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Republic of the Philippines

Department of Environment and Natural Resources


Asian Development Bank

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AEA Technology In Association With GlobalWorks CalRecovery ENR Consultants

METRO MANILA SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT (TA 3848-PHI)

FINAL REPORT

REPORT No: 12
SECTOR COORDINATION
AND
INTERNATIONAL DONOR INTERVENTION

Project Team
Neil Varey, AEA Technology, Project Director
Luis F. Diaz, CalRecovery, Inc., Technical Team Leader
Nick Allen, GlobalWorks, Disposal
Levi Buenafe, GlobalWorks, Institutional
Horace Crowe, AEA Technology, Institutional
Luis Diaz, CalRecovery, Inc., Medical Waste
Linda Eggerth, CalRecovery, Inc., Community Awareness
Grace Favila, ENR Consultants, Community Awareness
Manjit Kahlon, AEA Technology, Solid Waste
Roger Lopez, ENR Consultants, Social
Agnes Palacio, GlobalWorks, Financial
Richard Pook, AEA Technology, Financial
Reynor Rollan, ENR Consultants, Disposal
Joey Sta. Ana, GlobalWorks, Solid Waste

September 2003

ADB TA 3848-PHI: Metro Manila Solid Waste Management Project

Final Report

Table of Contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..............................................................................................................................i
1.

Introduction.......................................................................................................................................... 1

Coordination and Advisory Support .................................................................................................... 1

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
3.
3.1
3.2
3.3

Barangays and Community-Based Entities.................................................................................. 1


Local Government Units ............................................................................................................... 2
National Government Agencies.................................................................................................... 3
Civil Society .................................................................................................................................. 3
International Donor Agencies ....................................................................................................... 4
Medical Waste Management ........................................................................................................ 5
Recommendations........................................................................................................................ 5
International Donor Intervention.......................................................................................................... 6
Historical Perspective ................................................................................................................... 6
Current Initiatives ........................................................................................................................ 14
Future Intervention...................................................................................................................... 16

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report summarizes coordination and advisory activities completed to facilitate TA and sector
progress. International donor agency interventions in the Metro Manila solid waste management sector
over the past decade are also reviewed, and opportunities are identified for future donor support.

Coordination and Advisory Support


Coordination activities have supported a range of solid waste management initiatives, primarily to
facilitate development of key TA activities. These are summarized as follows;
Barangays and Community-Based Entities: Coordination support has been provided to
implement CBSWM program assessments, and develop the CBSWM Pilot Project Advisory
Facility (CBSWM Facility)1. This has included; (i) field reviews of Metro Manila CBSWM
schemes; (ii) facilitating barangay and NGO discussions; (iii) an initial CBSWM workshop with
civil society groups to discuss CBSWM opportunities and constraints and establish a
coordination network; (iv) meetings with donor agencies involved in Metro Manila CBSWM
initiatives to ensure program compatibility; (v) ensuring CBSWM civil society TA involvement
through meetings and working groups; (vi) implementing CBSWM technical workshops; (vii)
ensuring CBSWM is a focus of Technical Working Group (TWG) and TA Steering Committee
meetings; (viii) attending major events such as a barangay national conference in support of
Earth Day, and a CBSWM seminar hosted by the Rotary Club of Metro Manila; (ix) assisting
with CBSWM Facility development including LGU meetings; and (x) developing the NSWMC
website as an important CBSWM coordinative and technical resource;
Local Government Units: Promoting the involvement and coordination of the 17 Metro Manila
local government units (LGUs) through; (i) meeting senior officials of every Metro Manila LGU to
encourage TA involvement and support; (ii) conducting an LGU survey; (iii) promoting LGU
involvement through technical workshops, working group meetings2, field visits and meetings;
(iv) conducting additional meetings plus a three-day extensive workshop program3 for the eight
LGUs selected for additional assistance4; (v) providing additional technical support to LGUs
when requested; and (vi) promoting coordination of LGU operational personnel through the
Waste Analysis and Characterization Studies (WACS).
National Government Agencies: Augmenting coordination between national agencies
including; (i) working alongside the NSWMC and Secretariat, and providing wide ranging advice
and specialist support; (ii) coordinating activities with other DENR departments, such as the
Foreign Assisted Special Projects Office (FASPO), the Environmental Management Bureau
(EMB), the Public Affairs Office (PAO), and the Environmental Education and Information
Division (EEID); (iii) assisting the Department of Health (DOH) in medical waste management5;
1

2
3

ADB TA fund allocation to support pilot barangay CBSWM projects within Metro Manila.
TA Working Groups included; (i) Information, Education and Communication; (ii) Technical Solid Waste Management;
(iii) Medical Waste Management; (iv) Institutional and Regulatory; (v) CBSWM; and (vi) Financial Management.
TA workshops included; (i) solid waste management issues and problems; (ii) medical waste management issues and
problems; (iii) issues in developing LGU 10-Year Solid Waste Management Plans; (iv) preparation of a draft manual,
medical waste management; (v) solid waste treatment and disposal; (vi) annotated outline for LGU 10-Year Solid
Waste Management Plans; (vii) waste characterization study procedures for Metro Manila; (viii) description of selected
CBSWM facilities; (ix) materials recovery and recycling; (x) composting; (xi) sanitary landfills; (xii) financial
arrangements for solid waste management; and (xiii) medical waste strategy development.
This initiative included; (i) guidance on solid waste management technologies; (ii) development of a solid waste
management planning tool; (iii) preparation of an annotated outline for LGU 10-Year Solid Waste Management Plans
(LGU Plans); (iv) assistance in the preparation of LGU Plans; (v) conduct of waste characterization surveys; and (vi)
assistance with the development of community-based recycling projects.
DOH: member of the medical waste management and institutional and regulatory TA working groups.

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(iv) collaborating with the Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) on waste disposal
assessment and strategy development and involving them in meetings, workshops and working
groups6; (v) coordinating with and involving in workshops, working groups and meetings as
necessary the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG)7, the Department of
Trade and Industry (DTI)8; the Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA), the Philippine
Information Agency (PIA)9, and the Department of Science and Technology (DOST)10; (vi)
attending NSWMC and Metro Manila Solid Waste Management Board meetings; (vii) holding
discussions with the League of Cities and League of Municipalities; and (viii) advising the Office
of the President11 on Metro Manila disposal issues.
Civil Society: Maintaining coordination with civil society groups through; (i) involvement in TA
meetings, workshops and presentations12; (ii) discussions with private-sector recycling,
manufacturing and packaging representatives; (iii) discussions with members of the Solid Waste
Contractors Association of the Philippines (SWACAP)13; and (iv) meeting private-sector
dumpsite operators and private sector groups currently proposing sanitary landfill solutions.
The NSWMC website has also been developed which will improve civil society coordination and
information access.
International Donor Agencies: Coordinative activities have included; (i) researching donor
agencies14; (ii) coordination with sector-active international donor agencies throughout the TA;
(iii) DENR-initiated donor coordination meetings to review current programs and highlight areas
where further donor intervention could be beneficial; and (iv) maintaining close coordination with
relevant ADB departments in order to fully report and discuss TA and sector progress.
Medical Waste Management; Providing targeted coordinative support including; (i) assisting
DOH and the Inter-Agency Committee on Environmental Health (IACEH)15 through advisory
meetings and planning sessions; (ii) providing technical and financial support for DOH
workshops; (iii) coordinating TA activities with the BOT Center of the Department of Trade and
Industry (DTI), the Philippine Hospitals Association (PHA) and the Philippine Medical
Association (PMA); (iv) actively involving DOH in TA meetings, workshops and working groups;
(v) collaborating technical assistance with the World Health Organization (WHO)16; (vi)
enhancing DOH operational personnel coordination through the conduct of a medical waste
characterization survey: (vii) liaising with Metro Manila medical institutions during the
performance of a medical waste generator survey; and (viii) meetings and discussions with
private sector medical waste treatment and disposal service providers.

6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

15
16

MMDA: member of the institutional and regulatory, IEC, CBSWM and financial management TA working groups.
DILG: member of the IEC, institutional and regulatory, and CBSWM working groups
The BOT Center of DTI: member of CBSWM, medical waste and financial management TA working groups.
PIA: member of the IEC working group
DOST: member of the CBSWM TA working group.
Office of the Presidential Advisor for Strategic Projects (OPASP).
NGOs involved in CBSWM have provided valuable assistance in the conduct of community-based activities throughout
the TA, including their assistance to develop the IEC strategy of the TA
SWACAP, which represents many of the Metro Manila waste collection and disposal contractors, also attended the
Solid Waste Treatment and Disposal workshop.
Including Asian Development Bank (ADB), World Bank (WB), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), World
Health Organization (WHO), European Union (EU), USAID, USAEP, United Kingdom Department for International
Development (DFID), Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Australian Agency for International
Development (AusAID), Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), German Technical Cooperation (GTZ),
Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), and the development agencies of France and Austria.
The IACEH is a highly specialized technical committee convened to assist in medical waste management strategy
development and address key issues, including medical waste disposal.
World Health Organization, Environmental Health and Urban Development Division.

