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PHASE OF TRANSISITION IN

EUROPE
SITUATION BEFORE THE MODERN
ARCHITECTURE
Lesson 4

CHRONOLOGY

CHRONOLOGY

1750-1850 : AGE OF TRANSITION


AGE OF REVIVAL

RENAISSANCE

BAROQUE

ROCOCO

NEO CLASSICAL

PALLDIAN REVIVAL
CHISWICK
HOUSE

MEREWORTH
CASTLE

NEO CLASSICAL

ROMAN, GREEK,GOTHIC REVIVAL

ARCH DE TRIOMPHE
GREEK REVIVAL

ROMANTICISM

ST PANCRAS CHURCH
GOTHIC REVIVAL

WESTMISTERS PALACE

POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE


PERIOD

Beginning of Industrial revolution in 1750.

North American colonies declare Independence in 1776.

French revolution breaks out in 1789.

Uprising in many part of Europe and Russia for liberal democracy.

Chartist movement in England.

The period of 1750-1850 served mainly as transition period from the Ornate monumental
architectural styles to the modernism.

The baroque was immediately followed by Rococo style.

It was than the age of Industrial Revolution which paved way for the modern Architecture
which was to influence the Globe forever.

ROCOCO

A style of decorative art that evolved from the Baroque, originating in France about 1720 and
distinguished by fanciful curved spatial forms and elaborate profuse of design of shell work
and foliage intended for a delicate overall effect.

Hall of mirrors, Munich

Abey Church, Germany

ROCOCO

Detail and intricate reminded the world of marine life.

It is a lighter, more graceful, yet so more elaborate version of baroque architecture.

Rococo emphasized the asymmetry of forms.

The style depicts both being richly decorated also had different themes.

Architecture was more secular.

Numerous curves and decorations as well as usage of pale colors.

It brought significant changes to the building of edifices, placing an emphasis on privacy than
grand public of Baroque architecture.

It improved the structure of building in order to create a more healthy environment.

Rococo is fully in control, sportive, fantastic and sculptured forms are expressed with abstract
ornament using flaming, leafy or shell like structures in asymmetrical sweeps and flourishes
and broken curves.

Rococo interior suppress architectural divisions of architrave, frieze and cornice and above
all stucco.

The rococo palette is often softer and paler than the rich primary colors and dark tonalities
favored in the baroque architecture.

In general rococo is entirely interior style.

PALLADIAN REVIVAL IN BRITAIN

Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the
designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (15081580).

The term "Palladian" normally refers to buildings in a style inspired by Palladio's own work;
that which is recognized as Palladian architecture today is an evolution of Palladio's original
concepts.

Palladio's work was strongly based on the symmetry, perspective and values of the formal
classical temple architecture of the Ancient Greeks and Romans.

From the 17th century Palladio's interpretation of this classical architecture was adapted as
the style known as Palladianism. It continued to develop until the end of the 18th century.

Palladianism became popular briefly in Britain during the mid-17th century, but its flowering
was cut short by the onset of the Civil War and the imposition of austerity which followed. In
the early 18th century it returned to fashion, not only in England but also, directly influenced
from Britain, in Prussia.

The style continued to be popular in Europe throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries,
where it was frequently employed in the design of public and municipal buildings. From the
latter half of the 19th century it was rivaled by the Gothic revival, whose champions, such
as Augustus Pugin remembering the origins of Palladianism in ancient temples, deemed it
too pagan for Protestant and Anglo-Catholic worship. However, as an architectural style it
has continued to be popular and to evolve; its pediments, symmetry and proportions are
clearly evident in the design of many modern buildings today.

CHISWICK HOUSE

CHISWICK HOUSE

Chiswick house was an attempt by lord Burlington to create a Roman Villa, rather than
renaissance pastiche, situated in a symbolic Roman garden.

It is inspired in part by several buildings of the 16th century.

The house is often said to be directly inspired by Palladios Villa Capra La Rotunda near
Vicenza.

Architect Colen Campbell had offered Lord Burlington a design for villa very closely based
on Villa Capra.

The brick built villa faade in Portland stone, with a


small amount of stucco.

The finely carved Corinthian capitals on the


projecting six column portico at Chiswick derived
from Rome's, temple of Castor and Pollux.

The villa is a half cube of 70 feet(21 mts) by 70 ft.


by 35 ft.

In side the rooms of 10 ft. square, 15 ft. square and


15 ft. by 20 ft.

