in the furnace using methane as fuel
Data Prepared for the methane gas working as fuel in furnace
Table : Volume flow rate and pressure difference Delta P for The Air Orifice Flange
Table : Volume flow rate and pressure difference Delta P for The Gas Orifice Flange
for PROPANE GAS.
Volume flow rate and pressure difference Delta P for Air Orifice Flange and Gas
Orifice Flange for Zone 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 in the furnace using Propane as fuel
BIBLIOGRAPHY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am thankful to HINDALCO INDUSTRIES LTD. , which provided me the opportunity to fulfill the
summer training as a curriculum of B.Tech. 2nd Year.
I am very much thankful to all those who directly or indirectly supported me in accomplishing my
training.
With great pleasure, I express my heartiest thanks to Mr. S K Das (Manager Training & Development
Center), for providing me an opportunity to undergo summer training in fabrication department of
HINDALCO INDUSTRIES LTD., Renukoot.
My special thanks goes to Mr. Rana Bhattacharjee, who has imparted training related to my subjects,
whose co-operation and suggestion helped me in completion of report.
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my faculty guide Mr. Anubhav Singh for the
encouragement & guidance that he gave, under whose guidance I was able to successfully complete the
project.
I am indebted to all the field operators who took time off from their busy working schedule and
explained me even the minutest details, ensuring my queries and showing me the whole periphery of
the PLANT. Last but not the least we would like to thanks our teachers without whose feedback and
encouragement, this project would not have been possible. There help has gone a long way in
successful completion of my project
Debts being various are not easy to remember. Therefore finally, I express my best gratitude to all who
have directly or indirectly assisted, guided and supported me in completing this task. My special thanks
to my friends for constant support and feedback that has enabled to perform this dissertation.

SUMIT KUMAR GUPTA


B.TECH. (MECH.) 2nd Year
MNNIT ALLAHABAD
Roll No. 3716020618

INTRODUCTION OF HINDALCO INDUSTRIES LIMITED

AN INDUSTRY LEADER IN ALUMINIUM AND COPPER :


An industry leader in aluminium and copper, Hindalco Industries Limited, the metals flagship company of the
Aditya Birla Group is the world's largest aluminium rolling company and one of the biggest producers of
primary aluminium in Asia. Its copper smelter is amongst the largest single location custom smelter globally.
Established in 1958, we commissioned our aluminium facility at Renukoot in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India in
1962. Later, acquisitions and mergers with Indal, Birla Copper and the Nifty and Mt. Gordon copper mines in
Australia, strengthened our position in value-added alumina, aluminium and copper products.
The acquisition of Novelis Inc. in 2007 positioned us among the top five aluminium majors worldwide and the
largest vertically integrated aluminium company in India. Today, we are a metals powerhouse present in two of
the fastest growing metal segments; aluminium and copper, with global footprints in 13 countries and with a
consolidated turnover of USD 14.8 billion (Rs. 80,193 crore).
ALUMINIUM:
Hindalco's major products include standard and speciality grade aluminas and hydrates, aluminium ingots,
billets, wire rods, flat rolled products, extrusions and foil.
The integrated facility at Renukoot houses an alumina refinery and an aluminium smelter, along with facilities
for the production of semi-fabricated products, namely, redraw rods, flat rolled products and extrusions. The
plant is backed by a co-generation power unit and a 742 MW captive power plant at Renusagar to ensure the
continuous supply of power for smelter and other operations.
A strong presence across the value chain and synergies between operations has given us a dominant share in the
value-added products market. As a step towards expanding the market for value-added products and services,
we have launched various brands in recent years Everlast roofing sheets, Freshwrapp kitchen foil and
Freshpakk semi-rigid containers.

FIG : ALUMINIUM SHEETS

COPPER

Birla Copper, Hindalcos copper unit, is located at Dahej in Gujarat, India. The unit has the unique distinction of
being the largest single-location copper smelter in the world. The smelter uses state-of-the-art technology and
has a capacity of 500,000 tpa. Birla Copper also produces precious metals, fertilisers and sulphuric and
phosphoric acid. The unit has captive power plants for continuous power generation and a captive jetty to
facilitate logistics and transportation.
Birla Copper upholds its longstanding reputation for quality copper cathodes and continuous cast copper rods
by assuring its management processes meet the highest standards. It has acquired certifications such as ISO9001:2000 (Quality Management Systems), ISO-14001:2004 (Environmental Management System) and
OHSAS18001:2007 (Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems).

MINES
Hindalco acquired two Australian copper mines, Nifty and Mt. Gordon, in 2003. The Birla Nifty copper mine
consists of an underground mine, heap leach pads and a solvent extraction and electrowinning (SXEW)
processing plant, which produces copper cathode.
The Mt. Gordon copper operation consists of an underground mine and a copper concentrate plant. Until
recently, the operation produced copper cathode through the ferric leach process.
Both Nifty and Mt. Gordon have a long-term life of mine off-take agreement with Hindalco for supply of
copper concentrate to the copper smelter at Dahej.

The largest integrated primary producer of aluminium in Asia, Hindalco also ranks as one of the most costefficient producers globally. With a pan-India presence that encompasses the entire gamut of operations, from
bauxite mining, alumina refining, aluminium smelting to downstream rolling, extrusions and recycling,
Hindalco enjoys a leadership position in aluminium and downstream value-added products in India.
Our India aluminium operations in india are integrated and consist of bauxite mining, alumina refining,
smelting and converting primary metal into value-added products. We have dedicated sources for critical raw
materials such as bauxite, power and to a limited extent, coal. We also have committed supply sources for
auxiliary chemicals.
Our finished products include alumina, primary aluminium in the form of ingots, billets and wire rods, valueadded products such as rolled products, extrusions, foils and alloy wheels and speciality alumina products.
Alumina is used for our own captive needs, the excess of which is sold to third parties. Aluminium is used in a
range of industries including water-treatment chemicals, refractories, ceramics, cryolite, glass, fillers and
plastics, conveyor belts and cables, among others.
Hindalco manufactures intermediate products required for our own production such as power and carbon anode.
Our Indian aluminium operations are located in 10 states and one union territory in India, with three refineries
and two smelters that are capable of producing over 600 ktpa of aluminium.

VISION , MISSION AND VALUES


Vision
To be a premium metals major, global in size and reach, excelling in everything we do, and creating value for its
stakeholders.
Mission
To relentlessly pursue the creation of superior shareholder value, by exceeding customer expectation profitably,
unleashing employee potential, while being a responsible corporate citizen, adhering to our values.
Values
Path to excellence.
Integrity - Honesty in every action.
Commitment - On the foundation of integrity, doing whatever it takes to deliver, as promised.
Passion - Missionary zeal arising out of an emotional engagement with work.
Seamlessness - Thinking and working together across functional silos, hierarchy levels, businesses and
geographies.
Speed - Responding to stakeholders with a sense of urgency.

ALUMINIUM PROPERTIES
The major advantages of using aluminium are tied directly to its remarkable properties. Some of these
properties are outlined in the following sections.

Strength to weight ratio : Aluminium has a density around one third of that steel and is used
advantegeously in many applications where high strength and low weight are required. This included
vehicles where low mass results in greater load capacity and reduction fuel consumption.
Corrosion resistance : When the surface of aluminium metal is exposed to air, a protective oxide
coating forms almost instantaneously. This oxide layer is corrosion, resistant and can be further
enhanced with surface treatments such as anodizing.
Electrical and thermal conductivity: Aluminum is an excellent conductor of both heat and electricity.
The great advantage of aluminium is that by weight, the conductivity of aliminium is around twice that
of copper. This means that aluminium is now the most commonly used material in large power
transmission lines including domestic wiring. Weight considereation means that a large property of
overhead, high voltage power lines now use aluminum rather than copper.
Light and heat reflectivity : Aluminium is a good reflector of both visible light and heat marketing it
an ideal material for light fittings, thermal rescue blankets and architectural insulation.
Toxicity : Aluminum is not only non-toxic but also does not release any odours or taint products with
which it is in contact. This makes aluminum suitable for use in packing for sensitive products such as
food or pharmaceutical where aluminium foil is used.

Recyclability: The recyclability of aluminum is unparralleled. When recycled there is no digression in


properties when recycled aluminium is compared to virgin aluminium. Furthermore, recycling of
aluminium only require around 5% of the input energy required to produce virgin aluminium metal.
APPLICATION OF ALUMINIUM

In construction industry: The main uses are roofing and cladding and in window & doorframes, but there are
many other uses, some are as follows:

Solar panels
Window door & general application
Architectural hardware furniture
Grills
Ventilation blind
Foil insulating
Capping strip rain water guttering
Shower boxes
Casemate window
Roller shutter

In packing industries: Major applications in the fields are as follows:

Pharmaceutical packing
Tea industries
Aluminium cans for milk
Dairy products packing
Multiply laminates
Electrical power application
Collapsible tubes
Powder & chemicals
Colours
Aseptic packing
Flexible food packing

In transport industry: Aluminium alloys are used in the construction of almost all type of transport
equipment. Such as:

Aeroplane
Commercial aircraft
Passenger cars
Bus and bus shelter
Railways
Bictcles and bikes
Ship and ship building
Trucks
Light motor vehicles

In automation industry: The use of aluminium in construction of passenger cars is far from new. Examples of
parts being converted from other tradition materials to aluminium include, but are not limited to the following:

Wheels
Bumper beams
Break drum & other break components
Radiators
Cylinder heads & blocks
Stearing housing
Chryher designee engines
Doorframes, sills, steps, roof bows, ride pots.
Extrusions are used for flat truck beds, tanks, van bodies, dumpier bodies and other application.