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ii

Recommendations: The following coordination initiatives are recommended;


(i)

Continuation of RA 9003 mandated national (NSWMC), metro-wide (Metro Manila Solid


Waste Board) and local (LGU Solid Waste Board) meetings to maintain formalized
sector coordination;

(ii)

Continuation of the TA working groups17 by the NSWMC Secretariat;

(iii)

Continuation by the NSWMC Secretariat to coordinate LGU Plan development for the
eight TA-assisted LGUs, followed by LGU Plan development for the other nine LGUs;

(iv)

Progressive improvement, expansion and integration of the NSWMC website and


encouragement to government stakeholders to immediately establish internet capability;

(v)

NSWMC consideration of additional meetings to enhance sector coordination including;


(i) a CBSWM quarterly workshop; (ii) a quarterly international donor meeting; (iii) a
quarterly meeting with waste collection and disposal stakeholders; and (iv) a medical
waste management coordination meeting in conjunction with DOH and IACEH.

International Donor Intervention


International donors have provided considerable financial investments and technical assistance
initiatives to Metro Manila solid waste management. These initiatives are reviewed, and conclusions
are drawn regarding their success. Ongoing initiatives are also summarized, and opportunities
identified for further donor support.
Historical Perspective:
Progress (1990-91): The early 1990s marked a breakthrough in Metro Manila solid waste
management, with the opening of the World Bank funded San Mateo and Carmona regional
sanitary landfill facilities for Metro Manila waste. This represented a major step forward in solid
waste management, and a major achievement for the Government and the World Bank. For
most of the remainder of the decade, both facilities continued to operate, but as described later
they both progressively degenerated to the point of forced closure.
Quiescence (1992-97): Metro Manila enjoyed a relatively quiescent time in solid waste
management, and apart from two major donor initiatives there was little donor activity. These
initiatives included; (i) DOH procurement of 26 medical waste incinerators and 36 microwavedisinfection units from the Austrian government; and (ii) solid waste management improvements
to Pasig River communities from DANIDA and ADB funded environmental rehabilitation
projects.
Decline (1998-99): By this time, standards at the Carmona and San Mateo facilities had
progressively declined, public opposition had mounted, and ultimately the Carmona facility was
forced to close. Positive donor-led developments did occur in this period including; (i)
completion of a toxic and hazardous waste project (European Union); (ii) commencement of two
provincial development programs, the PRMDP and LGSP18, which included solid waste
17

18

Including; (i) Information, Education and Communication; (ii) Technical Solid Waste Management; (iii) Medical Waste
Management; (iv) Institutions and Regulatory; (v) Community Based Solid Waste Management; and (vi) Financial
Management working groups.
The ADB and AusAID financed Philippine Regional Municipal Development Project (PRMDP) and Phase II of the
CIDA- financed Local Government Support Program (LGSP).

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iii

management; (iii) completion of the World Bank SWEEP project19; and (iv) completion of the
JICA Masterplan20 which developed a Metro Manila masterplan for residual waste collection,
transfer and disposal. The Clean Air Act was also enacted, severely restricting the thermal
treatment of waste. This was a serious development for DOH, who only two years previously
had purchased 26 incinerators, which along with other incinerators, are required to terminate
operations in mid-2003.
As the millennium drew to a close, Metro Manila solid waste management was plunged into
crisis. This was caused by the forced closure of the San Mateo facility in late 1999 due to local
public opposition, resulting in an immediate deficiency in disposal capacity.
Crisis (2000-01): The disposal crisis hit suddenly, and rapidly reached serious and potentially
catastrophic proportions. It placed tremendous pressure on the existing dumpsites to
accommodate the additional waste. To add to the tragedy, a catastrophic slide occurred at the
Payatas Dumpsite (Quezon City) in July 2000 smothering an urban poor settlement area and
killing over 200 people.
The crisis seriously affected donor initiatives. The forced closure of Carmona and San Mateo
represented a needless waste of municipal infrastructure. Many donor initiatives developed in
the 1998-99 period were curtailed. The World Bank SWEEP project was dropped, and the
recommendations of the JICA Masterplan, and reportedly the European Union hazardous waste
study were not implemented. Waste was piling up in the streets, there was heightened public
awareness and concern, and the entire sector was in a state of crisis. In addition, USAID
provided technical support to assist with a major Government-led private sector procurement
initiative to rapidly secure a regional transfer and disposal system. Although this resulted in the
successful selection of a preferred bidder, this too was later curtailed due to legal impediment.
This was certainly not the situation that the international donor community had expected, and
not one in which they were comfortable.
Aftermath (2001-03): Although Metro Manila still confronts serious residual waste disposal
deficiencies, the perceived level of overall concern has dropped considerably since 2000 due
primarily to the development of several hastily-conceived dumpsites within the metropolis. The
sector has also gained considerably from the enactment of RA 9003 in 2001, which for the first
time, provides an integrated approach to solid waste management. Following the crisis, there
was a virtual suspension of donor activities in the sector apart from the ongoing provincial
programs, although even the PRMDP has subsequently faced difficulties relating to solid waste
component implementation. Since late 2001 however, donor activity has again re-activated with
several innovative projects currently being implemented21.

19
20
21

The World Bank Solid Waste Ecological Enhancement Project (SWEEP), a technical assistance project to formulate a
US$ 55 million loan for solid waste management improvements for seven LGUs in intermediate provincial cities.
The Study on Solid Waste Management For Metro Manila In The Republic of the Philippines, Japanese International
Cooperation Agency, 1999 (JICA Masterplan).
These include; (i) the USAID Philippine Environmental Governance Project (ECOGOV) providing technical assistance
in solid waste management to 43 LGUs throughout Mindanao, the Visayas and northern Luzon; (ii) the JBIC Ecological
Solid Waste Management Plan Project (ESWMP) which is formulating LGU Plans in three provincial cities; (iii) the
UNDP and JICA Community Based Ecological Solid Waste Management Project (CBESWMP) which is promoting
CBSWM projects in at least 10 Metro Manila barangays; and (iv) this ADB TA. Recent donor initiatives also include
provision of LGU-targeted loan facilities, supported by technical assistance and capacity building initiatives.

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iv

Conclusions: The following conclusions are drawn from the events of the past decade;
(i)

The crisis and subsequent ramifications could not have been reasonably foreseen by
donor agencies until the closure of Carmona in early 1998, by which time most of the
projects of the 1998-99 era were being developed;

(ii)

Conventional donor loan assistance focusing exclusively on solid waste management


has not worked, and even a multi-sectoral project loan, which includes solid waste
management as part of an overall package, faces implementation difficulties;

(iii)

Donor technical assistance to Government to facilitate private-sector procurement was


not ultimately successful;

(iv)

Bi-lateral donor intervention where solid waste is part of a development package has
been and continues to be perceived as successful. Examples include LGSP and
ECOGOV;

(v)

Although there is a trend to promote solid waste sector development through donor
funded LGU loan facilities, few if any Metro Manila LGUs have utilized these facilities.

Donor success in facilitating private sector participation (PSP) in solid waste management has been
mixed. PSP already dominates in residual waste collection anyway, and future donor intervention in
this regard should re-focus towards operational improvement in terms of efficiency, accountability and
transparency. RA 9003 encourages PSP in recycling, and many donors provide small-scale grants,
preferential loans and related technical assistance for CBSWM schemes. While these initiatives are
valuable, it is yet to be seen whether these pilots will be financially viable and economically sustainable
following termination of preferential donor funding, whether they can be successfully replicated
nationally, and whether they can attract and retain PSP in the longer term. Indeed, the overall financial
sustainability of recycling systems required by RA 9003 is yet to be determined, as is the necessity for
any assistance initiatives to ensure PSP attractiveness. Donors could therefore greatly encourage PSP
in the future by ensuring that CBSWM projects in which they are involved meet fundamental PSP
requirements.
Donors have also attempted to encourage PSP in solid waste disposal. For example, USAID through
the CCPSP assisted MMDA to select a waste treatment and disposal system through a Build-OperateTransfer procurement initiative. Although selection was successful, the initiative has not succeeded
due to a legal restraining order. The JICA Masterplan and the World Bank SWEEP initiatives would
also have encouraged PSP if only Government had been able to implement them. In addition, it is
reported that specialized funding modalities established by donors to support PSP initiatives are yet to
be utilized by the private sector.
Although the Government supports PSP in resolving the critical waste disposal issues, it is the
practicalities of project development that have prevented progress. A multitude of other private sector
waste disposal initiatives have been proposed for Metro Manila, but practically every one of these has
been stalled due primarily to public opposition, and/or legal impediment. From past experiences, donor
agencies should therefore consider carefully any further initiatives in PSP promotion in waste disposal.
Recent Initiatives: As shown on Figure 2, the combined assistance being provided by current
initiatives is considerable and wide-ranging. Most projects are providing institutional strengthening,
capacity building and training at the national and local level, and several are assisting civil society
groups. Many also have an RA 9003 focus, providing planning support including LGU Board
formulation and the preparation of LGU Plans, performing waste characterization assessments,
promoting CBSWM, and developing public awareness initiatives.

