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SISTEM INFORMASI

MANAJEMEN

Konsep Dasar Sistem,


Informasi, dan Sistem
Informasi

SISTEM, DATA DAN INFORMASI


Sistem

Pendekatan
prosedur
Kumpulan dari
prosedur-prosedur
yang mempunyai
tujuan tertentu

Pendekatan
komponen

Kumpulan dari
komponen yang saling
berhubungan satu
dengan yang lainnya
membentuk satu
kesatuan untuk
mencapai tujuan
tertentu

Karakteristik Sistem
Batas
sistem
Sub
sistem

Sub
sistem

Penghubung
sistem
Sub
sistem

Sub
sistem

Lingkungan luar

SISTEM, DATA DAN INFORMASI


What Is a System?
System: A set of components that work together to achieve a
common goal

Subsystem: One part of a system where the products of more


than one system are combined to reach an ultimate goal

Closed system: Stand-alone system that has no contact with


other systems

Open system: System that interfaces with other systems

SISTEM, DATA DAN INFORMASI

Figure 1.3
Several subsystems make up this corporate accounting system.
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SISTEM, DATA DAN INFORMASI


Data:

Serangkaian fakta-fakta yang mencerminkan


kejadian yang terjadi dalam organisasi atau lingkungan
phisik sebelum diorganisir dan disusun ke dalam sebuah
bentuk yang bisa dipahami dan digunakan secara efektif oleh
manusia.

Informasi:

- Data yang diolah menjadi bentuk yang berguna bagi para


pemakainya (meaningful context).
- Data yang sudah diproses
- Data yang diproses dengan cara penjumlahan,
mengurutkan, merata-ratakan, menbandingkan, etc.

SISTEM, DATA DAN INFORMASI


Meaningful context:
- context : - informasi bervariasi dari orang ke orang
- informasi dari satu orang bisa menjadi data
menurut context orang lain
contoh:
- departemen produksi menghasilkan informasi berupa
ikhtisar aktifitas harian
- ikhtisar kegiatan harian di departemen produksi menjadi
input untuk buku besar umum di departemen akuntansi
dalam rangka menghasilkan informasi seperti nerasa dan
laba rugi bulanan.

SISTEM, DATA DAN INFORMASI


Data
Raw facts such as an employees name and number of hours worked in a
week, inventory part numbers or sales orders.
Information
A collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional
value beyond the value of the facts themselves.
Data
$35,000 12 Units
$12,000 J. Jones
Western Region
$100,000 100 Units
35 Units

Information

Data
Processing

Salesperson: J. Jones
Sales Territory: Western
Region Current Sales: 147
Units = $147,000

SISTEM, DATA DAN INFORMASI


Sistem Informasi: Kumpulan komponen-

komponen yang saling berhubungan yang


mengumpulkan, memproses, menyimpan dan
mendistribusikan informasi untuk mendukung
pengambilan keputusan dan pengawasan
dalam organisasi.

SIM Merencanakan, mengembangkan,

mengelola dan menggunakan peralatan TI


untuk membantu orang-orang dalam
melaksanakan semua tugas-tugas yang
berhubungan dengan pemrosesan dan
pengelolaan informasi

Characteristics of good information


1. Accurate
2. Timely
3. Relevant

- to context
- to subject
4. Just sufficient
5. Worth its cost

Figure 1.2 Characteristics of useful information

Information Systems
An information system(IS) is typically considered to be a
set of interrelated elements or components that
collect(input), manipulate(processes), and disseminate
(output) data and information and provide a feedback
mechanism to meet an objective.

Figure 1.1 Input-process-output

Komponen-Komponen Dasar SI

Data, Information, and Systems

Figure 1.6 Components of an information system

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Computer-based Information System


An Information System is an organized combination of
people, hardware, software, communication networks and
the data resources that collects, transforms and disseminates
information in a organization.

Data, Information, and Systems


The Four Stages of Data Processing

Input: Data is collected and entered into computer.

Data processing: Data is manipulated into information using


mathematical, statistical, and other tools.

Output: Information is displayed or presented.

Storage: Data and information are maintained for later use.