In aviation industry : Major applications are follows:

Military & civil aircraft


Airframe construction
Aircraft gas turbines
Spacecraft & satellites
Missile & rocked components
Light aircraft
Micro light aircraft
Hang gliders, etc.

In Railways: Major applications are as follows:

Wagons
Doors
Window
Decorative frames, etc.

In Electrical Industry: Major applications are also in the following electrical fields:

Electrical components
Cabinet frame
Motor body
Light fixture
Cable core
Electronic components
Telephone parts
Transmission tower
Transmission line

In consumer durables: Major applications are also in the following fields:

Cookers
Refrigerators
Freezers
Vaccum cleaners

Washing machines
Dishwashers
Ice tray& grid
Stove top pots
Steam jacketed kettles
Gas fired kettles
A.C. Filter grill
Water filter
Furniture
Hangers

PRIMARY ALUMINIUM PRODUCTS


Ingots:
Hindalco produces high-purity ingots through smelting. Alloy ingots of various grades are also produced and
mainly used for the production of castings in the auto industry and in electrical applications. Both these
products are re-melted and further processed into a large number of products for various downstream
applications.
Hindalco metal is accepted under the high-grade aluminium contract on the London Metal Exchange (LME) as
a registered brand.
Wire rods:
Hindalco manufactures wire rods in a continuous casting and rolling process. Electrical conductor (EC) wire
rods are used for the production of cables and ACSR and AAC conductors. Alloy wire rods are used to produce
AAAC conductors.
Billets:
Hindalco's aluminium billets are produced by a state-of-the-art Wagstaff casting process using Airslip
technology. These are top-quality billets with a smooth finish. They are used mainly to produce extrusions and
forgings.

ALUMINIUM PRODUCTION PROCESS:


The 5 steps in the aluminium cycle-

Recycling

Mining

Refining

Smelting

Fabrication

Recycling: The most valuable material in the waste stream. For example, over 66 billion cans were recycled last
year and 85-95% of Aluminium inn cars is recycled. It uses 5% of the energy of producing Aluminium from ore.
Mining: Bauxite is an ore rich in Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3).
Refining: Bauxite is turned into Aluminium Oxide. First Bauxite is ground and mixed with lime and castic
soda. Then it is heated in a high-pressure container and what is left is Aluminium Oxide.
Smelting: Aluminium Oxide (Alumina) turns into Aluminium through an electrolytic reaction.

Fabrication: First Aluminium is alloyed according to requirement. Metal is added to give specific design
characteristics. It is done through different types of fabrication process which includes the:1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Casting
Rolling
Forging
Drawing
Extruding

Main plant of the company


Hindalco, at Renukoot, house a fully integrated plant, comprising of 3 main Plants i.e. the
Alumina, Smelter & Fabrication Plant. Each plant employs varying Technology. With

integrated facilities, outputs from various plants are used by others, along with varying
raw materials.
Alumina Plant
Hindalco's Alumina Plant employs the conventional Bayers process was commissioned
with an initial capacity of 40,000 MTPA which has now increased to 660,000 MTPA. The
Company has been inducting new technology from time to time and the most recent
initiative in this regard is the adoption of Alusuisse Precipitation Technology for energy
efficiency and capacity enhancement. The major raw materials for the Alumina Plant are
Bauxite, Steam and Caustic Soda. Bauxite is procured from the Company's Mines in
Jharkhand and Chhatisgarh, as well as through market purchases and requirement of
steam is met thru Cogeneration plant at Renukoot.
Aluminium Smelter
The Company's Smelter commenced operations in 1962 with 1 Potline having a capacity
of 20,000 MTPA. The smelter now has 11 Potlines with 2038 Pots installed with annual
capacity of production of 3,42,000 MT. The Smelter employs the Hall Heroult Electrolysis
Process for the extraction of Aluminium from Alumina. Basic raw materials for the
smelter are Alumina, Power, Anodes and Aluminium Fluoride. Alumina is produced by the
Company's Alumina Refinery at Renukoot, Power is made available from the Company's
Captive Power Plant at Renusagar and Cogeneration plant at Renukoot and Anodes are
produced at the Carbon Plant located in the Renukoot . Aluminium Fluoride is sourced
from the Companys JV, amongst other sources.
Fabrication Plant
The Fabrication Plant at Renukoot comprises of 4 Main Sections:

Remelt Shop
Cast House
Rolling Mills
Extrusion & Conform

The Remelt Shop houses Properzi Mills for the production of Wire rods and Feedstock to
Conform Machine.
Cast House is comprised of a state of the art Pig Ingot casting, Rolling Ingot (slab) casting
and Extrusion Billet casting facilities. Product of Pig Ingot Casting is directly sold to
customer and product of slab casting and billet casting are the feedstock to Rolling Mills
and Extrusion presses respectively.
The Company has a Hot Rolling Mill and 2 Cold Rolling Mills. The Rolling Mill facilities also
include a Continuous Strip Caster, which contributes substantially to Energy efficiency
since it eliminates numerous intermediate operations.
The Companys Extrusion presses and one Conform Machine are well supported by a wellequipped Die Shop

Products
Aluminium:
Hindalco is Asia's largest integrated primary producer of aluminium and among the most cost-efficient
producers globally. Our aluminium units across India encompass the entire gamut of operations, from
bauxite mining, alumina refining, aluminium smelting to downstream rolling, extrusions and recycling
Product Uses
Aluminium Ingots

Remelted and used in the form of Castings, Consumer Durables, Powders


& Chemicals, Redraw Rods etc.

Aluminium Billets

Supplied to Secondary Extruders for the production of Extruded Profiles

Aluminium Wirerods

Drawn to smaller Diameter for applications - largely in Conductors&


Cables.

Aluminium Sheet
Products

Transport, Electrical & Electronics, Consumer Durables,Architectural


Applications

Aluminium Extrusions

Major consumption in Architectural applications. Others include Transport,


Computer Hardware, Textile Machinery, Strategic Applications

Aluminium Foils

Packing of Food and Pharmaceuticals

BASIC INFORMATION OF ALUMINIUM :


ATOMIC NO.

13

ATOMIC MASS

26.9815 AMU

MELTING POINT

660.370C

BOILING POINT

2467.00C

CRYSTAL STRUCTURE CUBIC


DENSITY AT 293 K

2.702 g/cm3

COLOUR

SILVER

SPECIFIC HEAT

0.9 kJ/kg0C

FABRICATION PLANT LAYOUT

ROLLING MILL
In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through one or more pairs of
rolls to reduce the thickness and to make the thickness uniform. The concept is similar to the rolling of dough.
Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its
recrystallization temperature, then the process is known as hot rolling. If the temperature of the metal is below
its recrystallization temperature, the process is known as cold rolling. In terms of usage, hot rolling processes
more tonnage than any other manufacturing process, and cold rolling processes the most tonnage out of all cold
working processes
There are many types of rolling processes, including ring rolling, roll bending, roll forming, profile rolling, and
controlled rolling.
HOT ROLLING
Hot rolling is a metalworking process that occurs above the recrystallization temperature of the material. After
the grains deform during processing, they recrystallize, which maintains an equiaxed microstructure and
prevents the metal from work hardening. The starting material is usually large pieces of metal, like semifinished casting products, such as slabs, blooms, and billets. If these products came from a continuous casting
operation the products are usually fed directly into the rolling mills at the proper temperature. In smaller
operations the material starts at room temperature and must be heated. This is done in a gas- or oil-fired soaking
pit for larger workpieces and for smaller workpieces induction heating is used. As the material is worked the
temperature must be monitored to make sure it remains above the recrystallization temperature. To maintain a
safety factor a finishing temperature is defined above the recrystallization temperature; this is usually 50 to
100 C (90 to 180 F) above the recrystallization temperature. If the temperature does drop below this
temperature the material must be re-heated before more hot rolling.
Hot rolled metals generally have little directionality in their mechanical properties and deformation induced
residual stresses. However, in certain instances non-metallic inclusions will impart some directionality and
workpieces less than 20 mm (0.79 in) thick often have some directional properties. Also, non-uniform cooling
will induce a lot of residual stresses, which usually occurs in shapes that have a non-uniform cross-section, such
as I-beams. While the finished product is of good quality, the surface is covered in mill scale, which is an oxide
that forms at high temperatures. It is usually removed via pickling or the smooth clean surface process, which
reveals a smooth surface. Dimensional tolerances are usually 2 to 5% of the overall dimension

Cold rolling
Cold rolling occurs with the metal below its recrystallization temperature (usually at room temperature), which
increases the strength via strain hardening up to 20%. It also improves the surface finish and holds tighter
tolerances. Commonly cold-rolled products include sheets, strips, bars, and rods; these products are usually
smaller than the same products that are hot rolled. Because of the smaller size of the workpieces and their

greater strength, as compared to hot rolled stock, four-high or cluster mills are used. Cold rolling cannot reduce
the thickness of a workpiece as much as hot rolling in a single pass.
Cold-rolled sheets and strips come in various conditions: full-hard, half-hard, quarter-hard, and skin-rolled.
Full-hard rolling reduces the thickness by 50%, while the others involve less of a reduction. Skin-rolling, also
known as a skin-pass, involves the least amount of reduction: 0.5-1%. It is used to produce a smooth surface, a
uniform thickness.