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There is collective emphasis on barangay-level CBSWM, and also a focus on solid waste disposal.
Medical waste management is being assisted through this TA and through WHO. Small-scale funding
is being provided, particularly for CBSWM initiatives. Although not shown on the figure, additional
projects are providing loan facilities for LGUs in support of solid waste management. Guidelines,
manuals and useful documents are also being developed through the donor interventions, relating to
medical waste, solid waste management planning, RA 9003 implementation, LGU Plan development,
waste characterization, public awareness and IEC, and CBSWM, waste collection and waste disposal
systems and facility development. Additional donor initiatives are also being planned for the sector for
later in 2003. These include another integrated solid waste management program for LGUs in Regions
VI, VII and VIII (GTZ), and the provision of a technical advisor to the NSWMC Secretariat (JICA).
Recommendations: Existing donor outputs should be thoroughly collated, integrated and distributed
nationwide to national agencies, LGUs, barangays, civil society and other stakeholders. This entire
information collection should be collated with other donor-based information and uploaded directly onto
the NSWMC and other websites. It is suggested that this be a key function of the NSWMC Secretariat.
The NSWMC Secretariat and DENR should continue with donor coordination meetings as initiated by
DENR earlier this year, focusing on the development of integrated, targeted donor assistance initiatives
to ensure adequate coordination, prevent replication and optimize valuable donor resources.
As shown on Figure 2, donors can deliver further valuable support in many areas. This is particularly
relevant for Metro Manila, and this TA Final Report package contains specific recommendations for
various sub-sectors where future donor intervention can provide significant outputs and impacts.
With regard to future ADB assistance, it is firstly important that the results and outputs of this TA be
monitored in the short-term to ascertain their level of effectiveness and impact on the sector. These
include for example; (i) the success of the pilot CBSWM projects in the selected LGUs which have been
funded through the Pilot Project Advisory Facility of the TA; (ii) the continued formulation and
implementation of the LGU Solid Waste Management Plans for selected LGUs, which have been
initiated as an integral part of the TA; (iii) implementation of the waste disposal improvement strategy,
including the Short-Term Improvement Program which is recommended for immediate implementation;
(iv) the medical waste management recommendations; (v) progress with public awareness and IEC
initiatives; (vi) improvements to national, metro-wide and local solid waste management institutions and
boards; and (x) implementation of the sector coordination recommendations.
Due to the relative volatility of the sector, particularly in regard to waste disposal, it is important to also
monitor other events and their potential impact to the sector. This is important in relation to overall
national developments, such as the upcoming national elections in mid-2004, and also to sector-specific
developments, such as the progress of sector institutions to build capacity and receive adequate
funding with which to operate.
As a progression to this advisory TA, existing ADB proposals potentially include a loan to the
Government of the Philippines in 2005, in the provisional amount of US$ 50 million, to assist with Metro
Manila solid waste management improvements. This loan facility could be utilized to support one or a
variety of Government improvement initiatives as initially defined by this TA, potentially relating to
CBSWM, waste disposal and/or medical waste management. In this regard, it is necessary for relevant
Government entities to further develop these initiatives in the short-term, in order to allow adequate
appraisal and subsequent loan packaging by ADB. Additional advisory or project preparatory technical
assistance has not been assigned to this sector at this time.

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vi

1.

Introduction

This report summarizes coordination and advisory activities completed as an integral part of the
technical assistance (TA)22. These activities have facilitated progress in key areas of the solid waste
management sector throughout the performance of the TA, particularly in relation to supporting and
promoting TA terms of reference (TOR) initiatives. Section 2 of this report summarizes the primary
coordinative activities performed.
Previous, present and proposed (future) interventions of international donor agencies in the solid waste
management sector have also been evaluated both for Metro Manila and for the Philippines in general.
This includes a review of past interventions, evaluation of ongoing sector initiatives, and the
identification of opportunities where donor assistance could provide valuable support in the future.
Discussion of donor intervention is provided in Section 3.

Coordination and Advisory Support

Targeted TA coordination support has been provided to a range of solid waste management subsectors, primarily to facilitate development of key TOR activities23. These relate to initiatives in waste
management planning, waste minimization and recycling, waste collection and transfer, waste disposal
and medical waste management, and also to facilitate capacity building and training for key institutions.
Coordinative activities conducted are summarized as follows.

2.1

Barangays and Community-Based Entities

A primary objective of the TA is to promote sustainable community-based solid waste management


(CBSWM) initiatives for Metro Manila. This is being accomplished through the completion of a CBSWM
program assessment and the selection of pilot CBSWM projects for TA financial assistance. These
activities will significantly enhance the development and implementation of CBSWM initiatives
throughout Metro Manila, and are designed to compliment other local and international-donor
sponsored programs.
Coordination activities have supported the TA objectives. Initially, field reviews were performed of
selected CBSWM schemes in Metro Manila, and detailed discussions held with barangays, NGOs and
other groups involved in CBSWM. An initial CBSWM workshop was then convened to bring together
various civil society groups to discuss opportunities and constraints relating to CBSWM and establish a
coordination network. Coordination meetings were also held with international donor agencies involved
in CBSWM24 to ensure that the proposed TA activities complimented other Metro Manila CBSWM
programs.
Subsequent support has promoted the involvement of environmentally-based NGOs throughout the TA
duration through meetings, seminars and working groups. In addition, technical workshops have
focused on CBSWM initiatives, and community-based approaches have been a focus of Technical
Working Group (TWG) and TA Steering Committee meetings. The TA team has also been active with
other coordinative tasks, including for example attending major events on behalf of the TA such as a
22
23
24

Asian Development Bank TA 3848-PHI: Metro Manila Solid Waste Management Project (MMSWMP).
The TA has been performed in full compliance with ADB procedures and protocols.
This included meetings with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) to coordinate TA activities with the
ongoing Japanese funded 3-year Community-Based Ecological Solid Waste Management Program (CBESWMP)
being implemented by the Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) and UNDP. Discussions were also held with
the United States Asian Environmental Partnership (USAEP) and the United States Agency for International
Development (USAID) who were also considering CBSWM program initiatives within Metro Manila.

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two-day national conference on solid waste management for barangays in support of Earth Day, and a
one-day seminar on community-based solid waste management hosted by the Rotary Club of Metro
Manila.
Coordination activities have also included assistance to develop the CBSWM Facility criteria and
competitive selection process, including initial meetings with LGUs to discuss the mechanics of the
selection process and implementation arrangements. As an important coordinative tool, the NSWMC
website developed through the TA will also significantly contribute to the promotion and coordination of
community-based initiatives, and it already includes initial information relating to CBSWM models and
practices.

2.2

Local Government Units

TA coordination has emphasized the involvement of, and improving the coordination between the solid
waste management departments of the 17 LGUs of Metro Manila. This commenced early in the TA,
with focused meetings with senior technical and administrative officials of every Metro Manila LGU in
order to encourage their involvement and support in the TA. In several instances, the meetings included
the mayor. A survey was also conducted in order to collate information on the LGUs.
Since that time, most LGUs have been involved in TA activities, which have included a series of
technical workshops, technical working group meetings25, field visits and individual meetings and
discussions. The eight selected LGUs have also received additional assistance26, including a three-day
extensive workshop program27 to assist in LGU Plan development. The TA team has also strived to
provide targeted technical support to LGUs when requested, and many of the LGUs have been assisted
following specific, individual requests.
TA coordination has therefore contributed to the advancement and coordination of each of the 17 Metro
Manila LGUs, and particularly the eight LGUs selected for additional assistance. Through the various
technical workshops and meetings, the LGUs have received comprehensive sector-wide technical
information and assistance, participated in many focused group discussions, and, for the first time in
many cases, worked alongside counterparts in other LGUs. This is particularly relevant for the eight
LGUs selected for additional assistance, where there has been considerable coordination between the
LGUs. LGU coordination and cooperation has also been strengthened through the formulation and
conduct of the Waste Analysis and Characterization Studies (WACS)28, where the LGUs are actively
assisting each other in the performance of the surveys and evaluation of results.

25

26

27

28

The following working groups have been implemented throughout the TA; (i) Information, Education and
Communication; (ii) Technical Solid Waste Management; (iii) Medical Waste Management; (iv) Institutional and

Regulatory; (v) Community Based Solid Waste Management; and (vi) Financial Management.

