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# 5.9.

Exercises
1. Consider the transfer of a file containing 1 million characters from one computer to
another. Transfer consists of a sequence of cycles. For one cycle, a = (time for data
packet + propagation) + (time for ack packet + propagation). The throughput refers to
the number of sequences required to transfer 1 million characters. Each character in its
digital form requires 8 bits. The two computers are D = 1 km apart, and each generates
a data rate of b = 1 Mb/s, with a packet size s = 256 bits, which includes 80 bits of
overhead. The propagation speed on the bus is 200 m/sec. Find the total elapsed time
using throughput and C for the following two cases.
a. A bus topology, with each frame acknowledged with an 88-bit frame before the next
frame is sent.
b. A ring topology having a total circular length of 2D, with the two computers D
distance apart. Acknowledgment is achieved by allowing a frame to circulate past
the destination user back to the source user. The ring has N = 100 repeaters, each of
which introduces a delay of 1 bit time.
Jawab:
a. Paket 88 Bit Data Part=88-80
Laju propagasi= 200 m/s
Waktu satu siklus = (waktu transmisi + waktu propagasi) untuk paket data+ (waktu
transmisi + waktu propagasi) untuk paket ack
s
D
paket bit
D
Waktu satu siklus=
+
+(
+
)
laju data laju propagasi
laju data laju propagasi

m
)
( 10256bpsbit + 200100010mm/s )+( 1088 bitbps + 2001000
10 m/ s

## waktu satu siklus=354 106 s

waktu total=(waktu satu siklus)
6

## waktu total=( 354 10 s )

bit total
ukuran data paket

## 8 bit per kanal 106 kanal

176 bit per paket

## waktu total=16 s per paket

b.

D
paket bit
D
+
)
( lajusdata + laju propagasi
)+( laju
data laju propagasi

## Waktu satu siklus=

256 +100/2
1 bit
1000 m
6
50 node 1bit per node
1000 m
) +(
Waktu satu siklus=( 10 bps+
+
)
6
6
200 10 m/ s
10 bps
200 10 6 m/ s
waktu satu siklus=366 106 s
waktu total=(waktu satu siklus)
waktu total=( 366 106 s )

bit total
ukuran data paket

## 8 bit per kanal 106 kanal

176 bit per paket

## waktu total=16 ,54 s per paket

2. We want to design a coaxial LAN for 12 offices arranged on three similar floors, each
floor having two rows with 2 offices and the rows separated by a hallway. Each office is
5 m x 5 m with a height of 3 m. The LAN center is in the center of the ground floor
beneath the three office floors. Assume that each office requires two IP telephone lines
and retrieves two Web pages per minute at the average rate of 22 K per page.
a. Estimate the distance from each office to the LAN center.
b. Estimate the required available bit rate for the LAN.
Jawab :
Misalkan komputer dan telepon ditaruh pada pojok ruangan

## a. Lantai 2: d=5+ 3+5=13 m

Lantai 3: d=5+ 3+3+5=16 m
Lantai 4: d=5+ 3+3+3+5=19 m
b. Laju VoIP tiap kantor = 64 2=128 kbps
Laju web tiap kantor =

(28 kB tiap hal . web per detik 601 ) ( 2 menit ) 8 bit =5.86 kbps
Laju LAN = ( 128+5.86 ) kbps 12kantor=1.6 Mbps
3. Consider a 1 km bus LAN with a number of equally spaced computers with a data rate
of 100 Mb/s.
a. Assume a propagation speed of 200 m/s. What is the mean time to send a frame of
1,000 bits to another computer, measured from the beginning of transmission to the
end of reception?
b. Assume a mean distance between pairs of computers to be 0.375 km, an
approximation based on the following observation: For a computer on one end, the
average distance is 0.5 km. For a computer in the center, the average distance is

0.25 km. With this assumption, the time to send is transmission time plus
propagation time.
c. If two computers with a mean distance of 0.37 km start transmitting at the same
time, their frames interfere with each other. If each transmitting computer monitors
the bus during transmission, how long does it take before it notices a collision?
Show your answer in terms of both time and bit time.
Jawab :
a. dan b. jarak rata-rata = 0.375 km
waktu total tiap frame=( waktu transmisi + waktu propagasi )
waktu total tiap frame=

375 m
+
6
6 m
100 10 bps
200 10
s

## waktu total tiap frame=11.87 s

b. waktu dalam detik = untuk mendeteksi tumbukan di titik tengah jarak antara 2
pengguna = waktu total untuk mengirim frame ke titik tengah yang menuju
tumbukan dan kemudian mendeteksi kembali tumbukan =
( 0.5 11.87 s )+ ( 0.5 11.87 s )=11.87 s
7