SCHEMATIC OF A ROLLING MILL


PROCESSES:
Roll bending

Roll bending produces a cylindrical shaped product from plate.


Roll forming
Roll forming, roll bending or plate rolling is a continuous bending operation in which a long strip of metal is
passed through consecutive sets of rolls, or stands, each performing only an incremental part of the bend, until
the desired cross-section profile is obtained. Roll forming is ideal for producing parts with long lengths or in
large quantities. There are 3 main processes: 4 rollers, 3 rollers and 2 rollers, each of which has as different
advantages according to the desired specifications of the output plate.
Flat rolling

Flat rolling is the most basic form of rolling with the starting and ending material having a rectangular crosssection. The material is fed in between two rollers, called working rolls, that rotate in opposite directions. The
gap between the two rolls is less than the thickness of the starting material, which causes it to deform. The
decrease in material thickness causes the material to elongate. The friction at the interface between the material
and the rolls causes the material to be pushed through. The amount of deformation possible in a single pass is
limited by the friction between the rolls; if the change in thickness is too great the rolls just slip over the

material and do not draw it in.[1] The final product is either sheet or plate, with the former being less than 6 mm
(0.24 in) thick and the latter greater than; however, heavy plates tend to be formed using a press, which is
termed forming, rather than rolling.
Often the rolls are heated to assist in the workability of the metal. Lubrication is often used to keep the
workpiece from sticking to the rolls. To fine-tune the process, the speed of the rolls and the temperature of the
rollers are adjusted.

Foil rolling
Foil rolling is a specialized type of flat rolling, specifically used to produce foil, which is sheet metal with a
thickness less than 200 m (0.0079 in). The rolling is done in a cluster mill because the small thickness requires
a small diameter rolls. To reduce the need for small rolls pack rolling is used, which rolls multiple sheets
together to increase the effective starting thickness. As the foil sheets come through the rollers, they are trimmed
and slitted with circular or razor-like knives. Trimming refers to the edges of the foil, while slitting involves
cutting it into several sheets. Aluminum foil is the most commonly produced product via pack rolling. This is
evident from the two different surface finishes; the shiny side is on the roll side and the dull side is against the
other sheet of foil.

Ring rolling
Ring rolling is a specialized type of hot rolling that increases the diameter of a ring. The starting material is a
thick-walled ring. This workpiece is placed between two rolls an idler roll, while another roll, called the driven
roll, presses the ring from the outside. As the rolling occurs the wall thickness decreases as the diameter
increases. The rolls may be shaped to form various cross-sectional shapes. The resulting grain structure is
circumferential, which gives better mechanical properties. Diameters can be as large as 8 m (26 ft) and face
heights as tall as 2 m (79 in). Common applications include rockets, turbines, airplanes, pipes, and pressure
vessels.

A rolling mill, also known as a reduction mill or mill, has a common construction independent of the specific
type of rolling being performed.

Work rolls

Backup rolls - are intended to provide rigid support required by the working rolls to prevent bending
under the rolling load

Rolling balance system - to ensure that the upper work and back up rolls are maintained in proper
position relative to lower rolls

Roll changing devices - use of an overhead crane and a unit designed to attach to the neck of the roll to
be removed from or inserted into the mill.

Mill protection devices - to ensure that forces applied to the backup roll chocks are not of such a
magnitude to fracture the roll necks or damage the mill housing

Roll cooling and lubrication systems

Pinions - gears to divide power between the two spindles, rotating them at the same speed but in
different directions

Gearing - to establish desired rolling speed

Drive motors - rolling narrow foil product to thousands of horsepower

Electrical controls - constant and variable voltages applied to the motors

Coilers and uncoilers - to unroll and roll up coils of metal

Slabs are the feed material for hot strip mills or plate mills and blooms are rolled to billets in a billet mill or
large sections in a structural mill. The output from a strip mill is coiled and, subsequently, used as the feed for a
cold rolling mill or used directly by fabricators. Billets, for re-rolling, are subsequently rolled in either a
merchant, bar or rod mill. Merchant or bar mills produce a variety of shaped products such as angles, channels,
beams, rounds (long or coiled) and hexagons.

CONFIGURATIONS:
Mills are designed in different types of configurations, with the most basic being a two-high non-reversing,
which means there are two rolls that only turn in one direction. The two-high reversing mill has rolls that can
rotate in both directions, but the disadvantage is that the rolls must be stopped, reversed, and then brought back
up to rolling speed between each pass. To resolve this, the three-high mill was invented, which uses three rolls
that rotate in one direction; the metal is fed through two of the rolls and then returned through the other pair.
The disadvantage to this system is the workpiece must be lifted and lowered using an elevator. All of these mills
are usually used for primary rolling and the roll diameters range from 60 to 140 cm (24 to 55 in).
To minimize the roll diameter a four-high or cluster mill is used. A small roll diameter is advantageous because
less roll is in contact with the material, which results in a lower force and power requirement. The problem with
a small roll is a reduction of stiffness, which is overcome using backup rolls. These backup rolls are larger and
contact the back side of the smaller rolls. A four-high mill has four rolls, two small and two large. A cluster mill
has more than 4 rolls, usually in three tiers. These types of mills are commonly used to hot roll wide plates,
most cold rolling applications, and to roll foils.

Various rolling configurations. Key:

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

2-high
3-high
4-high
6-high
12-high cluster
20-high Sendzimir Mill cluster

Defects
In hot rolling, if the temperature of the workpiece is not uniform the flow of the material will occur more in the
warmer parts and less in the cooler. If the temperature difference is great enough cracking and tearing can occur.
Flatness and Shape

In a flat metal workpiece, the flatness is a descriptive attribute characterizing the extent of the geometric
deviation from a reference plane. The deviation from complete flatness is the direct result of the workpiece
relaxation after hot or cold rolling, due to the internal stress pattern caused by the non-uniform transversal
compressive action of the rolls and the uneven geometrical properties of the entry material. The transverse
distribution of differential strain/elongation-induced stress with respect to the material's average applied stress is
commonly referenced to as shape. Due to the strict relationship between shape and flatness, these terms can be
used in an interchangeable manner. In the case of metal strips and sheets, the flatness reflects the differential
fiber elongation across the width of the workpiece. This property must be subject to an accurate feedback-based
control in order to guarantee the machinability of the metal sheets in the final transformation processes. Some
technological details about the feedback control of flatness are given in.[21]

Profile

Profile is made up of the measurements of crown and wedge. Crown is the thickness in the center as compared
to the average thickness at the edges of the workpiece. Wedge is a measure of the thickness at one edge as
opposed to the other edge. Both may be expressed as absolute measurements or as relative measurements. For
instance, one could have 2 mil of crown (the center of the workpiece is 2 mil thicker than the edges), or one
could have 2% crown (the center of the workpiece is 2% thicker than the edges).
It is typically desirable to have some crown in the workpiece as this will cause the workpiece to tend to pull to
the center of the mill, and thus will run with higher stability.
Flatness:

Roll deflection

Maintaining a uniform gap between the rolls is difficult because the rolls deflect under the load required to
deform the workpiece. The deflection causes the workpiece to be thinner on the edges and thicker in the middle.
This can be overcome by using a crowned roller (parabolic crown), however the crowned roller will only
compensate for one set of conditions, specifically the material, temperature, and amount of deformation.[11]
Other methods of compensating for roll deformation include continual varying crown (CVC), pair cross rolling,
and work roll bending. CVC was developed by SMS-Siemag AG and involves grinding a third order
polynomial curve into the work rolls and then shifting the work rolls laterally, equally, and opposite to each
other. The effect is that the rolls will have a gap between them that is parabolic in shape, and will vary with
lateral shift, thus allowing for control of the crown of the rolls dynamically. Pair cross rolling involves using
either flat or parabolically crowned rolls, but shifting the ends at an angle so that the gap between the edges of
the rolls will increase or decrease, thus allowing for dynamic crown control. Work roll bending involves using
hydraulic cylinders at the ends of the rolls to counteract roll deflection.
The different classifications for flatness defects are:

Symmetrical edge wave - the edges on both sides of the workpiece are "wavy" due to the material at the
edges being longer than the material in the center.

Asymmetrical edge wave - one edge is "wavy" due to the material at one side being longer than the other
side.

Center buckle - The center of the strip is "wavy" due to the strip in the center being longer than the strip
at the edges.

Quarter buckle - This is a rare defect where the fibers are elongated in the quarter regions (the portion of
the strip between the center and the edge). This is normally attributed to using excessive roll bending
force since the bending force may not compensate for the roll deflection across the entire length of the
roll.

It is important to note that one could have a flatness defect even with the workpiece having the same thickness
across the width. Also, one could have fairly high crown or wedge, but still produce material that is flat. In order
to produce flat material, the material must be reduced by the same percentage across the width. This is
important because mass flow of the material must be preserved, and the more a material is reduced, the more it
is elongated. If a material is elongated in the same manner across the width, then the flatness coming into the
mill will be preserved at the exit of the mill.

