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Patofisiologi polyp of middle ear

Polip dan Granulasi Tissue dari Telinga Tengah: Polip dapat mengembangkan di
telinga tengah. Dengan demikian, ini tidak selalu tumor jinak. Mereka tampak
seperti bola jaringan yang meradang yang membentuk cluster seperti anggur
dalam batas-batas telinga tengah dan mastoid. Polip ini umumnya berwarna
kemerahan dan mudah berdarah pada debu atau manipulasi apapun. Mereka dapat
dibedakan dari masalah yang lebih serius dari telinga tengah dan mastoid. Jika
mereka tidak menanggapi terapi medis, polip harus dibiopsi. Dalam kebanyakan
kasus polip maju dan radang telinga tengah, operasi telinga tengah dan mastoid
akan diperlukan.
Kolesteatoma: Ini adalah tumor telinga tengah yang biasanya jinak dan yang paling
umum dari semua tumor telinga tengah. Ini ditangani dengan sepenuhnya dalam
bagian terpisah, "kolesteatoma." Kolesteatoma muncul dari perforasi membran
timpani dengan ingrowth kulit ke dalam telinga tengah. Juga, mereka muncul
kongenital dari formasi epidermoid yang juga dijelaskan dalam "Riset terbaru"
bagian. Informasi lengkap tentang topik ini dapat ditemukan di situs web ini.

polip aural
definisi
Sebuah polip aural adalah pertumbuhan luar (eksternal) saluran telinga. Ini mungkin
melekat pada gendang telinga (membran timpani), atau mungkin tumbuh dari
ruang telinga tengah.
Penyebab, kejadian, dan faktor risiko
Polip Aural dapat disebabkan oleh:
kolesteatoma
benda asing
peradangan
tumor
gejala
Drainase berdarah dari telinga adalah gejala yang paling umum. Gangguan
pendengaran juga dapat terjadi.
Tanda dan tes
Polip aural didiagnosis melalui pemeriksaan saluran telinga dan telinga tengah
dengan menggunakan otoscope atau mikroskop.
pengobatan
Pengobatan tergantung pada penyebab yang mendasarinya. Dokter Anda pertama
mungkin merekomendasikan:
Menghindari air di telinga
obat steroid
Tetes telinga Antibiotik
Jika kolesteatoma adalah masalah mendasar atau kondisi gagal untuk menghapus,
maka pembedahan mungkin diperlukan. polip aural
definisi
Sebuah polip aural adalah pertumbuhan luar (eksternal) saluran telinga. Ini mungkin

melekat pada gendang telinga (membran timpani), atau mungkin tumbuh dari
ruang telinga tengah.
Penyebab, kejadian, dan faktor risiko
Polip Aural dapat disebabkan oleh:
kolesteatoma
benda asing
peradangan
tumor
gejala
Drainase berdarah dari telinga adalah gejala yang paling umum. Gangguan
pendengaran juga dapat terjadi.
Tanda dan tes
Polip aural didiagnosis melalui pemeriksaan saluran telinga dan telinga tengah
dengan menggunakan otoscope atau mikroskop.
pengobatan
Pengobatan tergantung pada penyebab yang mendasarinya. Dokter Anda pertama
mungkin merekomendasikan:
Menghindari air di telinga
obat steroid
Tetes telinga Antibiotik
Jika kolesteatoma adalah masalah mendasar atau kondisi gagal untuk menghapus,
maka pembedahan mungkin diperlukan.

Aural Polyps

Alternative Names: Ear canal polyps

Definition

Aural polyps are benign, fleshy growths that arise from the skin or glands of the
external ear canal or from the surface lining of the tympanic membrane. They can
also be a manifestation of cholesteatoma (benign ear skin cyst). Aural polyps
usually form from chronic irritation of the skin of the ear canal or eardrum. This
chronic irritation is most commonly caused by infections (chronic otitis externs). The
major concern with ear canal polyps is the possibility that they may represent a skin
cyst in the mastoid or middle ear. These skin cysts although benign erode bone in
the mastoid or the ear canal. If they are coming from the middle ear or mastoid and
erode through the bone of the ear canal, it can then show up as an ear canal polyp.
It is vitally important not to try to remove polyps arising from these skin cysts
because they could be attached to some of the small bones for hearing. Ear canal
polyps can also represent a variety of benign or malignant growths. They may also
be a manifestation of malignant otitis externs (see malignant otitis externs), which
is an infection of the bony ear canal and is most commonly seen in individuals with
diabetes or who have abnormalities in their immune system. Malignant otitis
externs is not a true malignant process but a bone infection that behaves
aggressively. It can extend into the mastoid, and left unchecked can create brain
abscess, facial paralysis, deafness, meningitis, and bone infection of the base of the
skull termed osteomyelitis. One of the early findings in malignant otitis externs is an
ear canal polyp typically arising from the bottom inferior part of the ear canal.