This initiative has included; (i) guidance on solid waste management technologies; (ii) development of a solid waste
management planning tool; (iii) preparation of an annotated outline for LGU 10-Year Solid Waste Management Plans
(LGU Plans); (iv) assistance in the preparation of LGU Plans; (v) conduct of waste characterization surveys; and (vi)
assistance with the development of community-based recycling projects.
TA workshops have included; (i) solid waste management issues and problems; (ii) medical waste management issues
and problems; (iii) issues in developing LGU 10-Year Solid Waste Management Plans; (iv) preparation of a draft
manual, medical waste management; (v) solid waste treatment and disposal; (vi) annotated outline for LGU 10-Year
Solid Waste Management Plans; (vii) waste characterization study procedures for Metro Manila; (viii) description of
selected CBSWM facilities; (ix) materials recovery and recycling; (x) composting; (xi) sanitary landfills; (xii) financial
arrangements for solid waste management; and (xiii) medical waste strategy development.
This has included; (i) preparation of procedures for the conduct of the WACS; (ii) training at technical working group
meetings; (iii) presentation of procedures at LGU workshops; (iv) LGU field meetings to conduct site-specific planning;
(v) orientation during field implementation; and (vi) public education activities, including press releases, media events,
distribution of a fact sheet, a training presentation and training videos.

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2.3

National Government Agencies

The TA team has worked closely with the NSWMC and Secretariat throughout the TA, and provided
coordinated advice and specialist support across a wide range of sector development activities. The TA
has provided strategic-level advice in many areas of solid waste management, including for example
waste management planning, waste characterization, IEC, CBSWM initiative development and waste
disposal regulatory enforcement In addition, the TA team has provided specific technical assistance as
requested by the Secretariat, such as to provide specialist technical reports on waste disposal sites,
advice on composting, attendance at meetings and hearings, assisting to prepare media releases, plus
other assistance initiatives29. The team has also endeavored to provide coordinated assistance to other
DENR departments, such as the Foreign Assisted Special Projects Office (FASPO), the Public Affairs
Office (PAO) and the Environmental Education and Information Division (EEID). The Environmental
Management Bureau (EMB) has also been actively involved in meetings and workshops, and several of
the EMB regional officers have attended workshops.
As described later, the TA team has worked closely with the Department of Health (DOH)30 who is the
TA medical waste management implementing agency. The TA has also strived to involve other national
agencies throughout the TA, and coordinate their activities with those of the TA. These agencies have
included the Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA), which has been extensively involved in
meetings, workshops and working groups31, particularly relating to CBSWM, institutional and regulatory,
financial and waste collection and disposal aspects. MMDA officials have also provided valuable
assistance in the performance of TA activities, particularly regarding waste disposal assessment and
development.
The Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) has also been involved in workshops,
meetings and working groups32 focusing on IEC and community-based approaches. Other national
agency involvement includes; (i) the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) who attended several of
the workshops and have been active in the working groups33; (ii) the Laguna Lake Development
Authority (LLDA) who attended workshops relating to technical aspects; (iii) the Philippine Information
Agency34 (PIA) who provided significant input into IEC plan development; and (iv) the Department of
Science and Technology (DOST) who attended several of the workshops and one working group35.
Members of the team have also attended meetings of the NSWMC and Metro Manila Solid Waste
Management Board. They have also held discussions with the League of Cities and League of
Municipalities, and both these organizations are members of the institutional and regulatory TA working
group. Sector advice has also been provided to the Office of the President36 in relation to Metro Manila
solid waste disposal constraints, and future development requirements.

2.4

Civil Society

Throughout TA implementation, coordination has been maintained with numerous civil society groups,
and many groups have been involved in the TA meetings, workshops and presentations. NGOs
involved in CBSWM have provided valuable assistance in the conduct of community-based activities
throughout the TA, including their assistance to develop the IEC strategy of the TA. Although of a less
formal nature, discussions have also been held with many private sector recycling organizations and a
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

Including an invitation to an ADB-organized seminar: A Diagnostic Approach to Assessing Public Sector


Organizations, October 2002.
DOH: member of the medical waste management and institutional and regulatory TA working groups.
MMDA: member of the institutional and regulatory, IEC, CBSWM and financial management TA working groups.
DILG: member of the IEC, institutional and regulatory, and CBSWM working groups
The BOT Center of DTI: member of CBSWM, medical waste and financial management TA working groups.
PIA: member of the IEC working group
DOST: member of the CBSWM TA working group.
Office of the Presidential Advisor for Strategic Projects (OPASP).

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survey has been completed of major junkshops. Discussions have also been held with representatives
of the manufacturing and packaging industries. Civil society coordination, cooperation and access to
information has also been greatly enhanced through the initiation of the NSWMC website, which should
ultimately provide civil society access to a wealth of information, and represents another valuable
electronic communication portal for civil society and other groups37.
Regarding waste collection and disposal, the TA has held discussions with members of the Solid Waste
Contractors Association of the Philippines (SWACAP)38. The TA team has also met with most of the
private-sector organizations operating the Metro Manila dumpsites, and with private sector groups who
are currently proposing sanitary landfill solutions. This has provided valuable information on existing
private sector operations, and also allowed these organizations to learn of other activities in the sector.
The TA has also gained media attention, and several articles have been published in metro-wide
newspapers. These have included articles regarding the objectives and achievements of the TA, and
specifically regarding LGU Plan development and waste characterization assessments.

2.5

International Donor Agencies

TA coordination activities have included research of international donor agencies39, and specifically
those who are currently active or were previously active in the waste management sector. The
assistance provided by these donor agencies over the past decade is considerable40 and has included
support in virtually every facet of solid waste management. Currently, there are several ongoing donor
funded initiatives relating to solid waste management, and emphasis has been placed where
practicable to coordinate relevant areas of the TA with these programs. In addition, DENR has
convened several pioneering donor coordination meetings with primary solid waste management donor
agencies. Progress has been achieved in these meetings in order to review current programs and
highlight areas where further donor intervention could be beneficial. Details are provided in Section 3.
Through regular discussions and meetings, close coordination has also been maintained with relevant
ADB departments in order to fully report and discuss TA and sector progress. The TA has also
successfully utilized information and findings from previous sector interventions funded by donor
agencies. Notable examples include the JICA Masterplan41 (providing useful solid waste management
planning and WACS information), WHO (providing medical waste management data), and the WB
(including their Philippines Environmental Monitor, Solid Waste, 2001).

37
38
39

40

41

Other web-based tools include the website of the Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines (SWAPP).
SWACAP, which represents many of the Metro Manila waste collection and disposal contractors, also attended the
Solid Waste Treatment and Disposal workshop.
Including Asian Development Bank (ADB), World Bank (WB), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), World
Health Organization (WHO), European Union (EU), USAID, USAEP, United Kingdom Department for International
Development (DFID), Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Australian Agency for International
Development (AusAID), Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), German Technical Cooperation (GTZ),
Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA), and the development agencies of France and Austria.
Includes institutional strengthening and reform, governance, financial analysis, capital investment, capacity building
and training, CBSWM development and implementation, medical waste management, operational assistance,
industrial and hazardous waste management, environmental planning, and environmental remediation.
The Study on Solid Waste Management For Metro Manila In The Republic of the Philippines, Japanese International
Cooperation Agency, 1999 (JICA Masterplan).

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2.6

Medical Waste Management

Medical waste treatment and disposal is an urgent issue42, and this has been fully recognized by DOH
and other agencies. In response, the DOH through the Environmental and Occupational Health
Department established the Inter-Agency Committee on Environmental Health (IACEH), a highly
specialized technical committee convened to assist in medical waste strategy development and address
key issues, including medical waste disposal. Throughout the TA, the TA team has therefore focused
medical waste technical assistance to help DOH and the IACEH address key issues and develop a
medical waste strategy for Metro Manila43. This has included advisory meetings and planning sessions
with senior officers of the DOH and IACEH, and the provision of technical and financial support for DOH
workshops. The team has also coordinated activities with the BOT Center of DTI, the Philippine
Hospitals Association (PHA) and the Philippine Medical Association (PMA). DOH have also been
actively involved in TA activities, including attendance at workshops and working groups.
Throughout the TA, coordination has also been maintained with the World Health Organization (WHO)44
in order to collaborate TA advisory assistance with ongoing WHO assistance. The TA team has also
strived to improve cooperation and coordination between other medical waste stakeholders. This
includes; (i) enhancing the coordination of DOH operations personnel through the conduct of a medical
waste characterization survey: (ii) liaising with medical institutions within Metro Manila during the
performance of a medical waste generator survey; and (iii) meetings and discussions with private sector
waste treatment and disposal service providers.