Draft
The difference between the thickness of initial and rolled metal piece is called Draft. Thus if t0 is initial
thickness and tf is final thickness, then the draft d is given by

The maximum draft that can be achieved via rollers of radius R with coefficient of static friction f between the
roller and the metal surface is given by

This is the case when the frictional force on the metal from inlet contact matches the negative force from the
exit contact.

Surface defects
There are six types of surface defects:

Lap : This type of defect occurs when a corner or fin is folded over and rolled but not welded into the
metal. They appear as seams across the surface of the metal.
Mill-shearing These defects occur as a feather-like lap.
Rolled-in scale This occurs when mill scale is rolled into metal.

Scabs :These are long patches of loose metal that have been rolled into the surface of the metal.
Seams They are open, broken lines that run along the length of the metal and caused by the presence of
scale as well as due to pass roughness of Roughing mill.
Slivers Prominent surface ruptures.

PROCESS FLOW CHART OF HOT ROLLING MILL

SLABS
FROM
SOAKING
PIT

ENTRY
TABLE

ENTRY
PINCH
ROLL

WORK
ROLL

ENTRY
PINCH
ROLL

HR PLATES
FOR P/SAW

HR COILS
FOR COLD
MILL

35 MM
SHEAR

EXIT
COILER

50 MM
SHEAR

ENTRY
COILER

DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUIPMENT


BLISS HOT MILL
MAKE / MODERNIZED

BLISS DAVY/SIEMENS

MILL TYPE

SINGLE STAND REV

MATERIAL

ALUMINIUM AND ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

ROLLING LOAD

1600 MT (MAX)

ROLLING SPEED

161 MPM (MAX)

WORK ROLL DIA

812.8 MM- 749.3 MM

SLAB LENGTH

2200 MM -4700 MM

SLAB WIDTH

914 MM- 1320 MM

SLAB THICKNESS

330 MM (MAX)

COIL/PLATE THICKNESS

4 - 9.5 MM / 7.5 200 MM

COIL WT.

5000 KG (MAX)

DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUIPMENT


DAVY COLD MILL
MAKE

DAVY U.K.

INPUT MATERIAL

HOT ROLLED & CASTER AL COILS

COIL WIDTH

914-1650 MM

COIL ID

500 MM (INPUT & OUTPUT)

COIL THICKNESS

0.16 6.50 MM

COIL WEIGHT

10000 KG (MAX)

MAXIMUM INPUT THICK

9.30 MM (MAX)

ROLLING SPEED

400 MPM (LOW GEAR)

MILL MOTORS

1200 MPM (HIGH GEAR) DC MOTORS (2X1200 KWH)

ROLLING MEDIA (COOLANT)

HNP OIL (HIGH NORMAL PARAFFINS)

PROCESS FLOW CHART OF COLD ROLLING MILL

HR COILS
FROM HOT
MILLS
ENTRY
SADDLE

ENTRY
COIL CAR

IA COILS
FROM
ANNEALING
FURNACES

LOADING
JACK

ENTRY
COIL
GRAB

UNCOILE
R
EXIT COIL
GRAB

COILER

UNLOADIN
G JACK

EXIT COIL
CAR

WORK
ROLL

EXIT
SADDLE
IA COILS
FOR
ANNEALING
FURNACE

BRIDDLE
ROLL

FL COILS
FOR
FINISHING
LINES

EXTRUSION PRESS
WHAT IS EXTRUSION
In general, extrusion is the process of giving the desired shape to a block of metal. It is a plastic deformation
process in which a block of metal (billet) is forced to flow by compression through the die opening of smaller
cross-sectional area than that of original billet. The extruded product takes the same shape and size, as that of
die.

Fig : Definition and principle of extrusion


Extrusion is an indirect-compression process. Indirect-compressive forces are developed by the reaction of the
workpiece (billet) with the container and die; these forces reach high values. The reaction of the billet with the
container and die results in high compressive stresses that are effective in reducing the cracking of the billet
material during primary breakdown from the billet. Extrusion is the best method for breaking down the cast
structure of the billet because the billet is subjected to compressive forces only. Extrusion can be cold or hot,

depending on the alloy and the method used. In hot extrusion, the billet is preheated to facilitate plastic
deformation.

CLASSIFICATION OF EXTRUSION:
1) Depending on temperature: (a) Hot extrusion
(b) Cold extrusion
extrusion, the billet is pre-heated to facilitate plastic deformation.
2) Depending on flow: (a) Direct extrusion

In hot

(b) Indirect extrusion

DIRECT EXTRUSION :
The most important and common method used in aluminum extrusion is the direct process. Figure shows the
principle of direct extrusion where the billet is placed in the container and pushed through the die by the ram
pressure. Direct extrusion finds application in the manufacture of solid rods, bars, hollow tubes, and hollow and
solid sections according to the design and shape of the die. In direct extrusion, the direction of metal flow will
be in the same direction as ram travel. During this process, the billet slides relative to the walls of the container.
The resulting frictional force increases the ram pressure considerably. During direct extrusion, the load or
pressure-displacement curve most commonly has the form shown in Fig. Traditionally, the process has been
described as having three distinct regions:
1) The billet is upset, and pressure rises rapidly to its peak value.
2) The pressure decreases, and what is termed steady state extrusion proceeds.
3) The pressure reaches its minimum value followed by a sharp rise as the discard is
compacted.In HINDALCO Direct-Hot extrusion is employed.

Variation of load or pressure with ram travel for both direct and indirect extrusion process

INDRIECT EXTRUSION :
In indirect extrusion, the die at the front end of the hollow stem moves relative to the container, but there is no
relative displacement between the billet and the container as shown in Fig.6. Therefore, this process is
characterized by the absence of friction between the billet surface and the container, and there is no
displacement of the billet center relative to the peripheral regions. The variation of load or pressure with the ram
travel during both direct and indirect extrusion processes is shown in Fig. above.

Fig : Indirect Extrusion Process

TERMINOLGY IN EXTRUSION:
1) Extrusion Ratio: It is defined as the ratio of area container to the finial area of extruded product.
Extrusion ratio= Ac /Ae
Where,
Ac = Area of container
2) Die
product.

Factor:

It

is

the

Ae = Area of extrusion
ratio

of

die

perimeter

Die factor = die perimeter/ (kg/meter)

to

kg

per

meter

of

die

or

extruded

Criticality of die depends on die factor. As the die factor increases, criticality of section increases.

The properties of the extruded aluminum shapes are affected greatly by the way in which the metal flows during
extrusion. The metal flow is influenced by many factors:

Type of extrusion, direct or indirect


Press capacity and size and shape of container
Frictional effects at the die or both container and die
Type, layout, and design of die
The length of billet and type of alloy
The temperature of the billet and container
The extrusion ratio
Die and tooling temperature
Speed of extrusion

Type, layout, and design of the die might change the mechanical working of the billet material during extrusion.
Hollow dies perform much more mechanical work on the material than simple-shape solid dies do.

PRINCIPAL VARIABLES :

The principal variables that influence the force required to cause extrusion and the quality of material exiting
from the die are as follows:
Extrusion ratio
Working temperature
Speed of deformation

Alloy flow stress

Fig: Effect of principle variables on extrusion

ISOTHERMAL TEMPERATURE
The exit temperature can vary during extrusion with a constant ram speed due to mechanics and
thermodynamics of deformation processes. A temperature increase toward the beginning and the end of
extrusion is observed for a given billet and container under different extrusion conditions, such as ram speed,
die parameters, and alloy characteristics. This change of temperature during extrusion is in full agreement with
many theoretical calculations. Extrusion with a constant exit temperature is referred to as isothermal extrusion
and has practical interests for achieving a uniform product quality and higher productivity.
The practicalandeconomicalvalueofisothermalextrusionisthat,exceptat the very beginning, it allows the use of
the optimum extrusion speed over the complete extrusion cycle. On the other hand, if the exit temperature
varies during extrusion by an unknown amount, the press speed is usually adjusted in accordance with the
maximum prevailing temperature.
In the case of a continually increasing exit temperature of aluminum alloy extrusion, isothermal extrusion can
be carried out in the following ways:

Reducing the exit speed during the extrusion according to the measured exit temperature. This requires
continuous temperature measurement.
Reducing the extrusion speed according to a preselected speed program. On a modern press, the ram
displacement can be divided into steps of varying lengths, each with a programmed speed.
Non uniform heating of the billet to give a lower temperature at the back of the billet. This is known as
taper heating and can be achieved by induction heating with suitable coil connections or by using
additional burners, which transfer more heat to the front of the billet than to the rear, in gas furnaces.
Another method is to heat the billet uniformly, and then quench the back end with a water spray as the
billet is transferred from the furnace to the container.