CHISWICK HOUSE

The distance from the apex of the dome to the


base of the cellular is 21 mts, making the whole
pile fit within a perfect invisible cube.

However the decorative cornice at Chiswick was


derived from a contemporary source that is of
James Gibbs cornice at the church of St. Martin,
London.

On the portico leading to the domed hall is


positioned a bust of Roman Emperor Augustus.

On the forecourt of the villa are several Statues


that derive their form from Roman God
Terminus(God of distance and space)

Such items were used as boundary markers.

At the rear of the villa were positioned Herm


statues derived from Greek god Herms.

Lord Burlingtons use of certain motifs and


decorative schemes suggests that he regarded the
villa and its garden as single entity.

Features employed within the villa is reflected in


the garden.

To Burlington the primitive Tuscan order was


associated with the use of trees as columns in
ancient building.

The design of the rooms Lord Burlington used


different geometric shapes , some with coved
ceiling.

CHISWICK HOUSE

Such variety in different spatial forms, many derived


from Palladios reconstruction of ancient Roman
buildings.

Ground floor: domestic and commercial activities.

Piano noble: for entertainment.

Many of the most important rooms were situated on


the piano noble and consisted of eight rooms.

The rooms on this floor were either composite or


Corinthian order.

In contrast the ground floor of the villa was always


intended to be plain and unadorned.

It had a low ceiling and little carving and gilding.

Its room were for business.

Tuscan order was used for Ground floor.

The upper tribunal or the domed hall is an octagonal


room surmounted by dome.

The tripartite series of rooms over looking the garden


called as Gallery rooms.

Pillared drawing room built to attach the new Villa to


the old Jacobean house.

The rooms were divided into three sections by the


inclusion of unfluted Corinthian pillars which support
an elaborate Corinthian entablature and ceiling.

The gardens were inspired by the architecture of


ancient Rome combined with the influence of
contemporary poetry and theatre design.

CHISWICK HOUSE

MEREWORTH CASTLE

MEREWORTH CASTLE

English Palladian architects drew inspiration from the work of the Italian architect Andrea
Palladio.

They particularly were attracted by his designs of country villa.

Palladios most distinctive villa is the so called villa Rotunda centrally planned, this was much
imitated through adapted to suit English life.

The version closer to it that survives is Mere worth Castle by Architect Colen Campbell
built as an occasional summer residence.

The house plan is a square with an identical portico on each side.

It is capped by a high dome, slightly larger than the original.

It contains a proper bedroom floor which the Villa Rotunda lacked.

We can experience the combination of spaces from the domed hall, the squared bedrooms to
the basement service room.

The decoration was mostly of molded plaster in the reception rooms, but simple painted
paneling was used upstairs in the building.

This helped in keeping the rooms warm and snug.

MEREWORTH CASTLE

MEREWORTH CASTLE

MEREWORTH CASTLE

NEO CLASSICAL

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical


movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction
against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an
outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque.

In its purest form it is a style principally derived from the architecture of Classical
Greece and Rome and the architecture of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio. In form,
Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains
separate identities to each of its parts.

Features:

Symmetry

Tall columns that rise to full height of building.

Triangular pediment.

Domed roof.

Bold, simple faade.

Heavy cornice.

INTRODUCTION OF TRIUMPHAL ARCH

The Arc de Triomphe is one of the most


famous monuments in Paris. It stands in the
centre of the Place Charles de Gaulle at the
western end of the Champs-lyses.

The Arc de Triomphe is the linchpin of the


historic axis a sequence of monuments and
grand thoroughfares on a route which goes
from the courtyard of the Louvre, to the
Grande Arche de la Dfense

The Arc de Triomphe (in English: "Triumphal


Arch") honours those who fought and died for
France in the French Revolutionary and the
Napoleonic Wars, with the names of all
French victories and generals inscribed on its
inner and outer surfaces. Beneath its vault lies
the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World
War I.

The monument stands 50


metres (164 ft) in height,
45 m (148 ft) wide and
22 m (72 ft) deep. The
large vault is 29.19 m
(95.8 ft) high and 14.62 m
(48.0 ft) wide. The small
vault is 18.68 m (61.3 ft)
high and 8.44 m (27.7 ft)
wide.
It was the largest triumphal
arch in existence until the
construction of the Arch of
Triumph in Pyongyang, in
1982.

Its design was inspired by


the Roman Arch of Titus.

There are four sculptural


group at the base of arc.

