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# Deep Foundation

References:
Coduto, D.P. (1994): Foundation design: principles and
practices
Day, R.W. (2010): Foundation engineering handbook
Hardiyatmo, H.C. (2011): Analisis dan Perancangan
Fondasi, Bagian II

## Teng , Wayne C. (1992): Foundation Design

Tomlinson, M.J. (2001): Foundation design and
construction

## Topics (from SAP):

Kapasitas dukung tiang terhadap gaya lateral
dalam tanah kohesif

## a. Ujung tiang bebas (tiang pendek dan tiang panjang)

b. Ujung tiang terjepit (tiang pendek dan tiang panjang)

Defleksi tiang

## a. Ujung tiang bebas (tiang pendek dan tiang panjang)

b. Ujung tiang terjepit (tiang pendek dan tiang panjang)

## Analisis stabilitas fondasi tiang

a. Beban tiang
b. Kapasitas dukung tiang
c. Jumlah tiang
d. Susunan tiang
e. Kontrol

Turap

a. Pengertian
b. Tipe struktur turap
c. Tipe turap dari segi bahan

## a. Gaya-gaya yang bekerja

b. Panjang turap yang dipancang
c. Dimensi turap dan pemilihan profil turap

## a. Letak tumpuan angkur

b. Dimensi batang angkur
c. Konstruksi angkur

Fondasi caisson

## a. Pengertian dan jenis fondasi caisson

b. Bentuk tampang fondasi sumuran
c. Analisis fondasi sumuran

## Basic principle of Pile Foundation Design

Moment
weight of the structure itself, and immovable fixtures
Live load temporary, of short duration, or moving. These
dynamic loads may involve considerations such as impact,
momentum, vibration, slosh dynamics of fluids, fatigue, etc.
Environmental load act as a result of weather, topography
and other natural phenomena (

## Design of Pile Foundation

b. Bearing capacity of the pile
Pa : Axial load capacity (downward)
Ta : Axial load capacity (upward)

Pas = 1 Pa
Tas = 1 Ta

## Design of Pile Foundation

c. Number of pile

V
n
Pa

Pa : Allowable axial load capacity
n : number of pile

d. Pile arrangement
By trial and error
Pile distance > minimum distance
The center of pile group is located at the load resistance point

## Design of Pile Foundation

e. Control
2. Live/Env. load Pworking < 1 Pa ; Tworking < 1 Ta
3. Pile group Bearing capacity of pile group > working load on
the pile group

4. Lateral load If the lateral load is too high, use inclined pile or
increase the number of pile
5. Other
Design of pile cap
Settlement
Deflection

Example:
An upper structure is made by reinforced concrete, with the
sectional size of 2,0 m x 2,0 m, and 20 m high. Pile foundation is
used with the thickness of pile cap = 1,0 m, pile head on the ground
surface. Seismic coefficient = 0,10.

## Allowable bearing capacity of the pile (based on soil characteristic)

Pa = 400 kN/pile
Ta = 100 kN/pile
Ha = 10 kN/pile
Unit volume weight of concrete (concrete) = 25 kN/m3
Design the pile foundation.

Solution:
Construction weight,
P1
Assumed Pile-cap weight, P2
Total vertical weight,
V
Number of pile

= 222025 = 2000 kN
= 250 kN
= P1 + P2
= 2250 kN

V
2250
n

5,6
Pa
400

use 6 piles

## The seismic load may act to every direction, therefore

symmetrical piles is considered.
If pile-cap is square use 8 piles.

## Control of the pile-cap weight

P1=2000 kN

Pile-cap weight
= 331 m325kN/m3 = 225 kN
1,0

P1
Vtotal

= 2000 kN
= 225 kN
= 2225 kN

0,5
1,0

p
O

1,0

V 2225

278,128 kN
n
8

## p (=287,12 kN) < Pa (= 400 kN)

The foundation can be used

0,5

0,5 1,0

1,0 0,5

## b. Control by the seismic load

Seismic load is calculated as the weight of upper structure,
working on the center weight of the structure.
Upper structure weight:
= 2225 kN
= 2000 kN
H

20 m

10 m

P1

1m
P2

= 0,12000
= 200 kN
(center weight is working at 10 m
above the ground surface)

## b. Control by the seismic load

M
1,0
O

H
I

II

III

0,5
1,0
O

1,0
0,5

0,5 1,0

1,0 0,5

V = 2225 kN (working at O)
H = 200 kN (working at O)
Mseismic
= 200 (10 + 1)
= 2200 kNm
Calculate
x2 = 3(-1)2 + 3(+1)2 = 6 m2
p maks

V
M .x

n x2

p maks

2225 2200 1

644,79 kN
8
6

## Pmaks (= 644,79 kN) > 1,5 Pa (= 600kN)

Conclusion:
Control by seismic load NOT OK
Increase the pile distance (moment arm)
I

II

III

0,5
1,25
O

1,25
0,5
0,5 1,25

1,25 0,5

Pile-cap weigth
= 3,53,5125 = 306,25 kN
V = 2000 + 306,25 = 2306,25 kN
H = 200 kN
M = 2200 kN m
x2 = 3(-1,25)2 + 3(+1,25)2 = 9,375 m2

V 2306,25
p
288,28 kN < Pa (= 400 kN)
n
8

pmaks (column III)

581,615 kN
8
9,375

pmin (column I)

## 5,052 kN < 1,5 Ta (upward)

8
9,375

Conclusion :
The pile foundation arrangement can be applied to support dead

## Control by the lateral load due to earthquake

Without inclined pile : Ht = H

: ht

## For each pile

H t 200

25 kN > Ha= 10 kN
n
8

## The use of inclined pile is considered

Inclined pile of number: 2, 5, 4, 7
0,5
1,25

1
4

1,25

0,5

Pile inclination 1 : m = 1 : 4
5

6
0,5 1,25

8
4

1,25 0,5
1

Col I

: V4 P1 P6 5,052 kN

()

V4 5,052
()

1,263 kN
m
4
V
P4 4 1 m 2 4,43 kN < 1,5 Ta
m

H4

Col II

## : (no inclined piles)

V
288 kN
n

()

: P3 V5 P8 581 kN

()

V2 V7

Col III

OK

V5
H5
145 kN
n
V
P5 5 1 m 2 599 kN
n

()
< 1,5 Pa

OK

ht H H i

H t 53,333
ht

n
8