The most common industrial methods of isothermal extrusion of aluminum alloys are the following:

Taper heating or taper quenching billet prior to feeding into the container
Direct measurement of the extrusion temperature using noncontact system and a feedback between
measured temperature and the extrusion ram speed

Principle and Benefits of Isothermal Extrusion:


The principle of isothermal extrusion as shown in Fig. 12 is to get constant extrusion temperature for a set of
input variables, including billet length, initial billet temperature, extrusion ratio, and ram speed. The benefits of
isothermal process in direct extrusion are quite significant:

Improved dimensional stability


Uniform surface quality
Improved or consistent mechanical properties with uniform microstructure
Faster extrusion speed to increase productivity
Better air venting through the container, reduced breakthrough pressure, and so on

Temper
Temper is the combination of aluminum hardness and strength produced by mechanical and/or thermal
treatments. The measures used to test mechanical properties of aluminum are tensile, yield, and elongation.
Tensile is an indication of the maximum pulling load that a material can stand without failure, usually measured
in pounds per square inch of cross-sectional area. Yield is the stress at which a material first exhibits a specific
permanent set. Elongation is the maximum percentage of stretch a material will stand before breaking. A
defined range of alloy and temper properties must be met in order to satisfy certificate of compliance
requirements.
Rockwell Hardness is an indentation hardness test based on the penetration depth of a specified penetrator into
a specimen under certain fixed conditions.
Webster is a relative indicator of hardness but does not guarantee certificate of compliance requirements.
BILLET PROCESS EFFICIENCIES

DIE TYPES

EXTRUSION DIES

SOLID OR FLAT FACES DIES


SOLID DIE

HOLLOW DIE

HOLLOW DIE

BEARING SURFACES
CONTROL MATERIAL FLOW

DIE STACK

BILLET PROCESS EFFICIENCIES

EXTRUSION PRESS SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM :

Parts of the Press

Understanding how an extrusion press works requires identifying the press parts and explaining their use. An
extrusion press is made up of a front platen and back platen held together by four tie rods. The parts of the press
that actually make the extrusion are as follows:
Main Cylinder- Chamber and cylinder of an extrusion press into which hydraulic fluid is pumped to
generate the desired ram pressure and movement.
Hydraulic Pressure- Pressure used to move the ram forward at the required Pounds Per Square Inch.
Ram- A steel rod attached to the main cylinder with a dummy block on the end that enters the container
and applies pressure to the billet.
Dummy Block- A tight fitting steel block attached to the ram stem on a press which seals the billet in
the container and prevents metal from leaking backward.
Billet- Aluminum log cut to specific lengths which are fed into the press as extrusion materials.
Container- Chamber in an extrusion press which holds the billet as it is pushed through a die at one end
while under pressure from a dummy block and ram entering at the other end. The container resides in the
container housing. All containers are lined with a liner which holds the billet in place while it is being
extruded.
Tool Stack (Die Assembly)- solid: die ring, die, backer, bolster, and sub-bolster (Sub-bolsters are not
used in Carthage or Newnan). Hollow: die ring, die mandrel, die cap, bolster, sub-bolster
Die Holder- Container of the tool stack.
Die Lock- Locks the die into the die holder.
Log Oven/ Billet Oven- Press component used to heat the logs/ billets to extrusion temperature. Presses
equipped with log shears have log ovens; others have billet ovens.
Log Shear- Used for cutting logs to desired billet lengths (only on presses with log ovens).
Butt Shear- Shears off the unextruded portion of the billet (butt) remaining in the container after the
extrusion cycle is completed. The butt is where oxides are located after the ram has pushed the billet
through the container.
Die Oven- Oven where dies are heated to 750 - 900 F for 4-6 hours before being used.
Cradle- holds the billet while it is being pushed into the extrusion press by the pressure from the ram.
Press Leadout Table- Table which supports extrusion between the die and run out table.
Run Out Table- Table at immediate exit of press leadout equipment which helps guide and support
extrusions.

Back/Front Press Platen- The extrusion press consists of these two sections.
Tie Rods- Connects the back and front press platen.
Canister- used to help guide the aluminum extrusions from the die. It has the same number of holes as
the die itself and can be used on all presses. Newnan is moving away from using them because they are
costly and hard to handle.
Platen Pressure Ring- A hardened tool steel ring inserted into the platen to support the die stack.
Pressure applied by the main cylinder to the ring causes stress and wear resulting in a need for periodic
replacement.

Steps in the aluminum extrusion process


1. Billets must be heated to approximately 800-925 F.
2. After a billet reaches the desired temperature, it is transferred to the loader where a thin film of smut or
lubricant is added to the billet and to the ram. The smut acts as a parting agent (lubricant) which keeps
the two parts from sticking together.
3. The billet is transferred to the cradle.
4. The ram applies pressure to the dummy block which, in turn, pushes the billet until it is inside the
container.
5. Under pressure the billet is crushed against the die, becoming shorter and wider until it has full contact
with the container walls. While the aluminum is pushed through the die, liquid nitrogen flows around
some sections of the die to cool it. This increases the life of the die and creates an inert atmosphere
which keeps oxides from forming on the shape being extruded. In some cases nitrogen gas is used in
place of liquid nitrogen. Nitrogen gas does not cool the die but does create an inert atmosphere.
6. As a result of the pressure added to the billet, the soft but solid metal begins to squeeze through the die
opening.
7. As an extrusion exits the press, the temperature is taken with a True Temperature Technology (3T)
instrument mounted on the press platen. The 3T records exit temperature of the aluminum extrusion. The
main purpose of knowing the temperature is to maintain maximum press speeds. The target exit
temperature for an extrusion is dependent upon the alloy. For example, the target exit temperature for the
alloys 6063, 6463, 6063A, and 6101 is 930 F (minimum). The target exit temperature for the alloys
6005A, and 6061 is 950 F (minimum).
8. Extrusions are pushed out of the die to the leadout table and the puller, which guides metal down the
run-out table during extrusion. While being pulled, the extrusion is cooled by a series of fans along the

entire length of the run-out and cooling table. (Note: Alloy 6061 is water quenched as well as air
quenched.)
9. Not all of the billet can be used. The remainder (butt) contains oxides from the billet skin. The butt is
sheared off and discarded while another billet is loaded and welded to a previously loaded billet and the
extrusion process continues.
10. When the extrusion reaches a desired length, the extrusion is cut with a profile saw or a shear.
11. Metal is transferred (via belt or walking beams systems) from the run-out table to the cooling table.
12. After the aluminum has cooled and moved along the cooling table, it is then moved to the stretcher.
Stretching straightens the extrusions and performs 'work hardening' (molecular re-alignment which gives
aluminum increased hardness and improved strength).
13. The next step is sawing. After extrusions have been stretched they are transferred to a saw table and cut
to specific lengths. The cutting tolerance on saws is 1/8 inch or greater, depending on saw length.
After the parts have been cut, they are loaded on a transportation device and moved into age ovens. Heattreating or artificial aging hardens the metal by speeding the aging process in a controlled temperature
environment for a set amount of time.

DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUIPMENT


EXTRUSION PRESS #8
YEAR OF INSTALLATION :

2013

MAKE

HYDRAULIK DUISBURG 1972

BILLET SIZE

11.4/13.4 INCH X 1400 MM

NO. OF MAIN PUMPS

5 NOS. HIGH PRESSURE VARIABLE FLOW

WORKING PRESSURE

210 BARS

QUENCHING

CONTROLLED (WATER, AIR AND MIST)

PULLER

STRETCHER CAPACITY

DOUBLE PULLER FLYING CUT


:

250 MT

RUN OUT LENGTH

45 METER

BILLET HEATER

GAS FIRED TYPE

OIL USE

SERVO SYSTEM VG 100

FINISH CUT

2 METER 13.5 METER WITH AUTO STACKER

DESCRIPTION OF THE EQUIPMENT


EXTRUSION PRESS #7
YEAR OF INSTALLATION :

OCT 2013

MAKE

GIA CLECIM PRESS

TYPE

COMPACT FRONT LOADING LEFT HAND PRESS

CAPACITY

2500 MT

BILLET SIZE

8 INCH X 1050 MM

NO. OF MAIN PUMPS

3 NOS. HIGH PRESSURE VARIABLE FLOW

WORKING PRESSURE

300 BARS

QUENCHING

CONTROLLED (WATER, AIR AND MIST)

PULLER

STRETCHER CAPACITY

DOUBLE PULLER FLYING CUT


:

100 MT

RUN OUT LENGTH

45 METER

BILLET HEATER

INDUCTION TYPE

OIL USE

SERVO SYSTEM VG 100

FINISH CUT

0.5 METER 13 METER WITH AUTO STACKER

TERMINOLOGIES IN OPERATION:
1) Specific Pressure: This is the pressure inside the container. It is defined as unit
pressure i.e. force per unit container area. As the container bore increases, the specific
pressure inside the container decreases, and as a result, extrusion capability decreases.
2) Up-Setting: Whenever a hot billet going to extrude, first it takes the shape same as
that of container by the ram pressure.
3) Break-Through: after upsetting of billet, ram continues to pressurize the billet.
Break-through pressure is that pressure at which shear deformation or intermetallic
deformation of billet metal starts.
4) Dead Cycle Time: It is defined as non-productive time, in which extrusion of metal
does not take place.
5) Burp Cycle: The burp cycle is used with bridge, porthole and sometimes-flat dies. It
does not affect the basic cycle except to interrupt it for a short period. The purpose of
burp cycle is to release trapped air at the die face. Otherwise, extrusion defects like
blisters etc may take place.
6) Dry cycle: The press cycle without the billet is known as dry cycle. This is done for
testing of press.
7) End Slow Stroke: At the end of extrusion, we slow down the speed of ram and
hence extrusion. The main reason is that, during extrusion, when billet length becomes
shorter, the pressure increases on die. So, there may be chances of breaking of die or
cracking of extruded product. This phenomenon generally happens with harder alloy. So,
we decide and feed the length of billet in PLC, from which we need to slow down the
extrusion speed.
Billet Temperature Range:
Al Alloy Group
1XXX
2XXX
3XXX
4XXX
5XXX

Billet
Temperature Details
0
Range ( C)
450-450
99% PURE ALUMINIUM
450-470
COPPER
440-470
Mn
440-470
Si
460-500
Mg

6XXX
7XXX

440-500
460-490

Mn & Mg
--

APPLICATION OF MAJOR ALLOYS:

1XXX
2XXX
4XXX
5XXX
6XXX
7XXX

Electrical Conductors, Cables etc.