50 m

18.68 m

8.44 m

Triumph arch

Roman arch of titus

The astylar design is by Jean Chalgrin, in the Neoclassical version of


ancient Roman architecture.

The neoclassical architecture gained


influence in France and England.

In neoclassical architecture we can see a


lot of influence of roman architecture as
the art students were al trained in Rome
and were influenced by the writings of
Johann Joachim Winckelmann.

From about 1800 a fresh influx of Greek


architectural examples, seen through the
medium of etchings and engravings,
gave a new impetus to neoclassicism
that is called the Greek Revival.

La Paix de 1815 (PEACE)

Le Triomphe de 1810

The four sculptural groups at the base of


the Arc are The Triumph of 1810 (Cortot),
Resistance and Peace (both by Antoine
tex) and the most renowned of them all,
Departure of the Volunteers of 1792
commonly called La Marseillaise
(Franois Rude).

La Rsistance de 1814

La Marseillaise/
Le Dpart de 1792

The great arcades are decorated with allegorical figures representing characters in Roman mythology
(by J. Pradier)

La bataille d'Aboukir,
25 July 1799

Le passage du pont d'Arcole,


15 November 1796

La prise d'Alexandrie,
3 July 1798
Some great battles of the French
Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
are engraved on the attic

Beneath the Arc is the Tomb of


the Unknown Soldier from
World War I. Interred here on
Armistice Day 1920, it has the
first eternal flame lit in Western
and Eastern Europe since the
Vestal Virgins fire was
extinguished in the fourth
century. It burns in memory of
the dead who were never
identified.

On the inner faades of the small arches are


engraved the names of the military leaders of
the French Revolution and Empire. The names
of those who died on the battlefield are
underlined.

1840: Napoleon's ashes return to Paris

1871: von Moltke and von Bismarck with their troops


after the siege of Paris

1919: Greek troops march during the World War I


victory parade

1940: German troops on parade after the surrender of


Paris

1944: Free French forces on parade after the liberation


of Paris

1985 Bastille Day Military Parade

The construction was started on 15th august 1802


and was inaugurated on 29th July 1836, in this
period of 34 years the construction was completed
by three architects Jean charglin , Jean-Nicolas
Huyo and Hricart de Thury

GREEK REVIVAL

EXAMPLE:
ST. PANCRAS CHURCH LONDON

The Greek Revival was an


architectural movement of the late
18th and early 19th centuries,
predominantly in Northern Europe
and the United States. A product of
Hellenism, it may be looked upon as
the last phase in the development of
Neoclassical architecture.

With a newfound access to Greece,


archaeologist-architects of the period
studied the Doric and Ionic orders,
examples of which can be found in
Russia, Poland, Lithuania and
Finland.

Yet in each country it touched, the


style was looked on as the expression
of local nationalism and civic virtue,
especially in Germany and the United
States, where the idiom was regarded
as being free from ecclesiastical and
aristocratic associations.

Not only the buildings but the taste of


Greek was also seen in furniture and
decoration of interiors .

The Greek revival lasted till the civil


war in America (1860s)

GREEK REVIVAL: CHARACTERISTICS

Heavy cornices, gables with pediments and unadorned frieze were typical.

The gable fronted house found throughout America, is one styles enduring legacies.

ROOF:

Low pitched gable and hip roof were typical.

The cornice line was embellished with a wide band of trim to emphasis the temple like roof.

Standing seam tin or cedar shingles were materials used at that time.

WINDOWS:

The size of window panes in historically accurately Greek revival residences typically reflected mid
nineteenth century glazing technology.

Windows were mostly double hung with six panels to each sash.

Decorative windows were frequently in three part assemblages. Among the styles unique feature are the
small rectangular windows set into the frieze beneath the cornice that replaced common dormer.

Window surrounds tended to be less elaborate than doorways.

COLUMNS:

Columns and pilasters are most common feature of Greek revival.

Although classical columns are rounded the Greek revival style also used square and octagonal
columns.

Columns were designed without bases in Greek style and with bases in Roman style.

Columns could be fluted or smooth and built of wood.

Most common and simplest Capital style in Greek revival is Doric.

GREEK REVIVAL: CHARACTERISTICS


ENTRANCE

Simple post and beam construction was widely used.

Elaborate door surrounds were frequent feature of Greek revival.

The door itself may be single or double divided into one ,two or four panels.

Invariably a portico or a porch was added in the front of the entrance.