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IT VERSUS IS
Information Technology (IT):

- Refers to the products, methods, inventions, and


standards that are used for the purpose of producing
information.
- consists of all the hardware and software that a firm
use in order to achieve its business objectives.
Information System (IS):
- an assembly of hardware, software, data, procedures,
and people that interact produces information.
- IS can be understood by looking from both a
technology and a business perspective.

IT Vs IS
INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY

Inventory
System

Hardware
Software
Databases
Networks
Other related
components

Payroll
System

are used to build

INFORMATION
SYSTEMS
Marketing
System

Customer
Service
System

Perkembangan peran sistem


informasi
Era jejaring global

Era jejaring

Pertengahan 1980-an

Era informasi

1970-an 1980-an

Era operasional

Era
akuntansi

Pertengahan 1990-an

1960-an 1970-an

Awal 1950 - awal 1960-an

Expanding Roles of IS
1. Data Processing: 1950s-1960s
2. Management Reporting: 1960s-1970s
3. Decision support: 1970s-1980s
4. Strategic and End User Support: 1980s-1990s
5. Global Internetworking: 1990s-2000s

Classification of IS
Information Systems

Operations Support
System

Transaction
processing
systems

Process
control
systems

Office
automation
systems

Management
Support System

Management
information
systems

Decision
support
systems

Executive
information
systems

1. Operations support systems process data generated


by business operations
Major categories are:
i) Transaction processing systems
ii) Process control systems
iii) Office automation systems
2. Management Support Systems provide information
and support needed for effective decision making by
managers
Major categories are
i) Management Information System
ii) Decision Support Systems
iii) Executive Information System

1. Operations Support System


i) Transaction processing systems

Process business exchanges

Maintain records about the exchanges

Handle routine, yet critical, tasks

Perform simple calculations


ii) Process control systems monitor and control
industrial processes.
iii) Office automation systems automate office
procedures and enhance office communications and
productivity.

2. Management support systems provide information


and support needed for effective decision making by
managers
Major categories are:
i) Management information systems
Routine information for routine decisions
Operational efficiency
Use transaction data as main input
Databases integrate MIS in different functional areas

ii) Decision Support System

Interactive support for non-routine decisions or


problems

End-users are more involved in creating a DSS than an


MIS
iii) Executive information systems
Provide critical information tailored to the information
needs of executives

Other categories :
a) Expert systems : Expert Systems are knowledge-based
systems that provides expert advice and act as expert
consultants to the users
b) End user computing systems : End user computing
systems support the direct, hands on use of computers by
end users for operational and managerial applications
c) Business information systems : Business
information systems support the operational and
managerial applications of the basic business functions of
a firm
d) Strategic information systems : Strategic
information systems provide a firm which strategic
products, services, and capabilities for competitive
advantage

Peran utama sistem SI dalam bisnis

Mendukung
berbagai
strategi untuk
keunggulan
kompetitif

Mendukung pengambilan
Keputusan dalam bisnis

Mendukung proses dan operasi bisnis

Senior
management

Middle management
Scientists &
knowledge workers

Operational management
Production & service workers
Data workers

Informasi
pemecahan
masalah
Informasi
pengarahan
perhatian
Informasi
pengumpula
n data

Tipe Informasi
Informasi
pemecahan
masalah

Merupakan informasi untuk membantu


manajer atas mengambil keputusan
pemecahan masalah yang
dihadapinya

Informasi
pengarahan
perhatian

Merupakan informasi untuk membantu


manajemen memusatkan perhatian
pada masalah2 menyimpang dan
kesempatan2 yang dapat dilakukan

Informasi
Pengumpulan data

Merupakan informasi yang berupa


akumulasi atau pengumpulan data

Manajemen senior : membuat keputusan strategik jangka

panjang tentang produk dan jasa yang ditawarkan untuk


memastikan tercapainya kinerja keuangan perusahaan.
Manajemen tingkat menengah : menjalankan program dan
rencana yang sudah dibuat oleh manajemen senior .
Knowledge worker (ex; ilmuwan, insinyur, arsitek) :
mendisain produk atau jasa dan menciptakan pengetahuan
baru bagi perusahaan.
Manajemen operasional : bertanggung jawab mengawasi
aktifitas bisnis sehari-hari.
Production or service worker : menghasilkan produk dan
menyampaikan jasa.
Data worker (ex; sekrektaris) : membantu semua level yang
ada di perusahaan.