High Stressed Components, Aircrafts etc.
Welding Wire.
Structure Exposed to marine atmosphere, Wire ropes etc.
Structural and general Engg. Items, Electrical Bus Car etc.
Very High strength structure used in defence.

Aging:
To get the required mechanical properties of the material, aging is done. It is the process
of heating and soaking the material to the required length of time. Whenever a customer
needs the material designated with T6 and T6-2, which means they require the material
with good hardness and hardness with bending property respectively, so the material
must undergone through aging.
The following designation is adopted for some material in our plant:
R1- aging at 217C for 11 hours, coundutivity-56.5%
R2- aging at 211C for 10 hours, coundutivity-55%

EXTRUSION PROCESS SCRAP :


Butt Scrap :

3% to 5%

End Scrap :

10% to 15%

MAJOR EXTRUSION DEFECTS :

Off Dimension
Scratches, Dent etc.
Blister
Die Lining
Bend and Kink
Orange Peel
Co-ring or Piping
Chatter
Failure of the Mechanical properties

Hydraulic Cylinder:

A Hydraulic cylinder (also called a linear hydraulic motor) is a mechanical actuator that is
used to give a unidirectional force through a unidirectional stroke.
Hydraulic cylinders get their power from pressurized hydraulic fluid, which is typically oil.
The hydraulic cylinder consists of a cylinder barrel, in which a piston connected to a
piston rod moves back and forth. The barrel is closed on each end by the cylinder bottom
( also called the cap end ) and by the cylinder head where the piston rod comes out of
the cylinder. The piston has sliding rings and seals. The piston divides the inside of the
cylinder in two chambers, the bottom chamber (cap end) and the piston rod side
chamber ( rod end ). The hydraulic pressure acts on the piston to do linear work and
motion.
Flanges, trunnions, and/or clevisses are mounted to the cylinder body. The piston rod
also has mounting attachments to connect the cylinder to the object or machine
component that it is pushing.
A hydraulic cylinder is the actuator or "motor" side of this system. The "generator" side
of the hydraulic system is the hydraulic pump which brings in a fixed or regulated flow of
oil to the bottom side of the hydraulic cylinder, to move the piston rod upwards. The
piston pushes the oil in the other chamber back to the reservoir. If we assume that the oil
pressure in the piston rod chamber is approximately zero, the force F on the piston rod
equals the pressure P in the cylinder times the piston area A:

FIG: SCHEMATIC VIEW OF A HYDRAULIC CYLINDER


Types of cylinders :

Standard Double-Acting Cylinder


Single-Acting Cylinder
Double Rod Cylinder
Spring Return, Single-Acting Cylinder
Ram Type, Single-Acting Cylinder
Telescoping Cylinder
Tandem Cylinder

Parts of a hydraulic cylinder

A hydraulic cylinder consists of the following parts

Cylinder barrel: The cylinder barrel is mostly a seamless thick walled forged pipe
that must be machined internally. The cylinder barrel is ground and/or honed
internally.

Cylinder base or cap: In most hydraulic cylinders, the barrel and the bottom
portion are welded together. This can damage the inside of the barrel if done
poorly. Therefore, some cylinder designs have a screwed or flanged connection
from the cylinder end cap to the barrel. (See "Tie rod cylinder", below) In this type
the barrel can be disassembled and repaired.
Cylinder head: The cylinder head is sometimes connected to the barrel with a
sort of a simple lock (for simple cylinders). In general, however, the connection is
screwed or flanged. Flange connections are the best, but also the most expensive.
A flange has to be welded to the pipe before machining. The advantage is that the
connection is bolted and always simple to remove. For larger cylinder sizes, the
disconnection of a screw with a diameter of 300 to 600 mm is a huge problem as
well as the alignment during mounting.

Piston: The piston is a short, cylindrical metal component that separates the two
parts of the cylinder barrel internally. The piston is usually machined with grooves
to fit elastomeric or metal seals. These seals are often O-ring, U-cups or cast iron
rings. They prevent the pressurized hydraulic oil from passing by the piston to the
chamber on the opposite side. This difference in pressure between the two sides of
the piston causes the cylinder to extend and retract. Piston seals vary in design
and material according to the pressure and temperature requirements that the
cylinder will see in service. Generally speaking, elastomeric seals made from nitrile
rubber or other materials are best in lower temperature environments, while seals
made of Viton are better for higher temperatures. The best seals for high
temperature are cast iron piston rings.

Piston rod: The piston rod is typically a hard chrome-plated piece of cold-rolled
steel which attaches to the piston and extends from the cylinder through the rodend head. In double rod-end cylinders, the actuator has a rod extending from both
sides of the piston and out both ends of the barrel. The piston rod connects the
hydraulic actuator to the machine component doing the work. This connection can
be in the form of a machine thread or a mounting attachment, such as a rod-clevis
or rod-eye. These mounting attachments can be threaded or welded to the piston
rod or, in some cases, they are a machined part of the rod-end.

Rod gland: The cylinder head is fitted with seals to prevent the pressurized oil
from leaking past the interface between the rod and the head. This area is called
the rod gland. It often has another seal called a rod wiper which prevents
contaminants from entering the cylinder when the extended rod retracts back into
the cylinder. The rod gland also has a rod wear ring. This wear ring acts as a liner

bearing to support the weight of the piston rod and guides it as it passes back and
forth through the rod gland. In some cases, especially in small hydraulic cylinders,
the rod gland and the rod wear ring are made from a single integral machined part.

Other parts:
1) Cylinder base connection
2) Seals
3) Cushions

AIM : TO DETERMINE THE WORKING CONDITIONS OF FURNACE FOR PROPANE GAS


WHEN CONDITIONS FOR METHANE GAS IS GIVEN
Gaseous Fuel :
Gas fuels are the most convenient because they require the least amount of handling and are used in the simplest
and most maintenance-free burner systems. Gas is delivered "on tap" via a distribution network and so is suited
for areas with a high population or industrial density. However, large individual consumers do have gasholders
and some produce their own gas.

Types of gaseous fuel


The following is a list of the types of gaseous fuel:

Fuels naturally found in nature:

Natural gas
Methane from coal mines

Fuel gases made from solid fuel

Gases derived from coal


Gases derived from waste and biomass
From other industrial processes (blast furnace gas)

Gases made from petroleum

Liquefied Petroleum gas (LPG)


Refinery gases
Gases from oil gasification Gases from some fermentation process

Properties of gaseous fuels


Since most gas combustion appliances cannot utilize the heat content of the water vapour, gross calorific value
is of little interest. Fuel should be compared based on the net calorific value. This is especially true for natural
gas, since increased hydrogen content results in high water formation during combustion.

Table : Typical physical and chemical properties of various gaseous fuels


FUEL
GAS

RELATIVE HIGHER
DENSITY
HEATING
VALUE
kcal/Nm3
NATURAL 0.6
9350
GAS
PROPANE 1.52
22200
BUTANE
1.96
28500

AIR/FUEL
FLAME
3
RATIO m of TEMP.
air to m3 of 0C
fuel
10.71
1954

FLAME
SPEED m/s

IGNITIO
N TEMP
0
C

0.290-

482-632

25
32

0.460
0.870

493-604
482-538

1967
1973

CALORIFIC VALUE:
The calorific value is the measurement of heat or energy produced, and is measured either as gross calorific
value or net calorific value. The difference is determined by the latent heat of condensation of the water vapour
produced during the combustion process. Gross calorific value (GCV) assumes all vapour produced during the
combustion process is fully condensed. Net calorific value (NCV) assumes the water leaves with the
combustion products without fully being condensed. Fuels should be compared based on the net calorific value.