2.7

Recommendations

As discussed above, the solid waste management sector includes a wide range of government and
non-governmental stakeholders, and throughout the TA, emphasis has been placed on optimizing the
coordination and involvement of sector stakeholders wherever possible. The TA has also identified
several priority sector coordination initiatives which greatly enhance sector development. These are
summarized as follows, and it is recommended that they be initiated and / or continued;

42

43
44

45

(i)

As mandated in RA 9003, the continued regular meetings at the national level


(NSWMC), metro-wide level (Metro Manila Solid Waste Board) and LGU level (City and
Municipal Solid Waste Boards) are crucial to maintain formalized sector coordination;

(ii)

The working groups initiated during the TA45 should be continued by the NSWMC
Secretariat, as these provide a valuable mechanism for relevant stakeholders to
coordinate, discuss and promote improvements in key sector areas;

(iii)

The progress achieved by the eight selected LGUs in the preparation of LGU Plans
indicates that this initiative should be continued through additional discussions,
meetings and workshops hosted by the NSWMC Commission, and this should be
expanded to include the remaining nine Metro Manila LGUs at the soonest possible
time;

Although medical waste collection, segregation, storage and transfer deficiencies are significant, medical waste
treatment and disposal issues are serious and immediate. Only a portion of Metro Manila medical waste receives
treatment, primarily through incinerators operated by government and the private sector. As a result of the Clean Air
Act, these incinerators are required to terminate operation during mid 2003, leaving the entire sector without adequate
treatment and disposal.
Presented in the TA Medical Waste Management Report.
World Health Organization, Environmental Health and Urban Development Division.
Including; (i) Information, Education and Communication; (ii) Technical Solid Waste Management; (iii) Medical Waste
Management; (iv) institutions and Regulatory; (v) Community Based Solid Waste Management; and (vi) Financial
Management working groups.

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3.

(iv)

The NSWMC website should be progressively improved, expanded and integrated with
other websites to ultimately include a wealth of solid waste management information
relating to Metro Manila, and to provide a useful communication portal for a wide variety
of stakeholders. In addition, government stakeholders and particularly Metro Manila
LGUs should be encouraged to establish internet capability at the soonest time;

(v)

The NSWMC should consider enhancing stakeholder coordination through additional


targeted meetings to be held periodically with key groups, as follows;
(a)

A CBSWM quarterly workshop involving a wide range of active barangays,


NGOs and private sector recycling entities in order to review progress and
coordinate proposed activities;

(b)

A quarterly international donor meeting with interested donors in order to


continue progress achieved at the recent donor meetings;

(c)

A quarterly meeting on Metro Manila waste collection and disposal in order to


bring together government agencies, private-sector waste collection and
disposal organizations and civil society groups to discuss future solutions for
Metro Manila waste disposal; and

(d)

In conjunction with DOH and the IACEH, convene regular meetings with relevant
government agencies and stakeholders to review progress in resolving medical
waste management issues, particularly relating to medical waste disposal.

International Donor Intervention

Over the past decade, international multi-lateral and bi-lateral donors have invested significantly in the
Metro Manila solid waste management sector. This has included major financial investments and
technical assistance initiatives across a wide range of sector activities by over a dozen of the primary
multi-lateral and bi-lateral international donors. In addition, there have been a multitude of other parallel
donor initiatives which have provided indirect assistance over this period46. This section reviews
previous initiatives for Metro Manila and provincial areas, and draws conclusions regarding the success
of these initiatives. Ongoing donor initiatives are also reviewed, and opportunities are identified where
donor assistance could provide valuable support in the future for Metro Manila.

3.1

Historical Perspective

Figure 1 provides a summarized chronology of principal donor intervention in solid waste management
over the past decade. This is shown alongside the major events in the sector over this period. Figure 2
provides additional information on many of these interventions.

46

This includes for example donor assisted initiatives in industrial waste and cleaner production, including; (i) the
Industrial Efficiency and Pollution Control Project, sponsored by the Metropolitan Environmental Improvement Program
(MEIP), World Bank; (ii) a Cleaner Production program sponsored jointly between the MEIP and the United States
Trade and Development Agency; (iii) a UNIDO technical assistance project on lead-acid battery disposal; and (iv) a
hazardous waste survey conducted by JICA.

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FIGURE 1
CHRONOLOGY OF DONOR INTERVENTION

2003

ADB MMSWMP Scheduled Completion

Clark Sanitary Landfill (Capas) Opens


Government Declines Jancom and Pro-Environment Initiatives
Tanza Dumpsite (Navotas) Opens, Pier 18 Dumping Diminishes

2002

JBIC ESWMP Commences


ADB MMSWMP Commences

Clean Air Act: Termination of Medical Waste Incineration

UNDP-JICA MMESWMP Commences

Rodriguez Disposal Facility (Montalban) Opens


Effectivity of RA 9003 IRRs

2001

USAID ECOGOV Commences

Barging of Waste To Semirara (Subsequently Curtailed)


RA 9003 Enacted by Congress

2000

Payatas Dumpsite (Quezon City) Re-Opens


Bataan Landfill Disposal Initiative (Subsequently Curtailed)

USAID Technical Support for Waste


Management BOT Procurement Process

CIDA LGSP Commences


JICA Solid Waste Masterplan Completed

San Mateo Facility Forced To Suspend Operations

1998

ADB - Australia PRMDP Commences


SWAPP Established
EU Toxic and Hazardous Waste
Project Completed

Pro-Environment Selected For Build-Own-Operate Regional Facility

DISPOSAL CRISIS HITS METRO MANILA

1999

World Bank SWEEP Completed

PAYATAS (QUEZON CITY) CATASTROPHIC SLIDE KILLS 200

Dumping At Pier 18 Commences

DAO 98-49 and DAO 98-50 Formulated


Enactment of Clean Air Act
Lingunan Dumpsite (Valenzuela) Opens

Carmona Facility Forced To Suspend Operations

1997

ADB - DANIDA Pasig River Environmental


Improvement Projects (1994-2003)
Include Solid Waste Improvements

1996

Austrian Government Loan to DOH For


Medical Waste Equipment
Jancom Initiative Considered By Government
Small C4 Dumpsite (Navotas) Opens

World Bank Finances San Mateo Landfill

1991

World Bank Finances Carmona Landfill

1992

Bagumbong Private Dumpsite (Caloocan) Opens

Sector Coordination & Donor Agency Report No: 12

Carmona Landfill Opens. Smokey Mountain Closes

San Mateo Landfill Opens

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FIGURE 2
SUMMARY OF PRIMARY INTERNATIONAL DONOR INTERVENTIONS
Metro Manila Solid Waste Management
(MMSWMP)
DENR - ADB (2002-03)
Technical Assistance (US$ 1.5 Million)

Project

Integrated planning, design, training, and implementation assistance to


strengthen Metro Manila solid and medical waste management. Includes
five key components;
i.
RA 9003 capacity building including LGU Plan development
assistance, waste characterization assessments, funding of pilot
CBSWM projects, formulation of model CBSWM guidelines;
ii.
Medical waste sector review, training, IEC, technology
assessment, formulation of a sector-wide improvement strategy;
iii.
RA 9003 national agency support including institutional capacity
building, media outreach and website initiatives;
iv.
Waste disposal assistance including sector review, formulating
short-term improvements, assisting in longer-term planning; and
v.
Providing coordination and advice.

Community Based Ecological Solid Waste


Management Project (CBESWMP)
MMDA UNDP JICA Australia (2002-05)
Technical Assistance (US$ 0.3 Million)

Three-year community based technical assistance project to promote


CBSWM in at least 10 Metro Manila pilot barangays, including;
(i)
Establishment of CBSWM infrastructure, mechanisms and
institutional arrangements;
(ii)
Implementation capacity building and IEC; and
(iii) Formulation of CBSWM guidelines and templates for replication.

Ecological Solid Waste Management Plans (ESWMP)


DENR JBIC (2002-03)
Technical Assistance

Formulation of LGU Plans for Munoz City, Legaspi City and Butuan.

Local Government Support Program (LGSP)


DILG NEDA - CIDA (1999-2005)
Technical Assistance (US$ 20 Million)

Technical assistance for over 200 LGUs in seven regions of the Visayas,
Mindanao and ARMM to build capacity and implement development
projects. During 2000-02, solid waste management interventions included
orientations and workshops, rapid waste appraisals, LGU Plan assistance,
LGU Board formation, capacity needs analyses, waste characterization
support, and IEC activities

Philippine Environmental Governance Project (ECOGOV)


DENR USAID (2001-04)
Technical Assistance (US$ 15 Million)

Three-Year LGU demand-driven program to improve environmental


governance. Resources are focused in Mindanao (50 percent), the
Visayas (35 percent) and Northern Luzon (15 percent). Solid waste
management assistance is being provided to 43 LGUs including;
(i)
Stakeholder orientation;
(ii)
LGU Board establishment;
(iii) Waste management planning and formulation of priority actions;
(iv) Waste characterization;
(v)
LGU Plan development;
(vi) Public awareness, including formulation of a RA 9003 primer;
(vii) Inventory and characterization of industrial wastes; and
(viii) Assistance with dumpsite closure and rehabilitation, and sanitary
landfill development for Cotabato City and possibly other LGUs.

Biomedical Waste Treatment and Disposal Options in the


Philippines (2002)
USA Trade & Development Agency

To provide the EMB with information regarding technologies that would


treat health care wastes properly and comply with the Clean Air Act

Medical Waste Management Technical Assistance


(Various)
DOH WHO (1995-2003), Technical Assistance

Medical waste advisory technical assistance to DOH, DENR and other


agencies. This assistance has included medical waste treatment and
disposal technologies.