Karakteristik Informasi untuk setiap


level manajemen
Karakteristik
informasi

Level atas

Level menengah

Level bawah

Kepadatan informasi Ringkas dan padat

Terperinci dan
Kurang padat

Luas informasi

Luas

Fokus pada
masalah tertentu

Frekuensi informasi

Tidak rutin dan ad


hoc

Rutin

Skedul informasi

Tidak terstruktur

Skedul jelas dan


periodik

Waktu informasi

Informasi prediksi

Informasi historis

Akses informasi

On-line

Bisa tidak on-line


(off-line)

Sumber informasi

Eksternal
perusahaan

Internal perusahaan

Pendekatan Kontemporer SI
Pendekatan teknis
Ilmu
komputer
Ilmu
manajemen

Psikologi

SIM

Operation
research

Sosiologi

Ekonomi

Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan teknis :

Menekankan model berbasis matematika untuk


mempelajari SI. Disiplin atau ilmu yang berperan
terhadap pendekatan teknis adalah pengetahuan
komputer, pengetahuan manajemen, dan riset
operasi.
Pendekatan perilaku :
Merupakan bagian penting dari SI yang berkaitan
dengan isu-isu perilaku yang muncul dalam
pengembangan dan pemeliharaan SI jangka
panjang.

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Lists categories of knowledge


Why information systems are necessary
What are the fundamental terms
What are the essential technologies
What are the basic information system types
How information system are to be managed and

developed
How to find out about new technology

Knowledge category

Example

Why

Need for IS

competitive advantage
problem solving
Decision making

What

Fundamental terms

CPU
DBMS
IP address

Essential Technologies

Relational data model


LAN, WAN, Internet
HTML, XML

IS types

CRM
ERP
DSS

Methodologies

data modeling
Systems development
Security management

Technology frameworks

Systems development life cycle

How

IS as Discipline
IS is an interdisciplinary field influenced by
Computer Science, Political Science,
Psychology, Operations Research,
Linguistics, Sociology, and Organizational
Theory.

Challenges

1. Workforce downsizing
2. Information overload
3. Employee mistrust
4. Difficult to built
5. Security breaches

Opportunities

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Enhanced global competitiveness


Capture market opportunities
Support corporate strategy
Enhance worker productivity
Improve quality of goods and services

Information Systems
Why Do People Need Information?

Individuals - Entertainment and enlightenment

Businesses - Decision making, problem solving and


control

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Data, Information, and Systems


Information and Managers

Systems thinking
Creates a framework for problem solving and decision making.
Keeps managers focused on overall goals and operations of
business.

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Data, Information, and Systems

Figure 1.5 Qualities of humans and computers that contribute to synergy


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Data, Information, and Systems


The Benefits of Human-Computer Synergy

Synergy

When combined resources produce output that exceeds the sum of


the outputs of the same resources employed separately

Allows human thought to be translated into efficient


processing of large amounts of data

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Why Study IS?


Information Systems Careers

Systems analyst, specialist in enterprise resource planning (ERP), database


administrator, telecommunications specialist, consulting, etc.

Knowledge Workers

Managers and non-managers


Employers seek computer-literate professionals who know how to use
information technology.

Computer Literacy Replacing Traditional Literacy


Key to full participation in western society

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Ethical and Societal Issues


The Not-So-Bright Side

Consumer Privacy
Organizations collect (and sometimes sell) huge amounts
of data on individuals.
Employee Privacy
IT supports remote monitoring of employees, violating
privacy and creating stress.

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Ethical and Societal Issues


The Not-So-Bright Side

Freedom of Speech

IT increases opportunities for pornography, hate speech, intellectual


property crime, an d other intrusions; prevention may abridge free speech.

IT Professionalism

No mandatory or enforced code of ethics for IT professionals--unlike other


professions.

Social Inequality

Less than 20% of the worlds population have ever used a PC; less than 3%
have Internet access.

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THE END

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