The Signs and Symptoms

The primary signs and symptoms relate to the underlying infectious problem. Often
there is pain and itching in the ear canal, and there may be some infected drainage.
Because the ear canal has a growth in it, it prevents sound from getting to the
eardrum, and therefore hearing loss may occur.

The Causes and Risks

The main cause of ear polyps, as mentioned above, is an infectious process. This
can either be acute, as is sometimes seen with swimmers ear (see acute otitis
externs), but is more likely a result of chronic infection that can either be bacterial
or fungal. Cholesteatoma usually forms from chronic eustachian tube dysfunction.
They may also result from a chronic reaction to a tube placed in the eardrum.

How Is It Diagnosed

A polyp or fleshy growth will be present in the ear canal upon examination. There is
usually pus if the primary cause is chronic infection. Polyps of infectious origin are
usually soft, red, and bleed very easily when touched, and usually arise from the
eardrum or canal. If the polyp is more firm and does not bleed, then a tumor must
be considered and the polyp biopsied. Polyps from cholesteatoma usually arise
adjacent to the drum in the upper posterior part of the ear canal, bleed easily, have
some surrounding pus, and may contain white, glistening debris (keratin). Polyps
from malignant otitis externs often arise from the floor of the ear canal, have
adjacent pus, and are associated with pain. Since infectious polyps are usually
smooth-surfaced, polyps that are irregular or granular usually represent a
carcinoma.

The Long-Term Effects

Benign infectious polyps arising from the ear canal may enlarge, bleed, and impair
hearing until they are treated. Since cholesteatoma is an expanding benign process,
it can create extensive damage to the inner and middle ears and can have
disastrous infectious complications. It must not be observed but be surgically
removed. Benign growths may predispose to ear canal infections and hearing loss
until they are removed. Malignancies must be resected. Malignant otitis externs will
continue to spread unless treated.

The Treatments

Topical steroid and antibiotic ear drops will resolve most cases of infectious ear
canal polyps. For chronic or recurrent infections, steroid creams and white table

vinegar (5% acetic acid) is very beneficial. Antifungal drops and creams are used if
the problem arises from fungal infection. Non-infectious masses must be biopsied
their treatment will be based on their diagnosis. Polyps from ear tubes may require
tube removal if drops are not effective. Cholesteatoma-generated polyps initially
require drops and oral antibiotics to resolve the infection of the keratin which has
caused the polyp. A CT scan helps to clarify its extent prior to its surgical removal.
Malignant otitis externa is covered in greater detail under its own heading.

The Side Effects to the Treatments

Since antibiotic/steroid drops are used for infectious polyps, the side effects are
specific to those medications. Neomycin is commonly used in topical therapies.
Some individuals develop an allergic reaction to it that can cause severe itching,
blistering, redness, and thickening of the ear canal skin. It must be stopped if these
symptoms develop. For benign tumors, there should be few, if any, side effects
upon their removal except pain and bleeding. The side effects from malignant tumor
removal are predicated on the extent of the tumor and what other important
structures are involved. Refer to benign ear cyst and malignant otitis externa for
further discussion of these entities.

What Happens After Treatment

The infection and its polyp should resolve with therapy and have no long-term
effects. However, if chronic ear canal infection/inflammation should occur, then
some maintenance steroid drops, vinegar irrigations, or antifungal agents may be
necessary. If a tube caused the polyp and had to be removed, then another tube of
a different material may be required if the middle ear infection recurs.

How Do I Monitor the Disease

Recurrent symptoms of drainage, hearing loss, bleeding, and itching indicate that
the underlying infection/inflammation has reactivated.