San Mateo Disposal Facility Closure Assessment


MMDA Government of Finland (2000)
Technical Assistance

Technical evaluation and conceptual closure plan for the closure and postclosure maintenance of the San Mateo Disposal Facility, Rizal.

Philippine Regional Municipal Development Project


(PRMDP)
DILG ADB Government of Australia (1998-2003)
Loan (Over US$ 30 Million)

Joint ADB and Australia municipal infrastructure development project for


six provincial cities. Includes the provision sanitary landfill facilities for
Puerto Princessa and Tagbilaran, equipment for Puerto Princessa and
General Santos, institutional development programs and development of
systems and manuals.
The project is facing difficulties in the
implementation of these solid waste management components.

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FIGURE 2
SUMMARY OF PRIMARY INTERNATIONAL DONOR INTERVENTIONS (CONTINUED)
Solid Waste Ecological Enhancement Project (SWEEP)
PTFWM - DENR World Bank (1998-2000)
Technical Assistance (US$ 1.5 million)

Project preparatory technical assistance to formulate a US$ 55 million


loan package for solid waste management improvements for seven
selected LGUs in intermediate cities. The proposed package included;
(i)
Demonstration sub-projects including capital investments in
system facilities and equipment, dumpsite closure and
rehabilitation and institutional capacity building technical
assistance;
(ii)
Institutional strengthening at the national level through national
policy enhancement, development of technical guidelines, training
and capacity enhancement in contract procurement and
management; and
(iii) Formulation of a social and ecological support program for the
social rehabilitation of waste pickers, micro-financing for waste
pickers and city-specific activities to promote recycling and public
awareness.
The project has subsequently been dropped.

Waste Management Procurement Technical Support


MMDA CCPSP - USAID (1999)
Technical Assistance (US$ 0.1 Million)

Provision of technical consultants to assist the Government in the


formulation and implementation of a major waste treatment and disposal
Build-Operate-Transfer procurement process for Metro Manila. Although
the procurement process resulted in the selection of a preferred bidder,
the initiative stalled due to issuance of a restraining order. Government
has declined to proceed with the initiative.

The Study on Solid Waste Management For Metro Manila


in the Republic of the Philippines (JICA Masterplan)
MMDA JICA (1997-99)
Technical Assistance

Major technical assistance project resulting in the development of a


Metro Manila solid waste masterplan. The project focused on the
evaluation of alternatives and selection of a preferred waste transfer,
treatment and disposal system comprising transfer stations, onshore and
offshore sanitary landfills and an offshore incinerator complex. The
masterplan recommendations were not implemented, reportedly due
principally to public opposition at the disposal sites and enactment of the
Clean Air Act.

Establishment of SWAPP and Training Activities


USAEP (1997-2003)
Technical Assistance

USAEP has actively supported the sector since the mid 1990s including;
(i) assistance to establish the Solid Waste Association of the Philippines
(SWAPP) in 1998; (ii) integrated solid waste management training
(2000); (iii) financial assistance to develop a resource center, training
modules and a database (2000); (iv) supporting the SWAPP annual
conference (2001-02); and (v) in conjunction with civil society, developing
a technical design manual for solid waste management-friendly buildings
(2003).

Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management Study


DENR EU World Bank (1997-98)
Technical Assistance

A comprehensive assessment of toxic and hazardous waste


management in the Metro Manila and CALABARZON regions resulting in
recommendations for waste minimization and recycling.

Pasig River Environmental Management and Rehabilitation


PRRC DENR ADB DANIDA (1994-2003)
Technical Assistance

Major environmental improvement programs for the Pasig River system


funded by DANIDA and later by ADB, and both included technical
assistance to improve solid waste management within riverside
communities and provide support to CBSWM.

Medical Waste Equipment Loan


DOH - Austrian Government (1996-97)
Loan (US$ 20 Million)

Austrian government aid package to supply 26 incinerators and 36


microwave-disinfection units to DOH for the treatment of medical waste
in government medical facilities. Reportedly, the incinerators have only
limited air pollution control equipment, and will become obsolete in mid2003 due to the Clean Air Act.

Solid Waste Disposal Facility Loan


DPWH World Bank (1990-91)

World Bank funding for the development of the Carmona and San Mateo
disposal facilities. Reportedly, although both facilities were initially
designed, constructed and operated to appropriate standards, in later
years these standards diminished, resulting in the forced suspension of
operations at both facilities due to public opposition.

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Progress (1990-91)
The beginning of the 1990s marked a breakthrough in Metro Manila solid waste management, with the
opening of the World Bank funded San Mateo and Carmona sanitary landfill facilities. Prior to this, the
metropolis had only operated dumpsites, including the internationally infamous Smokey Mountain47.
Carmona and San Mateo were designed to accommodate the majority of Metro Manila waste in the
medium-term, and in the early days, both facilities were reportedly designed, constructed and operated
to appropriate environmental standards. This initiative represented a major step forward in solid waste
management, and a major achievement for the Government and the World Bank. For the remainder of
the decade, both facilities continued to operate, but as described later they both unfortunately
degenerated to the point of forced closure.
Quiescence (1992-97)
In the interim, Metro Manila enjoyed a relatively quiescent time in solid waste management, with San
Mateo and Carmona handling Metro Manila waste disposal in conjunction with several major Metro
Manila dumpsites, notably Payatas (Quezon City) and Catmon (Malabon). Apart from two major
initiatives, there was little donor activity in the sector. One initiative was the procurement of medical
waste treatment equipment by DOH from the Austrian government through a preferred loan facility
(1996-97). The procurement included 26 incinerators and 36 microwave-disinfection units for the
treatment of medical waste in government medical facilities throughout the Philippines. During this
period, there was also significant international donor activity in the Pasig River environs, with major
programs by DANIDA and the ADB on the rehabilitation of the river system. These projects included
improvements in solid waste management within communities situated along the banks of the river
system, focusing primarily on improving waste collection and transfer within the high-density, lowerincome urban areas, and reducing the incidence of river dumping.
Decline (1998-99)
During this time also, the design, construction and operation standards at the Carmona and San Mateo
facilities gradually degraded as successive phases of the facilities were developed. This resulted in
mounting public opposition to the continuation of the facilities as regional disposal facilities, culminating
firstly in the forced closure of the Carmona facility during early 1998. This event immediately put
pressure on the San Mateo facility and active dumpsites to accommodate the additional waste.
Although not fully realized at the time, this event also set in motion the near-catastrophic collapse of the
solid waste system in early 2000.
Although Metro Manila was heading for a crisis, positive donor-led developments did occur in the 199899 period. These included the completion of a major toxic and hazardous waste project financed by the
European Union, the establishment of the Solid Waste Association of the Philippines (SWAPP) primarily
through the assistance of USAEP, and the commencement of two major provincial development
programs which included solid waste management, namely the PRMDP and LGSP48.
Both the PRMDP and the LGSP targeted and continue to target assistance at provincial LGUs.
PRMDP is providing municipal infrastructure development for six LGUs, including sanitary landfill
facilities (SLFs) for Puerto Princessa and Tagbilaran, and solid waste management equipment for
Puerto Princessa and General Santos. LGSP is providing technical assistance for over 200 LGUs in
seven regions of the Visayas, Mindanao and ARMM to build capacity and implement development
projects. Solid waste management interventions include orientations and workshops, rapid waste

47
48

The Smokey Mountain dumpsite was a large dumpsite located in the City of Manila adjacent to the port area.
The ADB- and AusAID- financed Philippine Regional Municipal Development Project (PRMDP) and Phase II of the
CIDA- financed Local Government Support Program (LGSP).