A triangular transom were framed by heavy, wide trim, sometimes recessed for a more three
dimensional look.

REDISCOVERY OF GREECE

Despite the unbounded


prestige of ancient Greece
amongst the educated elite of
Europe, there was little to no
direct knowledge of that
civilization before the middle of
the 18th century.

The monuments of Greek


antiquity were known chiefly
from Pausanias and other
literary sources.

Later a Society of Dilettanti


was formed in the guidance of
James Stuart and
archaeological enquiry began
in 1751 and then in 1758 an
accurate survey was
submitted.

Downing College,
Cambridge

BRITAIN
Stuart was commissioned after his return from Greece by George Lyttelton to produce the first Greek
building in England, the garden temple at Hagley Hall (1758-9).

North America

Design for the Capitol was an imaginative interpretation


of the classical orders not constrained by historical
precedent, incorporating American motifs such as
corncobs and tobacco leaves. This idiosyncratic
approach was to become typical of the American
attitude to Greek detailing.

Strong columns and gently pitched pediment roof.

Square head openings (windows and doors). (The


round arch was unknown to the ancient Greeks.)

Aedicule openings an opening with a column each


side supporting a section of entablature above.

Greek temple style doors with two tall vertical inset


panels

Carved, or cast plaster, acanthus, anthemion, or patera


ornament (motifs used in ancient Greek architecture).
This appears most often in ceiling medallions and on
door and window surrounds.

Window and door openings with a slight point or


pediment shape to the top.

The Greek temple form was the American norm -- four,


six or eight columns supporting an entablature and a
pediment. Often square pillars were substituted for the
round columns of Greek temples.

Washington Monument

Public buildings
Town & Davis &
Frazee: Custom
House,
New York, 1833-42

Th. Cole, with Town & Davis:


Ohio State Capitol, Columbus,
1838-61

In Greece, temples were built of marble painted in


primary colors. But by the time they were discovered by
Europeans in the eighteenth century, the paint was long
gone, leaving the white marble. And to this day, people
associate the Greek Revival with the color white the
white columned look.

A.B. Young: Custom House,


Boston, 1837-47

R. Mills: Treasury Building,


Washington, D.C., 1839-69

anon: Gannett House,


Cambridge, MA, 1838

Parris: Sears House,


Boston, 1818

Parris: Quincy Market,


Boston, 1825-26

Germany and France

In Germany, the Greek revival is predominantly found in


two centres, Berlin and Munich. In both locales, Doric
was the court style rather than a popular movement.

The earliest Greek building was the Brandenburg Gate.

At the cultural edges of Europe, in the Swedish region


of western Finland, Greek Revival motifs might be
grafted on a purely baroque design, as in the design for
Oravais Church by Jacob Rijf, 1792 .

A Greek Doric order, rendered in the anomalous form of


pilasters, contrasts with the hipped roof and boldlyscaled cupola and lantern, of wholly traditional baroque
inspiration.

Klenze's Propylen (Gateway) in Munich, 18541862.

Leo von Klenze's Walhalla, Regensburg,


Bavaria, 1842.

ST PANCRAS CHURCH, LONDON

ST PANCRAS CHURCH, LONDON

It is a Greek Revival church in London.

It uses ICONIC order and built from brick faced with Portland stone.

Except for the portico and tower above the roof which are entirely stone.

All the external decoration, including the capitals of the columns if of terracotta.

Inspiration: Erechtheion and the tower of the winds in Athens.

The west end follows the basic arrangement of portico, vestibules and tower established by James Gibbs
at St. Martin in the fields.

At the east end is an apse, flanked by the churchs most original features: two turbine designed in
imitation of the Erechtheion with entablatures supported by caryatid.

There is a stone sarcophagus behind the figures in each turbine and the cornice are studded with lions
head.

The caryatids are made of terracotta, constructed in sections around cast iron columns.

The upper levels of the turbine are designed as vestries.

Access to the church is through three doorways ranged under the portico. There are no side doors.

Inside the church as a flat ceiling with an uninterrupted span of 60 ft( 18m) and galleries supported on
cast iron columns.

The interior of the apse is in the form of one half of a circular temple with six columns, painted to imitate
marble, raised on the plinth.

The crypt which extended the whole length of church was designed for 2000 coffins.

It served as an air-raid shelter in both world wars and is used as art gallery now.

The north chapel was added in 1970 and interior was restored in 1981.

The steps of the church were one of several sites used for formal tributes.

