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Christian

Rie

Period 3

Activity1.2.2AnalogandDigitalSignals

Introduction

Eventhoughthisisacourseindigitalelectronics,itisimportanttounderstandthattheworld

aroundusisanalog.Virtuallyeverythingthatcanbedesignedwithdigitalelectronicsisusedto

eithercontrolormonitorsomethingintheworldaroundus,andthisworldisanalog.Thus,tobe

aneffectivedesignerofdigitalelectronics,itisimportantforyoutounderstandthe
characteristicsofbothanaloganddigitalsignals.

Inthisactivityyouwillexamineseveralanaloganddigitalsignalstodeterminetheiramplitude,

period,andfrequency.Additionally,youwillgainexperienceusingtheoscilloscopewithinthe

CircuitDesignSoftware(CDS).

Equipment

CircuitDesignSoftware(CDS)

Calculator

Procedure

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1. Foreachofthetwoanalogsignalsshownbelow,determinetheiramplitude(peak),
amplitude(peakpeak),period(T),andfrequency(f).Besuretoputyouranswerinproper
engineeringnotationandusethecorrectunits.

Amp(peak):

Amp(peakpeak):

Period:

Frequency:

Amp(peak):

Amp(peakpeak):

Period:

Frequency:

Note:Whyisnttheabovesignalconsideredadigitalsignal?

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2. Foreachofthetwodigitalsignalsshownbelow,determinetheamplitude,period(T),
frequency(f),timehigh(tH),timelow(tL),anddutycycle(DC).Besuretoputyouranswer
inproperengineeringnotationandusethecorrectunits.

Amplitude:

Period:

Frequency:

TimeHigh:

TimeLow:

DutyCycle:

Amplitude:

Period:

Frequency:

TimeHigh:

TimeLow:

DutyCycle:

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3. UsingtheCircuitDesignSoftware(CDS),enterthetestcircuitshownbelow.Thiscircuit
consistsofaCLOCK_VOLTAGE,aDC_POWER(battery)andtwo5vLAMPS.This
circuitdoesntreallydomuchofanythingusefulotherthanmakethetwolampsflash,but
wewillbeusingittogainexperienceusingtheoscilloscopetomeasuresignals.

a) OpentheCLOCK_VOLTAGEcomponentbydoubleclickingonitandsetthe
frequency,dutycycle,andvoltageto20Hz,10%,and5volts.

b) Likewise,opentheDC_POWERandsetthevoltageto5volts.

c) Finally,connecttheOSCILLOSCOPEtothepositivesideoftheCLOCK_VOLTAGE
component.

d) Startthesimulation.Arethelampsflashing?Doestheflashingratemakesensefor
thefrequencyanddutycycleoftheCLOCK_VOLTAGE?Ifnot,reviewyoursetupand
makeanynecessarycorrections.

e) Nowthatthecircuitisworking,usetheoscilloscopetomeasurethesignalbeing
generatedbytheCLOCK_VOLTAGE.Usethemarkerstomeasuretheperiod,time
high,andtimelow.Usethisdatatocalculatethefrequencyanddutycycleofthe
signal.

f) Dothemeasured(andcalculated)valuesmatchthosesetupinthe
CLOCK_VOLTAGEdevice?Ifnot,reviewyourmeasurementsandmakeany
necessarycorrections.

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Conclusion
Listthecharacteristicthatmakesadigitalsignaldifferentfromananalogsignal.

Digital
signals are discrete, have finite values (2), and are less exact

but
easier to work with. Analog signals are continuous, have infinite

values,
and are more exact but harder to work with.

Inthediagramshownbelow,labelthepartsoftheanalogsignal.

A: Amplitude (peak to peak)

B: Amplitude (peak)

C: Period

Inthediagramshownbelow,labelthepartsofthedigitalsignal.

A: Amplitude

B: High Time

C: Period

D: Low Time

E: Rising Edge

F: Falling Edge

Whatarethetwostandardvoltagelevelsthatareacceptableforadigitalsignal?

Digital signals accept 0 V and 5 V as standards.

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