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Todaywhat do I want you to learn?

INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALS
SCIENCE

Learning Outcomes
To describe the fundamental properties of the major classes of
materials.
To explain the differences between ionic, covalent, metallic,
hydrogen and van der Waals bonds.
To note which materials exhibit each of these bonding types.
To distinguish between primary and secondary bondings.
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Puteri Sri Melor bt. Megat Yusoff
Mechanical Engineering Department
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
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RECAP..

THE BASICS you must always practise!


Write measuring units after each
number you write.

why study materials science


structure-property-processing relationship
criteria in materials selection

23.5 kg/m3; 25C, 12 s

Limit your significant digits.


e.g.
3.14159265358979323846
3.14

Label every diagram/sketch/plot


that you make.
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Structure-Property Relationship: An Example

Why Study Materials Science?

Transmittance: (optical property)


-- Aluminum oxide may be transparent, translucent, or
opaque depending on the material structure.

Basic to understand the structure, properties and processing


of materials

Material science provides engineers and scientists with the

single crystal

polycrystal:
low porosity

knowledge required to
Select appropriate materials;
Design materials appropriate for specific applications;
Use materials appropriately, efficiently, and safely;
Dispose of these materials after their useful life.
The only way to meet the requirement of current and future
technology
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polycrystal:
high porosity

Adapted from Fig. 1.2,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.
(Specimen preparation,
P.A. Lessing; photo by S.
Tanner.)

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Materials Selection Process


1. Pick Application

Determine required Properties

Properties: mechanical, electrical, thermal,


magnetic, optical, deteriorative.

2. Properties

TAKING A CLOSER LOOK.

Identify candidate Material(s)

Material: structure, composition.

3. Material

Identify required Processing

Processing: changes structure and overall shape


ex: casting, sintering, vapor deposition, doping
forming, joining, annealing.
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Types of Materials

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Why are they different?

Metals: Metallic bonding


Strong, ductile
High thermal & electrical conductivity
Opaque, reflective.

Whats the DNA of the various materials?

Polymers/plastics: Covalent bonding sharing of es


Soft, ductile, low strength, low density
Thermal & electrical insulators
Optically translucent or transparent.

Ceramics: ionic bonding (refractory) compounds of metallic &


non-metallic elements (oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides)
Brittle, glassy, elastic
Non-conducting (insulators)
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Atomic arrangements

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Microstructure and Atomic Arrangement

microstructures

Polymers

Ceramics

Metals

Different atomic arrangement results in different properties.


Atomic arrangements made up the materials microstructure.
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atomic arrangements
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How are Materials Processed?

Review on Atomic Bondings

Different properties of materials resulted in different


method of their processing.

WHAT DO YOU REMEMBER


ABOUT ATOMIC BONDINGS?

Polymers

Ceramics

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Metals

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IONIC BONDING

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COVALENT BONDING

Occurs between + and - ions.


Requires electron transfer, non-directional.
Large difference in electronegativity required.

Requires shared electrons, highly directional


Example: CH4

Example: NaCl

C: has 4 valence e,
needs 4 more
H: has 1 valence e,
needs 1 more
Electronegativities
are comparable.

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METALLIC BONDING

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Secondary Bonding

Arises from a sea of donated valence electrons


(1, 2, or 3 from each atom).

Van der Waals/Dispersion and


dipole forces

Non-directional

-physical, not chemical bonds


- arise from atomic or
molecular dipoles

sea of electrons

- weak electrostatic attraction

Dipole forces

- if it involves H, its called


hydrogen bonding

positively charged
core atom

- example : water (polar


molecule)

Primary bond for metals and their alloys


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Van Der Waals forces


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Secondary Bonding

Questions for today

polyvinyl chloride

What new things have you learned today?


What have you not understood well?

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Questions for tomorrow

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Conclusions
The major classes of materials include metals, polymers, ceramics and
composites, each with distinctive properties.

What is a unit cell?

The structure of materials determine their properties. Properties can be changed


during processing due to the change in the structure.
In choosing the most suitable material for a specific application, various aspects
need to be considered: the desirable properties, environmental impact, cost, safety,
performance, etc.
Differentiate between primary and secondary bondings and provide example of
materials for each type.

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