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10

appraisals, LGU Plan assistance, LGU Board formation assistance, capacity needs analyses, waste
characterization support, and IEC activities.
Also during 1999, World Bank completed the SWEEP project49, a project-preparatory technical
assistance to formulate a US$ 55 million loan package for solid waste management improvements for
seven selected LGUs in intermediate provincial cities. This comprehensive package proposed
demonstration sub-projects for waste management facilities, to be fully supported by institutional
capacity building at the local and national level, social programs to assist low-income waste picker
communities, recycling promotion and public awareness.
Regarding Metro Manila solid waste, the JICA Masterplan50 was also completed during this period.
This represented a significant investment by the Japanese Government and focused primarily on
developing a masterplan for residual waste collection, transfer and disposal. The masterplan
considered several alternatives, and recommended a combined system of transfer stations, two
sanitary landfills and a thermal treatment complex. It also provided valuable waste characterization
information and other data.
This period represented a time of significant international donor support to the sector, both for Metro
Manila and for the entire nation. It involved many of the multi-lateral donor agencies including ADB,
World Bank and the European Union, plus the major bi- laterals including Japan, Australia and Canada.
Another development of significance during this period was the enactment of the Clean Air Act, which
although it represented a major achievement in improving air quality, it had serious consequences for
the medical waste sector. In order to limit atmospheric contamination, the Clean Air Act severely
restricts the thermal treatment of waste. There are even fervent debates of whether the Clean Air Act
actually prohibits thermal treatment completely. The result however is that there is current consensus
that the thermal treatment of waste is not permitted following enactment of the Clean Air Act, and as a
result, the existing medical waste incinerators are mandated to terminate operation during mid-2003.
This was a serious development for the medical waste sector, and particularly for DOH, who only two
years previously had purchased 26 incinerators through an Austrian Government loan. It also raised
concerns of why the incinerator initiative proceeded anyway in light of the imminent passage of the Act.
Concerns were also raised, particularly by environmental groups, regarding the lack of suitable air
pollution control equipment to control the stack gas emissions from the incinerators, and also the lack of
operational methodology and technical proficiency to operate the incinerators. This resulted in two
major issues for DOH, firstly that the sector would require a replacement non-thermal treatment and
disposal system for the entire nation, and also that the Philippines was encumbered with a loan for
incinerators which would have to terminate operations by 2003.
As the millennium drew to a close, Metro Manila solid waste management was plunged into crisis. This
was caused by the forced closure of the San Mateo facility due to local public opposition, resulting in an
immediate deficiency in disposal capacity.
Crisis (2000-01)
The disposal crisis hit suddenly. Within several weeks it had reached serious and potentially
catastrophic proportions. The metropolis was unprepared, and there had been little contingency
planning. Waste mounted in the streets. It had the attention of the public.

49
50

The World Bank Solid Waste Ecological Enhancement Project.


The Study on Solid Waste Management For Metro Manila In The Republic of the Philippines, Japanese International
Cooperation Agency, 1999 (JICA Masterplan).

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11

The crisis also placed tremendous pressure on the existing dumpsites within the metropolis. This
manifested in a catastrophic slide at the Payatas Dumpsite (Quezon City) in July 2000, which
smothered an urban poor settlement area killing over 200 people.
The crisis also had significant ramifications for donor initiatives in the sector. Firstly, Carmona and San
Mateo, the two flagship regional disposal facilities funded by the World Bank in the early 1990s were
forced into closure. This represented a needless and tragic waste of municipal infrastructure, and one
on which the Philippines continues to service the debt. Secondly, several of the major donor initiatives
culminated in the 1998-99 period were terminated, apparently due to Government inaction due to the
crisis. These included the World Bank SWEEP project, which was dropped, and the recommendations
of the JICA Masterplan, which were not implemented. Reports also indicate that the European Union
toxic and hazardous waste study recommendations were also not implemented.
In summary therefore, the World Bank-funded regional disposal facilities of Carmona and San Mateo
had to suddenly terminate operations, the Austrian-funded incinerators for medical waste treatment are
required to terminate operations in 2003, the World Bank SWEEP project was canceled, the
recommendations of the JICA Masterplan for Metro Manila and the European Union hazardous waste
project were not implemented, a catastrophic slide killed 200 urban poor people at a dumpsite in
Quezon City, waste was piling up in the streets, there was heightened public awareness and concern,
and the entire sector was in a state of crisis. This was certainly not the situation that the international
donor community had expected, and not one in which they were comfortable.
To add to this list, USAID also provided technical support to assist with a major Government-led
procurement initiative to rapidly secure a regional transfer and disposal system. Although this resulted
in the successful selection of a preferred bidder, this too was later curtailed due to legal impediment,
thereby joining the long line of unsuccessful PSP initiatives of that time, as discussed in the Waste
Disposal Report.
Aftermath (2001-03)
Although Metro Manila still confronts serious residual waste disposal deficiencies as discussed in the
Waste Disposal Report, the perceived level of overall concern has dropped considerably since 2000
due primarily to the development of several hastily-conceived dumpsites within the metropolis. The
sector has also gained considerably from the enactment of RA 9003 in 2001, which for the first time,
provides an integrated approach to solid waste management.
As shown on Figure 1, there is a gap in donor sector intervention between the commencement of the
crisis in early 2000 and late 2001. Since late 2001 however, donor activity has again re-activated with
several innovative projects currently being implemented in the sector. These include; (i) ECOGOV
(USAID) providing technical assistance in solid waste management to 43 LGUs throughout Mindanao,
the Visayas and northern Luzon; (ii) ESWMP (JBIC) which is formulating LGU Plans in three provincial
cities; (iii) MMESWMP (JICA through the UNDP) which is promoting CBSWM projects in at least 10
Metro Manila barangays; and (iv) this ADB TA, which provides technical support to Metro Manila at the
national and local level through RA 9003 implementation support, capacity building, training,
institutional development, and target assistance to the residual waste disposal and medical waste
management sub-sectors.
Recent donor initiatives also include the development of LGU-targeted loan facilities, examples of which
are shown later on Figure 4. These facilities are designed to promote sector development through the
provision to LGUs of loan funds and supporting technical assistance and capacity building initiatives.

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12

Conclusions
The following conclusions are drawn from the events of the past decade;
(i)

The crisis and subsequent ramifications could not have been reasonably foreseen by
donor agencies until the closure of Carmona in early 1998, by which time most of the
projects of the 1998-99 era were being developed;

(ii)

Conventional donor loan assistance focusing exclusively on solid waste management


has not worked. The Carmona and San Mateo initiative resulted in system degradation
to the point of forced facility closure. Imminent regulatory mandates will soon result in
the termination of the donor-funded medical waste incinerators. The SWEEP project,
which proposed a loan for provincial solid waste management, was recently terminated.
And the JICA Masterplan, which proposed an upgraded system for Metro Manila, was
not implemented. In addition, even the PRMDP, a multi-sectoral project loan which
includes solid waste management as part of an overall package, faces implementation
difficulties;

(iii)

Donor intervention to assist the Government to facilitate a private-sector procurement


initiative in Metro Manila waste transfer and disposal system development has not
ultimately been successful due to subsequent legal impediment;

(iv)

Bi-lateral donor intervention where solid waste is part of a development package has
been and continues to be perceived as successful. Examples include LGSP and
ECOGOV;

(v)

There is a current trend to promote solid waste sector development through the
provision of LGU loan facilities (Figure 4). However, few if any Metro Manila LGUs have
utilized these or other donor-led facilities for solid waste management initiatives.

It is also important to emphasize that the success of donor technical assistance to facilitate private
sector participation (PSP) in solid waste management has been mixed. The primary reasons for this
can be explained through a brief review of the principal components of the Metro Manila solid waste
management system.
Firstly, as discussed elsewhere in the TA report package, residual waste collection in Metro Manila is
largely performed by the private sector, through individual collection contracts with LGUs. The
remaining LGUs, which currently operate their own collection systems, either have little desire to
outsource their operations, or are independently considering outsourcing as an option. There appears
little need therefore for further donor intervention to encourage PSP in collection as PSP is already
prevalent, and any future donor intervention should focus on operational improvement in terms of
efficiency, accountability and transparency.
Over the past decade, there has been a tremendous growth in informal recycling in Metro Manila,
culminating in the establishment of hundreds of recycling junk shops, several large consolidators and
thousands of informal waste pickers and collectors. This entire sub-sector has evolved almost
exclusively as a private sector phenomenon, driven primarily through the economic advantages of
waste recycling. Until recently, Government has had little involvement in this informally-based subsector, and neither have the donor agencies.
As mandated by RA 9003, there is however a tremendous need to facilitate PSP in the formalized
recycling sub-sector, and in this regard there are donors currently involved in recycling, primarily in
CBSWM schemes at the community level. Many of these donor interventions are based on small-scale

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grants and preferential loans, where a particular donor agency is funding pilot-type community projects
and providing other assistance to selected LGUs and barangays. While these initiatives provide a
valuable contribution, it is yet to be seen whether these pilots will be financially viable and economically
sustainable following termination of preferential donor funding, whether they can be successfully
replicated nationally, and whether they can attract and retain PSP. Indeed, the overall financial
sustainability of recycling systems required by RA 9003 is yet to be determined, as is the necessity of
any assistance initiatives to ensure PSP attractiveness. Donors could therefore greatly encourage PSP
in the future by ensuring that CBSWM projects in which they are involved meet fundamental PSP
requirements.
It is in the waste disposal sub-sector where donors have invested significantly to attempt to encourage
PSP. This is highlighted in (iii) above, where considerable technical assistance was provided by USAID
to the MMDA through the CCPSP in order to assist in the formulation and implementation of a major
Build-Operate-Transfer procurement initiative to select a preferred regional waste treatment and
disposal system for Metro Manila. Although a system was eventually selected, the Government has
subsequently been unable to proceed with the initiative due to a legal restraining order. Other initiatives
have also attempted to support PSP in waste disposal, although less directly. These include the JICA
Masterplan and the World Bank SWEEP, which would most likely have encouraged PSP in solid waste
disposal if only Government had been able to implement them. In addition, specialized funding
modalities to support the financing of private sector solid waste management projects have been
established by several donors, although these are reportedly not being utilized by the private sector.
Although the Government firmly supports PSP in resolving the critical waste disposal issues of Metro
Manila, and RA 9003 also provides the mandates for and encourages PSP, it is the practicalities of
project development that have prevented progress. As in the case of the USAID procurement
assistance initiative mentioned above, there have been a multitude of other private sector initiatives
which have been proposed to address the waste disposal issue, but which have been curtailed primarily
due to public opposition, and/or legal impediment. Indeed, practically every initiative has stalled, and
currently Metro Manila lacks any adequate waste disposal facilities or systems. Donor agencies should
therefore consider carefully the lack of success of previous donor interventions prior to any further
initiatives in promoting PSP in waste disposal.

