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Archaic Words

These words are no longer in everyday use or have lost a particular


meaning in current usage but are sometimes used to impart an oldfashioned flavor to historical novels, for example, or in standard
conversation or writing just for a humorous effect. Some, such as bedlam,
reveal the origin of their current meaning, while others reveal the origin of
a different modern word, as with gentle, the sense of which is preserved
in gentleman. Some, such as learn and let, now mean the opposite of their
former use.
Ex.

Gallant
Gentle
Bedlam
Behold
Audition

a dashing gentleman
noble or courteous
an asylum
see or observe
the power of hearing

Obsolete Words
No longer in use; found only in very old texts. Virtually no one would
currently use the word or meaning, and very, very few would understand
the word or meaning if it were used in speech or text.
Ex.
dialect

Zyxt

Sanguinolency
Jargogle
Jollux
Ludibrious -

past tense of to zi (see). Kentish


addiction to bloodshed
To confuse, jumble
Slang (late 18th century) to describe a
fat person
Apt to be a subject of jest or mockery

Idiomatic
Sayings are called "idioms" - or proverbs if they are longer. These
combinations of words have (rarely complete sentences) a "figurative
meaning" meaning, they basically work with "pictures". This List of
commonly used idioms and sayings (in everyday conversational English),
can help to speak English by learning English idiomatic expressions.
Ex.

An arm and a leg


At the drop of a hat
hesitation;
Hit the sack/sheets/hay
In the heat of the moment
Keep something at bay -

Very expensive or costly.


without any
instantly.
To go to bed.
- Overwhelmed by what is
happening in the moment.
Keep something away.

Shop Talk
Conversation about ones occupation or business at an informal or social
occasion

Euphemism
A word or phrase substituting a mild, indirect, or vague term for one
considered harsh, blunt, or offensive. The term comes from Greek
euphemia 'use of auspicious words'. The word's first record in print (165681) is in a glossary with the definition, 'a good or favourable interpretation
of a bad word'. Oftentimes, a euphemism has something to do with taboo
or sensitive subjects such as bodily functions, sex, or death.
Ex.
Collateral damage
casualties,
Secondhand
Budget
Inebriated
Passed away

instead of civilian

instead of used,
for cheap,
instead of drunk
instead of death

Dialectal
Used by the people of a specific area, class, district or any other group of
people. The term dialect involves the spelling, sounds, grammar and
pronunciation used by a particular group of people and it distinguishes
them from other people around them. Dialect is a very powerful and
common way of characterization, which elaborates the geographic and
social background of any character.
Ex.

Addled

Jamien
Zackley
Folks
Punders

empty, cracked or broken; (e.g. addled


eggs)
a hero, legend, honourable person
exactly
people (mid and east Cornwall)
underpants

Clich
Refers to an expression that has been overused to the extent that it loses
its original meaning or novelty. A clich may also refer to actions and
events which are predictable because of some previous events.
Ex.

a rush

Lost track of time


to stop paying attention to time
Scared out of ones wits
to be too frightened
All is fair in love and war
to go to any extent to
claim
Somebodys love
Haste makes waste

people make mistakes in


Read between the lines