GOTHIC REVIVAL

The Gothic Revival (also referred to


as Victorian Gothic or Neo-Gothic) is
an architectural movement that began in the
late 1740s in England.

Its popularity grew rapidly in the early 19th


century, when increasingly serious and
learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought
to revive medieval forms, in contrast to
the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time.

In England, the center of this revival, it was


intertwined with deeply philosophical
movements associated with the growth of
religious nonconformist.

The earliest documented example of the


revived use of Gothic architectural elements
is Strawberry Hill, the home of the English
writer Horace Walpole.

Gothic was used here for its picturesque and


romantic qualities without regard for its
structural possibilities or original function

There are 3 main reasons for the change of direction from Neoclassicism to the Gothic Revival :

Romantic revolution in medieval times that produced Gothic tales and romances. By setting their stories in
medieval times, authors helped to create a sense of nostalgia and a taste for that period.

the writing of the architectural theorists who were interested, as part of church reform, in transferring the
liturgical significance of Gothic architecture to their own times.

the writings of John Ruskin, whose Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849) and Stones of Venice (1853) were
widely read and respected. Ruskin stated that the quality of medieval craftsmanship reflected the morally
superior way of life of the medieval world and urged a return to the conditions operative in the earlier period.

A detail from kings


college Cambridge
shows the delicate
tracery , multiple
muntin bars and ogee
curves distinctive of
gothic style.

St. Peters church , Cobourg, Upper Canada faade has lancet windows and doors .

A central rose window on the tower is accentuated by a horizontal band.

The parapets on both the tower and the aisles are castellated.

VERGEBOARD - decorative wooden edging .


OGEE CURVES
LANCET WINDOWS AND DOORS
CURVED FOUR CENTERED ARCHES

GREEK REVIVAL

GOTHIC REVIVAL

The Gothic Revival began life as a


celebration of the spirit and forms of a
time other than its own: the Middle Ages.

The Greek Revival thus cast the ancient


principles of classical Greece in the
mould of eighteenth century rationality

An attitude of passion and emotion.

An attitude of reason an order.

PALACE OF WESTMINSTER
LONDON

The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords,
the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

The Palace lies on the Middle bank of the River Thames in the City of Westminster, in central
London.

The design of architect Charles Barry was perpendicular Gothic Style.

The construction lasted for thirty years.

HISTORY

The first royal palace was built on the site in the eleventh century, and Westminster was the primary
London residence of the Kings of England until a fire destroyed much of the complex in 1512.

The subsequent competition for the reconstruction of the Palace was won by architect Charles
Barry and his design for a building in the Perpendicular Gothic style.

Construction started in 1840 and lasted for thirty years, suffering great delays and cost overruns, as
well as the death of both leading architects; works for the interior decoration continued intermittently
well into the twentieth century

EXTERIOR

The stonework of the building was originally Anston, a sand - coloured


magnesian limestone quarried in the villages of Anston.

The stone, however, soon began to decay due to pollution and the poor quality of some of
the stone used.

In 1928 it was deemed necessary to use Clipsham Stone, a honey- coloured limestone
from Rutland, to replace the decayed Anston.

The river frontage is 286.5 metres (940 feet) long and built in Perpendicular-Gothic style.

The Palace of Westminster features three main towers:


Victoria Tower
Clock Tower
Octagonal Central Tower

VICTORIA
TOWER

OCTAGONAL
CENTRAL
TOWER

BIG BEN

VICTORIA TOWER

The largest and tallest, 98.5-metre (323 ft).

Occupies the south-western corner of the Palace.

At the base of the tower is the Sovereign's


Entrance, the 15 m (50 ft) high archway is richly
decorated with sculptures.

CLOCK TOWER

At the north end of the Palace rises the most famous of the towers,
the Clock Tower, commonly known as Big Ben.

Is 96 meters (316 ft), is only slightly shorter than the Victoria Tower
but much slimmer.

It also lowered the floor to the level of a Purbeck stone floor


(discovered by excavation and believed to be of Richard II's time),
and laid the present York stone paving.

OCTAGONAL CENTRAL TOWER

It is the shortest of the three principal towers being 91m high


and stands over the middle of the building, immediately
above the Central Lobby.

Barry chose for it the form of a spire in order to balance the


effect of the more massive lateral towers.

Apart from the pinnacles


which rise from between
the window bays along the
fronts of the Palace,
numerous turrets enliven
the building's skyline.