3.2

Current Initiatives

Figure 3 summarizes most of the primary donor initiatives currently being implemented in solid waste
management. As shown, the figure provides an indication of the key areas of focus of these initiatives,
throughout the solid waste management and medical waste management sectors. As evidenced on
Figure 3, the assistance being provided collectively by these initiatives is considerable and wideranging. The majority of the projects provide institutional strengthening, capacity building and training
at the national and local level, and several of them are helping civil society groups. Many also have an
RA 9003 focus, providing planning support including the formulation of LGU Boards and preparation of
LGU Plans, performing waste characterization assessments, promoting CBSWM and the involvement
of civil society, and developing IEC and public awareness initiatives. These initiatives also cover a
range of situations, from the large Metro Manila LGUs to small provincial municipalities.
Collectively, there is strong emphasis on barangay-level CBSWM, and practically every project being
implemented is supporting CBSWM initiatives. There is also a focus on solid waste disposal, and
several projects are advancing waste disposal systems and facilities. Medical waste management is
being assisted through this TA and also through ongoing support provided by WHO. Small-scale
funding is also being provided, for example on a grant basis in the case of Metro Manila for CBSWM
projects (MMSWMP and MMESWMP) and on a loan basis for provincial LGUs to develop recycling and
waste disposal facilities (PRMDP). As discussed above, solid waste sector development is also being
promoted through the provision of LGU loan facilities, examples of which are shown on Figure 4.

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ESWMP
DENR JBIC

PRMDP
DILG-ADBAUS

MEDICAL
WASTE
DOH-WHO

ECOGOV
DENRUSAID

LGSP
DILGNEDACIDA

PRINCIPAL AREAS OF ASSISTANCE

CBESWMP
MMDAUNDPJICA-AUS

MMSWMP
DENR-ADB

FIGURE 3
CURRENT DONOR INITIATIVES PRINCIPAL AREAS OF ASSISTANCE

TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES


General
Provincial SWM Board Establishment
LGU SWM Board Establishment
Provincial SWM Plan Preparation
LGU SWM Plan Preparation
Waste Characterization
SWM Financing, Incentives, Cost Recovery
SWM Civil Society Involvement
Private Sector Involvement
Public Awareness Campaigns and IEC
Strategy Development / Other
Institutional Strengthening, Capacity Building, Training
National Agencies
LGUs
Barangays
SWM Civil Society
Regulatory Enforcement Agencies
Waste Recycling
Barangay and CBSWM Development
Waste Collection and Transfer
Waste Collection and Transfer Planning Assistance
Waste Disposal
Waste Disposal Planning Assistance
Dumpsite Improvements
Dumpsite Remediation and Closure
SLF Development Assistance
Medical Waste Management
Institutional Strengthening, Training
Technology Assistance
Private Sector Participation
Legislative and Regulatory Reform
Training
Public Awareness and IEC
Funding, Incentives and Cost Recovery
Strategy Development, Other
Preparation of Guidelines, Manuals, Useful Documents
SWM Strategic Planning
RA 9003 Implementation Guidelines
Waste Characterization
Provincial SWM Plans
LGU SWM Plans
CBSWM and Recycling Systems and Facilities
Waste Collection and Transfer Systems and Facilities
Waste Disposal Systems and Facilities
Medical Waste Management
Public Awareness and IEC
FINANCIAL INVESTMENTS
CBSWM and Recycling Systems and Facilities
Waste Collection and Transfer Systems and Facilities
Waste Disposal Systems and Facilities
Medical Waste Management Systems and Facilities
Other

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Resources are also being developed in terms of guidelines, manuals and useful documents. As shown
on Figure 3, these relate to medical waste management, solid waste management planning, RA 9003
implementation, LGU Plan development, waste characterization, public awareness and IEC, and
CBSWM, waste collection and waste disposal systems and facility development.
Additional donor initiatives are also being planned for the sector for later in 2003. These include
another integrated solid waste management program for LGUs in Regions VI, VII and VIII (GTZ), and
the provision of a technical advisor to the NSWMC Secretariat (JICA).

3.3

Future Intervention

It is recommended that the outputs of the ongoing donor activities as shown on Figure 3 be thoroughly
collated, integrated and distributed as widely as possible to national agencies, LGUs, barangays, civil
society and other interested stakeholders throughout the Philippines. Collectively, these interventions
represent a wealth of useful and current information covering most areas of solid waste management
and RA 9003 implementation, and this can provide a valuable contribution for immediate national
replication. Furthermore, this entire information collection should be collated with other donor-based
information51 and uploaded directly onto the NSWMC and other websites, to facilitate access. It should
also be regularly updated. It is suggested that this be a key function of the NSWMC Secretariat.
It is also recommended that the NSWMC Secretariat and DENR continue with donor coordination
meetings as initiated by DENR earlier this year. This initiative should focus directly on the development
of integrated, targeted donor assistance initiatives to ensure adequate coordination, prevent replication
and optimize the utilization of valuable donor resources. Further coordination can also be maintained
through web initiatives such as the NSWMC website.
As highlighted on Figure 3, there are a multitude of assistance areas where donors can deliver valuable
outputs. This is particularly relevant in the case of Metro Manila, and this TA Final Report package
contains specific recommendations for various sub-sectors where future donor intervention can provide
significant outputs and impacts.
FIGURE 4
POTENTIAL INTERNATIONAL DONOR INITIATED FUNDING SOURCES
LGU Support Credit Program
LBP (Implementing), JBIC (Funding) - 1999-2005

Loan funds to LGUs to construct urban sector infrastructure


components, including solid waste management facilities.

LGU Private Infrastructure Development Facility


CCPSP (Implementing), ADB (Funding) - 2000-02

TA Loan for design development of facilities and preparation of


pilot projects.

Public and Private Sectors Convergence for Solid Waste CoGovernance on Urban Poor Communities
DENR (Implementing), UNDP (Funding) - 2002-04

Fund support for development of material recovery facilities, in


Laguna.

LGU Finance and Development Project (LOGOFIND)


DOF (Implementing), WB (Funding) - 1999-2004

Potential funding for LGU solid waste management Sub-Projects,


access to training and capacity building technical assistance.

Environmental Infrastructure Support Credit Program II (EISCP)


DBP (Implementing), JBIC (Funding) - 2000-06

Potential private sector support for environmental infrastructure


projects, including waste treatment and disposal.

51

For example, the Guidance Pack on Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Management developed by
the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, World Bank, and Swiss Center for Development Cooperation in
Technology and Management, a copy of which is attached to the main report.

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With regard to potential future ADB assistance to the sector, it is firstly important that the results and
outputs of this TA be monitored in the short-term to ascertain their level of effectiveness and impact on
the sector. These include for example; (i) the success of the pilot CBSWM projects in the selected
LGUs which have been funded through the Pilot Project Advisory Facility of the TA; (ii) the continued
formulation and implementation of the LGU Solid Waste Management Plans for selected LGUs, which
have been initiated as an integral part of the TA; (iii) implementation of the waste disposal improvement
strategy, including the Short-Term Improvement Program which is recommended for immediate
implementation; (iv) the medical waste management recommendations; (v) progress with public
awareness and IEC initiatives; (vi) improvements to national, metro-wide and local solid waste
management institutions and boards; and (x) implementation of the sector coordination
recommendations.
Due to the relative volatility of the sector, particularly in regard to waste disposal, it is important to also
monitor other events and their potential impact to the sector. This is important in relation to overall
national developments, such as the upcoming national elections in mid-2004, and also to sector-specific
developments, such as the progress of sector institutions to build capacity and receive adequate
funding with which to operate.
As a progression to this advisory TA, existing ADB proposals potentially include a loan to the
Government of the Philippines in 2005, in the provisional amount of US$ 50 million, to assist with Metro
Manila solid waste management improvements. This loan facility could be utilized to support one or a
variety of Government improvement initiatives as initially defined by this TA, potentially relating to
CBSWM, waste disposal and/or medical waste management. In this regard, it is necessary for relevant
Government entities to further develop these initiatives in the short-term, in order to allow adequate
appraisal and subsequent loan packaging by ADB. Additional advisory or project preparatory technical
assistance has not been assigned to this sector at this time.

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