## waktu dalam bit = 11.87 s 10 bps=1,187 bit

4. Consider a 100 Mb/s 100BaseT Ethernet LAN with four attached users, as shown in
Figure 5.5. In a nonpersistent CSMA/CD algorithm, a user normally waits 512g bit
times after a collision before sending its frame, where g is drawn randomly. Assume
that a 96 bit times of waiting period are needed for clearing the link from the jammed
signal in the 100BaseT Ethernet LAN. Assume that only user 1 and user 4 are active
and that the propagation delay between them is 180 bit times. Suppose that these two
users try to send frames to each other and that their frames collide at the half-way LAN
link. User 1 then chooses g = 2, whereas user 4 picks g = 1, and both retransmit.
a. How long does it take for user 1 to start its retransmission?
b. How long does it take for user 4 to start its retransmission?
c. How long does it take the frame from user 4 take to reach user 1?
Jawab:
Laju data=100 Mbps
waktu 96 bit untuk clearing
t p =180 b

a.

g=2

8
5
waktu transmisi ulang = ( 96 512 2 ) 10 =1.1210 s
g=1
b.
8
5
Waktu transmisi ulang = ( 96+512 ) 10 =6.08 10 s

c.

l
180 bit
t p= =
=1.8 106 s
c 100 Mbps

5. For a CSMA/CD system, consider the throughput derived from Equation (5.15). Set
two parameters in this equation: = tp/T and = T.
a. Rewrite the throughput in terms of and , and denote it by Un.
b. Comment why Rn is in terms of frames/time slot and why can be called "offered
load" in this case.
c. Using a computer, sketch four plots all in one chart for Un in terms of , given
={0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0}, and comment on the behavior of the normalized
throughput, Un.
Jawab :
t
= p
a.
T
=T

R=

pt
=
t B +t

t p

t p

T +2 t p

1e
1
+

e
p
( T +2 t p ) + e

T
U n=
=
( T + 2 )+ e +2 + e
b.

## Rn dalam frame per detik dikarenakan throughput R dinormalisasi.

mempermudah untuk estimasi system.
beban yang ditawarkan karena

Rn

sama dengan

## dikalikan T (durasi frame dalam detik) menghasilkan offered load.

={ 0.001,0 .01,0.1,1 .0 }
c.

0.001
e
T
U n 1=
+ 2 ( 0.001 )+ e( 0.001 )
0.01
e
T
U n 2=
( 0.01 )
+ 2 ( 0.01 )+ e
0.1
e
T
U n 1=
+ 2 ( 0.1 )+ e( 0.1 )
1
e
T
U n 1=
+ 2 +e1
6. For a local area network using CSMA/CD, assume a 12 percent frame error rate owing
to noise and errors resulting from collisions. Discuss how the throughput U could be
affected.
7. A 10 Gb/s Ethernet LAN with ten users attached to it uses CSMA/CD. The bus is about
10 meters, and users' frames are restricted to a maximum size 1,500 bytes. Based on the
statistics, four users in average are active at the same time.
a. Find the frame propagation and transmission times.
b. Find the average utilization of the bus.
c. Find the probability that a user attempts to transmit frames in an empty time slot.
d. Find the probability that a user attempts seven different times in seven different
empty slots to transmit its frame and is not successful, owing to collision, but is
successful on the eighth attempt.
e. Find the average number of contentions.
Jawab :
na =4
l=1 0

n=10
f =1500 byte 8 b=1200 bit

a.

l
10
8
t p= =
=3.33 10 s
8
c 3 10

f
12000 b
t r= =
=1.2106 s
9
r 10 10 bps
tr
1.2 106 s
=
=0.973 s
t r +t p 1.2 106 s +3.33 108 s

b.

u=

c.

41
4

n a1 n 1
pc =(
) =
na
a

d.

na =7,i=7
71
7

n a1 n 1
pc =(
) =
na
a

## pi= pc =(1 pc )i=0.387(10.387)7=0.0116

e.

na =4
E [ c ]=

1p c 10.387
=
=1.52
pc
0.387

8. Using the CSMA details discussed in this chapter, sketch a block diagram that
represents the implementation of this algorithm for the following cases:
a. Nonpersistent CSMA
b. p-persistent CSMA
Jawab:
a. Nonpersistent CSMA

b. p-persistent CSMA

9. Design (show only the network) a LAN system for a small five-story building. One
floor is dedicated to two mail servers and separated three database servers. Each of
remaining floor has four computers with broadband access. Your design should meet the
following restrictions and conditions: three-input hubs, one bridge, and unlimited
Ethernet buses. The incoming broadband Internet access must be connected to a sixrepeater ring, no bus LAN is allowed outside of a floor, and a traffic analyzer must be
attached to the network.
Jawab :