Combustion : Principle of Combustion: Combustion refers to the rapid oxidation of fuel


accompanied by the production of heat, or heat and light. Complete combustion of a
fuel is possible only in the presence of an adequate supply of oxygen. Oxygen (O2) is
one of the most common elements on earth making up 20.9% of our air. Rapid fuel
oxidation results in large amounts of heat. Solid or liquid fuels must be changed to a gas
before they will burn. Usually heat is required to change liquids or solids into gases.
Fuel gases will burn in their normal state if enough air is present.
Most of the 79% of air (that is not oxygen) is nitrogen, with traces of other elements.
Nitrogen is considered to be a temperature reducing dilutant that must be present to
obtain the oxygen required for combustion.
Nitrogen reduces combustion efficiency by absorbing heat from the combustion of fuels
and diluting the flue gases. This reduces the heat available for transfer through the heat
exchange surfaces. It also increases the volume of combustion by-products, which then

have to travel through the heat exchanger and up the stack faster to allow the
introduction of additional fuel air mixture.
This nitrogen also can combine with oxygen (particularly at high flame temperatures) to
produce oxides of nitrogen (NOx), which are toxic pollutants. Carbon, hydrogen and
sulphur in the fuel combine with oxygen in the air to form carbon dioxide, water vapour
and sulphur dioxide, releasing 8084 kcals, 28922 kcals & 2224 kcals of heat respectively.
Under certain conditions, Carbon may also combine with Oxygen to form Carbon
Monoxide, which results in the release of a smaller quantity of heat (2430 kcals/kg of
carbon) Carbon burned to CO2 will produce more heat per pound of fuel than when CO or
smoke are produced.
C
+ O2 CO 2
+ 8084 kCals/kg of Carbon
2C + O2 2 CO
+ 2430 kCals/kg of Carbon
2H 2 + O2 2H2O + 28,922 kCals/kg of Hydrogen
S
+ O2 SO2
+ 2,224 kCals/kg of Sulphur
Each kilogram of CO formed means a loss of 5654 kCal of heat.(8084-2430).
3 Ts of Combustion The objective of good combustion is to release all of the heat in
the fuel. This is accomplished by controlling the "three T's" of combustion which are
1) Temperature high enough to ignite and maintain ignition of the fuel,
2) Turbulence or intimate mixing of the fuel and oxygen, and
3) Time sufficient for complete combustion.
Commonly used fuels like natural gas and propane generally consist of carbon and
hydrogen. Water vapor is a by-product of burning hydrogen. This robs heat from the flue
gases, which would otherwise be available for more heat transfer. Natural gas contains
more hydrogen and less carbon per kg than fuel oils and as such produces more water
vapor. Consequently, more heat will be carried away by exhaust while firing natural gas.
Too much, or too little fuel with the available combustion air may potentially result in
unburned fuel and carbon monoxide generation. A very specific amount of O2 is needed
for perfect combustion and some additional (excess) air is required for ensuring
complete combustion. However, too much excess air will result in heat and efficiency
losses.

Waste Heat Recovery


Waste heat recovery systems extract energy from furnace exhaust gases and recycle it back into the process.
Significant efficiency improvements can be achieved by using the recovered heat to preheat the combustion air
or charge material, generate steam, heat water, or supply heat to other processes. Recuperators are generally
used to recover heat from clean flue gases (as in aluminum reheating or heat treating furnaces), whereas
regenerators with ceramic heat transfer media are used with flue gases containing contaminants (as in aluminum
melters).
1) Preheat combustion air Waste heat recovery devices (whether regenerative burners or recuperators)
placed in the flue gas outlet or exhaust stack can extract a large portion of the thermal energy in flue
gases and transfer it to the incoming combustion air. Processes operating above 1,400 F are generally
good candidates for combustion air preheating, although it may also be used cost-effectively in
processes with temperatures as low as 1,000 F.
2) Preheat the charge/load. Transferring heat from high-temperature exhaust gases to the relatively cool
incoming load can reduce the energy required in the furnace and lower the energy that escapes in the
exhaust gases. Heat from furnace flue gases can be used to dry the charge and preheat the load for
melting furnaces or to preheat the load for heating and heat treating furnaces.
3) Cascade waste heat. The heat from exhaust gases can be used as a source of heat for lower temperature
process heating equipment. For example, waste heat boilers can use the thermal energy from flue gases
to generate hot water or steam. Waste heat from heattreating furnaces can also be used in aging or paintdrying ovens. To maximize benefits of the heat recovery, the downstream heating equipment must be in
operation while the furnace is operating
SOME EQUIPMENTS USED IN FURNACE :
Flue gas heat recovery combustion air preheating by using flue gas heat in a recuperator
The most commonly used combustion air preheating arrangement is commonly known as a recuperator system,
for aluminum heating furnaces. In this case flue gases or combustion products from a furnace are directed to an
air preheater. In almost all cases where a recuperator is used, the flue gas temperature from an aluminum
melting furnace is too high for the materials used in the air preheater devise and it is necessary to temper the
flue gases and bring them down to a temperature of about 871C (1600F) or lower prior to their introduction to
the air preheater device. At this time the economics (capital cost vs. savings) of flue gas heat recovery for
combustion air preheating allow 40% to 60% heat recovery.
The industry uses several designs of recuperators; however, they can be broadly divided into two categories:
convective recuperators and radiation recuperators.
Convection recuperators: Convection recuperators use thermal convection as a primary mode of heat transfer
on the flue gas side as well as the combustion air side. A typical convection recuperator design includes a
number of tubes. Combustion air or flue gases pass through the tubes and other gases (flue gases or combustion
air respectively) flow over the tubes. Heat is transferred from flue gases to the tubes and then from tube
surfaces to combustion air. Flow of flue gases and air can be parallel (in the same direction) or counter flow
(cold air enters the area where cooled flue gases are discharged and hot flue gases enter the area where hot air is

discharged to burners) or cross flow (flue gases or combustion air flows in the cross wise direction 90 to
the combustion air or flue gases respectively).

Radiation recuperator : The radiation recuperator design is based on the use of thermal radiation from high
temperature flue gases containing CO2 and H2O to preheat combustion air. In this case flue gases pass through
a metallic stack that is surrounded by the flowing combustion air. Heat transfer on the flue gas side is by
thermal radiation while it is by convection on the combustion air side. This design is most suitable for furnaces
that discharge flue gases above 760C (1400F) and use relatively large stacks, usually larger than 1.2 m (4 ft)
in diameter.

A typical configuration for radiation recuperator is shown in Fig. It should be noted that very few aluminum
melting furnaces in the US use radiation type recuperators.

FIG : EXAMPLE OF A RADIATION TYPE RECUPERATOR

Zero Governor Gas Valve Basics :


The primary role of a gas valve is to safely shut-off and control the flow of natural or propane gas to a heating
appliance. Our product documentation describes this gas valve as a multi-function gas control valve; however,
this is not just a safety shut-off valve but a combination dual safety shut-off valve, zero governor regulator, and
throttle all in one. So lets first define the role of each of these components:
Dual Safety Shut-off Valve: Allows the flow of gas to the appliance and more importantly shuts off the
gas flow when the control system no longer senses flame. Two points of shut-off are required to be a
safety shut-off valve that is in compliance with ANSI Z21.78 and CSA 6.20; therefore, if one valve fails
to close the second valve will close and stop the flow of gas.
Zero Governor Regulator: Controls the outlet pressure of the valve with the goal of zero pressure at
the outlet allowing the flow of gas to only occur with a negative pressure signal from the venture mixer.
Throttle: An adjustment that defines the maximum gas flow through the gas valve at high fire.

BURNER:
A burner is a device which enables a chemical reaction of fuel and oxidizer (usually Oxygen from air) to
produce heat in a controlled way.

TYPES OF BURNER :
Premix

Fan powered so that the fuel/air ratio can be carefully controlled.

Run lean (20%) with NOXemissions < 45 mg/kWh

Typically produce short intense blue flames

Short reaction zones and the highest burning velocities hence the smallest residence times & high
efficiencies

The heat exchanger can (and should) be located very close to cool the exhaust as quickly as possible to
avoid NOXformation.

Atmospheric

Most common type of domestic burner (tube arrays, blade assemblies), low cost manufacture with little
maintenance.

Partially premixing (air entrained into gas stream before burner) to lower flame temperature.

Run on a rich/air mix to form inner combustion zone, preventing thermal NOxwith low O concentration.

Tend to give relatively large flame volumes giving longer residence times for NOXproduction to occur.

CENTRIFUGAL FAN:
A centrifugal fan is a mechanical device for moving air or other gases. The terms "blower" and "squirrel cage
fan" (because it looks like a hamster wheel) are frequently used as synonyms. These fans increase the speed of
air stream with the rotating impellers.
They use the kinetic energy of the impellers or the rotating blade to increase the pressure of the air/gas stream
which in turn moves them against the resistance caused by ducts, dampers and other components. Centrifugal
fans accelerate air radially, changing the direction (typically by 90) of the airflow. They are sturdy, quiet,
reliable, and capable of operating over a wide range of conditions.
Centrifugal fans are constant displacement devices or constant volume devices, meaning that, at a constant fan
speed, a centrifugal fan will pump a constant volume of air rather than a constant mass. This means that the air
velocity in a system is fixed even though mass flow rate through the fan is not.

ORIFICE PLATE :

An orifice plate is a device used for measuring flow rate, for reducing pressure or for restricting flow (in the
latter two cases it is often called a restriction plate). Either a volumetric or mass flow rate may be determined,
depending on the calculation associated with the orifice plate. It uses the same principle as a Venturi nozzle,
namely Bernoulli's principle which states that there is a relationship between the pressure of the fluid and the
velocity of the fluid. When the velocity increases, the pressure decreases and vice versa.

Description

Fig : Orifice plate showing vena contracta

An orifice plate is a thin plate with a hole in it, which is usually placed in a pipe. When a fluid (whether liquid
or gaseous) passes through the orifice, its pressure builds up slightly upstream of the orifice [1]:8586 but as the
fluid is forced to converge to pass through the hole, the velocity increases and the fluid pressure decreases. A
little downstream of the orifice the flow reaches its point of maximum convergence, the vena contracta (see
drawing to the right) where the velocity reaches its maximum and the pressure reaches its minimum. Beyond
that, the flow expands, the velocity falls and the pressure increases. By measuring the difference in fluid
pressure across tappings upstream and downstream of the plate, the flow rate can be obtained from Bernoulli's
equation using coefficients established from extensive research

Pressure tappings
There are three standard positions for pressure tappings (also called taps), commonly named as follows:

Corner taps placed immediately upstream and downstream of the plate; convenient when the plate is
provided with an orifice carrier incorporating tappings

D and D/2 taps or radius taps placed one pipe diameter upstream and half a pipe diameter downstream
of the plate; these can be installed by welding bosses to the pipe

Flange taps placed 25.4mm (1 inch) upstream and downstream of the plate, normally within specialised
pipe flanges.