There are a number of


small gardens surrounding
the Palace of Westminster.

Victoria Tower Gardens is


open as a public park
along the side of the river
south of the palace.

INTERIOR

The Palace of Westminster contains


over 1,100 rooms, 100 staircases and
4.8 kilometers (3 mi) of
passageways, which are spread over
four floors.

The ground floor is occupied by


offices, dining rooms and bars

The first floor (known as the principal


floor) houses the main rooms of the
Palace, including the debating
chambers, the lobbies and the
libraries.

The top-two floors are used as


committee rooms and offices.

Instead of one main entrance, the


Palace features separate entrances
for the different user groups of the
building.

The grandest entrance to the Palace


of Westminster is the Sovereign's
Entrance beneath the Victoria Tower
called as Normans Porch.

Looking back towards the entrance.

A: Sovereign's entrance (Victoria Tower above)


B: Sovereign's robing room
C: Royal gallery
D: Chamber of the House of Lords
E: Central lobby
F: Chamber of the House of Commons
G: Westminster Hall
H: Clock Tower (containing Big Ben)

The Robing Room : The Robing


room is principally used by the
Sovereign for the State Opening of
Parliament.

The Royal Gallery : The Royal Gallery is


used for important occasions including
state receptions, dinners and
parliamentary ceremonies, often with
Members of both Houses present.

The Lords Chamber : It has the grandest


interior because it is where the three elements
of Parliament (the Sovereign, the Lords and
the Commons) come together.

The Central Lobby : Central Lobby is the core


of the Palace of Westminster and was
designed by Charles Barry as a meeting place
for Members of both Houses, and where MPs
can meet their constituents.
It is a lofty stone octagon with an intricately
tiled floor, and a rich mosaic-covered vault.
The very distinctive Central Tower is built over
the Central Lobby

WESTMINSTERS HALL

The roof was probably originally


supported by pillars, giving
three aisles, but during the
reign of King Richard II , this
was replaced by a hammer
beam roof by the royal
carpenter Hugh Herland

Westminster Hall has the


largest clearspan medieval roof
in England, measuring 20.7 by
73.2 metres (68 by 240 ft).

the original roof was


constructed with Irish black oak
from County Galway and the
chestnut roof timberwork was
framed in 1395 at Farnham in
Surrey.

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

In redesigning the roof,


Herland fashioned great oak
beams to serve as horizontal
supports fixed to the walls

Wooden arches joined to the


top of these beams met
centrally in a span of 18
metres (60 feet) or more.

Onto these arches the


craftsmen built the slopes of
the roof, with its weight
borne by the hammer-beams
supported in their turn by the
buttressed walls.

Two great lanterns on the


ridge of the roof (to let
smoke out and light and air
in) were completed in 139798.

KEY DATES

1834 - The Great Fire destroys most of Palace

1835 - Competition to find architect for rebuild

1847 - The Lord's Chamber completed

1852 - The Common's Chamber completed

1859 - Big Ben installed in the Clock Tower

1860 - Victoria Tower completed

1870 - The rebuilding of the Palace completed

1883 - Electric lighting installed in the House of Lords

1912 - Electric lighting installed in the House of Commons

1920 - A large fragment of stone fell from the Victoria Tower

1936 - Restoration work of Victoria Tower

1990 - Victoria Tower restored

2000 - Portcullis House completed

ROMANTICISM

It refers to movement in art, literature and music during the 19th Century.

It was characterized by 5 Is: Imagination,Intuition,Idealism,Inspiration,Individuality.

Imagination:

It emphasized on reason. This was a back task against rationalism characterized by the neo
classical period or Age of reason. Imagination was considered necessary for all creative art.

Intuition:
Intuition or feeling and instincts over reason, emotions played an important role.

Idealism:

Idealism is a concept that we can make the world a better place. The theory of emphasis of
spirit, mind or language over matter.

Inspiration:
Going with moment or being spontaneous, rather than getting it precise.

Individuality:

It celebrates the individual.

ROMANTICISM
It was the movement following the French revolution.

The art movement across all arts, visual arts, music and literature.

Romanticism emphasized on art which was emotional, deeply felt, individualizing and exotic
and literature was emphasized on expression and feeling.

Neo classical

Neo classical
Order, calm, harmony,
balance, rationality,
materialism, didactic,
socially conscious.

Romanticism
Spontaneity, emotion,
subjective, individuality,
irrational, imaginative,
personal, visionary,
transcend.

Romanticism