Incompressible flow

By assuming steady-state, incompressible (constant fluid density), inviscid, laminar flow in a horizontal pipe
(no change in elevation) with negligible frictional losses, Bernoulli's equation reduces to an equation relating
the conservation of energy between two points on the same streamline:

Or

By continuity equation:
or

V1 = Q / A1

and V2

= Q / A2 :

Solving for Q :

The above expression for Q gives the theoretical volume flow rate. Introducing the beta factor
well as the discharge coefficient
:

And finally introducing the meter coefficient C which is defined as

to obtain the final equation for the volumetric flow of the fluid through the orifice:

as

Multiplying by the density of the fluid to obtain the equation for the mass flow rate at any section in the pipe:

where:
= volumetric flow rate (at any cross-section), m/s
= mass flow rate (at any cross-section), kg/s
= coefficient of discharge, dimensionless
= orifice flow coefficient, dimensionless
= cross-sectional area of the pipe, m
= cross-sectional area of the orifice hole, m
= diameter of the pipe, m
= diameter of the orifice hole, m
= ratio of orifice hole diameter to pipe diameter, dimensionless
= upstream fluid velocity, m/s
= fluid velocity through the orifice hole, m/s
= fluid upstream pressure, Pa with dimensions of kg/(ms )
= fluid downstream pressure, Pa with dimensions of kg/(ms )
= fluid density, kg/m

Deriving the above equations used the cross-section of the orifice opening and is not as realistic as using the
minimum cross-section at the vena contracta. In addition, frictional losses may not be negligible and viscosity
and turbulence effects may be present. For that reason, the coefficient of discharge
is introduced. Methods
exist for determining the coefficient of discharge as a function of the Reynolds number.

The parameter

is often referred to as the velocity of approach factor and multiplying the coefficient

of discharge by that parameter (as was done above) produces the flow coefficient C. Methods also exist for
determining the flow coefficient as a function of the beta function

and the location of the downstream

pressure sensing tap. For rough approximations, the flow coefficient may be assumed to be between 0.60 and
0.75. For a first approximation, a flow coefficient of 0.62 can be used as this approximates to fully developed
flow.
Parameters on which volume flow rate through orifice plate depends : -

From the equation of flow through orifice plate we see that the volume flow rate depends inversely on the
density of the fluid.

Qm = (P1 P2)

pp

Qp = (P1 P2)

pm

So for same pressure difference the volume flow rate will be inversely proportional to density of the gases.
Since relative density of methane gas= 0.6
And relative density of propane gas = 1.52

So Qp=

pm/ pp X Qm

So Qp= 0.6283 X Qm
Data for the Methane (Natural Gas) are provided as follows :

CALCULATION OF AMOUNT OF ALUMINIUM BILLET HEATED IN ONE YEAR


Since nominal power of the furnace is 3015 kW
Change in the temperature of the aluminium billet = (450-25) 0C
Specific heat of aluminium = 0.9 kJ/kg0C
Since Heat Q = mass* specific heat* temp. difference
Mass = Q/ (s*dT)
Mass/time = power/(s*dT)
m/t = 7882.35 kg/s
So in one year total mass of aluminium billet = 7882.35 * 60 *60*24*365
So total amount of aluminium heated in furnace in one year = 2.49 * 1011 kg

Table : Volume flow rate and pressure difference Delta P for The Air Orifice Flange

Table : Volume flow rate and pressure difference Delta P for The Gas Orifice Flange for
natural gas (methane).

So using equation

Qp= 0.6283 X Qm

The table for methane gas will be converted into propane gas as follows:.
TABLE : Flow rate of propane corresponding to the pressure difference Delta P for Gas
Orifice Flange for PROPANE GAS
FLANGIA TARATA

FLANGIA TARATA

GAS PROPANE

GAS PROPANE

DN 25 - 1

DN 50 - 2

dia framma D13 mm

Dia framma D22 mm

Delta P

PORTATE

PERDITE

Delta P

PORTATE

PERDITE

mm H2O

PROPANE

RESIDUE

mm H2O

PROPANE

RESIDUE

Nm3/ h

mm H2O

Nm3/ h

mm H2O

10

3.08

10

9.07

20

4.35

15

20

12.82

16

30

5.32

22

30

15.70

14

40

6.15

29

40

18.13

33

50

6.87

36

50

20.27

41

60

7.53

44

60

22.20

49

70

8.14

51

70

23.99

57

80

8.70

58

80

25.64

65

90

9.23

66

90

27.20

73

100

9.73

73

100

28.67

81

110

10.20

80

110

30.07

90

120

10.66

88

120

31.40

98

130

11.10

95

130

32.69

106

140

11.51

102

140

33.92

114

150

11.67

109

150

35.11

122

160

12.30

117

160

36.26

130

170

12.69

124

170

37.37

138

180

13.05

131

180

38.46

147

190

13.41

139

190

39.52

155

200

13.76

146

200

40.54

163

210

14.09

153

210

41.54

171

220

14.43

161

220

42.52

179

230

14.75

168

230

43.47

187

240

15.07

175

240

44.41

195

250

15.38

182

250

45.33

203

260

15.69

190

260

46.23

212

270

15.98

197

270

47.11

220

280

16.28

204

280

47.97

228

290

16.57

212

290

48.57

236

300

16.85

219

300

49.65

244

310

17.12

226

310

49.65

252

320

17.40

233

320

51.29

260

330

17.67

241

330

52.08

269

340

17.94

248

340

52.86

277

And Table for Volume flow rate and pressure difference Delta P for The Air Orifice Flange
will be same.

The details for the Methane gas for zone 8, 7, 6, 5, 4 in furnace for maintaining required heating value is:

So For these zones volume flow rate for methane gas is 51.2 Nm3/h
And volume flow rate for air is 548.9 Nm3/h
So from the table given for METHANE GAS (diaframma 22mm )and AIR (diaframma 92mm)
We get corresponding pressure difference as DELTA P ARIA(AIR) : 9.9 mbar
And DELTA P NATURAL GAS : 12.2 mbar .
We know
Lower Heating Value of methane

8365 kcal/Nm3

Lower Heating Value of propane

93575 kJ/Nm3

Volume Flow Rate for methane

51.2 Nm3/h

Volume Flow Rate for propane

=8365 X 4.186 kJ/Nm3

Since we are required to keep the Heating power of the furnace same as earlier. So
(Lower Heating Value) * (Volume Flow Rate) of Methane
=

(Lower heating value) *(Volume flow rate) of propane

So, Volume Flow rate of propane

19.16 Nm3/h

Since Air : Fuel Ratio for propane

25

So Volume Flow rate of Air

19.16 * 25 Nm3/h

479 Nm3/h

The corresponding pressure difference across Gas Orifice Flange and Air Orifice Flange for Propane gas
can be found from the Table for Gas (diaframma 22mm )and AIR (diaframma 92mm)

So for the zones 8,7,6,5,4 in the furnace:


The pressure difference across Gas orifice flange for propane gas is to be maintained at 47.10 mm of H2O
Or 4.62 mbar
And The pressure difference across Air orifice flange is to be maintained at 43.27 mm of H2O
Or 4.24 mbar.

The details for the Methane gas for zone 3,2,1 in furnace for maintaining required heating value is:
(diaframma 22mm )and AIR (diaframma 92mm)

Volume flow rate for methane gas

17.7 Nm3/h

Volume flow rate for air

189.3 Nm3/h

Delta P across Gas orifice flange for methane

13.2 mbar

Delta P across Air Orifice Flange

12.9 mbar

Diaframma for Gas Orifice flange

22mm

Diaframma for Air Orifice flange

92mm

We know
Lower Heating Value of methane

8365 kcal/Nm3

Lower Heating Value of propane

93575 kJ/Nm3

Volume Flow Rate for methane

17.7 Nm3/h

Volume Flow Rate for propane

=8365 X 4.186 kJ/Nm3

Since we are required to keep the Heating power of the furnace in these zones same as earlier. So
(Lower Heating Value) * (Volume Flow Rate) of Methane
=

(Lower heating value) *(Volume flow rate) of propane

So, Volume Flow rate of propane

6.62 Nm3/h

Since Air : Fuel Ratio for propane

25

So Volume Flow rate of Air

6.62 * 25 Nm3/h

165 Nm3/h

The corresponding pressure difference across Gas Orifice Flange and Air Orifice Flange for Propane gas
can be found from the Table for Gas (diaframma 13mm )and AIR (diaframma 45mm)
So for the zones 1,2,3 in the furnace:
The pressure difference across Gas orifice flange for propane gas is to be maintained at 44.30 mm of H2O
Or 4.34 mbar
And The pressure difference across Air orifice flange is to be maintained at 47.60 mm of H2O
Or 4.66 mbar.

And Propane Gas Connection Valve = 116 Nm3/h

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A textbook on ALUMINIUM EXTRUSION TECHNOLOGY by P SAHA


www.adityabirla.com
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