Anda di halaman 1dari 16

Deep Foundation

References:
Coduto, D.P. (1994): Foundation design: principles and
practices
Day, R.W. (2010): Foundation engineering handbook
Hardiyatmo, H.C. (2011): Analisis dan Perancangan
Fondasi, Bagian II

Teng , Wayne C. (1992): Foundation Design


Tomlinson, M.J. (2001): Foundation design and
construction

Topics (from SAP):


Kapasitas dukung tiang terhadap gaya lateral
dalam tanah kohesif

a. Ujung tiang bebas (tiang pendek dan tiang panjang)


b. Ujung tiang terjepit (tiang pendek dan tiang panjang)

Defleksi tiang

a. Ujung tiang bebas (tiang pendek dan tiang panjang)


b. Ujung tiang terjepit (tiang pendek dan tiang panjang)

Analisis stabilitas fondasi tiang

a. Beban tiang
b. Kapasitas dukung tiang
c. Jumlah tiang
d. Susunan tiang
e. Kontrol

Turap

a. Pengertian
b. Tipe struktur turap
c. Tipe turap dari segi bahan

Perancangan turap jenis kantilever

a. Gaya-gaya yang bekerja


b. Panjang turap yang dipancang
c. Dimensi turap dan pemilihan profil turap

Perancangan turap dengan angkur

a. Letak tumpuan angkur


b. Dimensi batang angkur
c. Konstruksi angkur

Fondasi caisson

a. Pengertian dan jenis fondasi caisson


b. Bentuk tampang fondasi sumuran
c. Analisis fondasi sumuran

Basic principle of Pile Foundation Design


a. Load
Vertical load (downward/upward)
Lateral load
Moment
Type of structural load :
Dead load relatively constant over time, including the
weight of the structure itself, and immovable fixtures
Live load temporary, of short duration, or moving. These
dynamic loads may involve considerations such as impact,
momentum, vibration, slosh dynamics of fluids, fatigue, etc.
Environmental load act as a result of weather, topography
and other natural phenomena (

Design of Pile Foundation


b. Bearing capacity of the pile
Dead load
Pa : Axial load capacity (downward)
Ta : Axial load capacity (upward)
Ha : Lateral load capacity

Live load / Environmental load


Pas = 1 Pa
Tas = 1 Ta

Design of Pile Foundation


c. Number of pile
Based on dead load

V
n
Pa

V : Vertical load
Pa : Allowable axial load capacity
n : number of pile

d. Pile arrangement
By trial and error
Pile distance > minimum distance
The center of pile group is located at the load resistance point

Design of Pile Foundation


e. Control
1. Dead load Pworking < Pa ; Tworking < Ta
2. Live/Env. load Pworking < 1 Pa ; Tworking < 1 Ta
3. Pile group Bearing capacity of pile group > working load on
the pile group

4. Lateral load If the lateral load is too high, use inclined pile or
increase the number of pile
5. Other
Design of pile cap
Settlement
Deflection

Example:
An upper structure is made by reinforced concrete, with the
sectional size of 2,0 m x 2,0 m, and 20 m high. Pile foundation is
used with the thickness of pile cap = 1,0 m, pile head on the ground
surface. Seismic coefficient = 0,10.

Allowable bearing capacity of the pile (based on soil characteristic)


Pa = 400 kN/pile
dead load
Ta = 100 kN/pile
dead load
Ha = 10 kN/pile
dead load
Unit volume weight of concrete (concrete) = 25 kN/m3
Design the pile foundation.

Solution:
a. Considering dead load
Construction weight,
P1
Assumed Pile-cap weight, P2
Total vertical weight,
V
Number of pile

= 222025 = 2000 kN
= 250 kN
= P1 + P2
= 2250 kN

V
2250
n

5,6
Pa
400

use 6 piles

The seismic load may act to every direction, therefore


symmetrical piles is considered.
If pile-cap is square use 8 piles.

Control of the pile-cap weight


P1=2000 kN

Pile-cap weight
= 331 m325kN/m3 = 225 kN
1,0

P1
Pile-cap load
Vtotal

= 2000 kN
= 225 kN
= 2225 kN

0,5
1,0

p
O

1,0

V 2225

278,128 kN
n
8

p (=287,12 kN) < Pa (= 400 kN)


The foundation can be used

0,5

0,5 1,0

1,0 0,5

b. Control by the seismic load


Seismic load is calculated as the weight of upper structure,
working on the center weight of the structure.
Upper structure weight:
= 2225 kN
= 2000 kN
H

20 m

10 m

P1

1m
P2

Seismic load (H):


= 0,12000
= 200 kN
(center weight is working at 10 m
above the ground surface)

b. Control by the seismic load


M
1,0
O

H
I

II

III

0,5
1,0
O

1,0
0,5

0,5 1,0

1,0 0,5

V = 2225 kN (working at O)
H = 200 kN (working at O)
Mseismic
= 200 (10 + 1)
= 2200 kNm
Calculate
x2 = 3(-1)2 + 3(+1)2 = 6 m2
p maks

V
M .x

n x2

p maks

2225 2200 1

644,79 kN
8
6

Pmaks (= 644,79 kN) > 1,5 Pa (= 600kN)

Conclusion:
Due to dead load OK
Control by seismic load NOT OK
Increase the pile distance (moment arm)
I

II

III

0,5
1,25
O

1,25
0,5
0,5 1,25

1,25 0,5

Pile-cap weigth
= 3,53,5125 = 306,25 kN
V = 2000 + 306,25 = 2306,25 kN
H = 200 kN
M = 2200 kN m
x2 = 3(-1,25)2 + 3(+1,25)2 = 9,375 m2

Dead load
V 2306,25
p
288,28 kN < Pa (= 400 kN)
n
8

Seismic load
pmaks (column III)

2306,25 2200 1,25

581,615 kN
8
9,375

pmin (column I)

< 1,5 Pa (downward)

2306,25 2200 1,25

5,052 kN < 1,5 Ta (upward)


8
9,375

Conclusion :
The pile foundation arrangement can be applied to support dead
load and seismic load

Control by the lateral load due to earthquake


Without inclined pile : Ht = H

: ht

For each pile

H t 200

25 kN > Ha= 10 kN
n
8

The use of inclined pile is considered


Inclined pile of number: 2, 5, 4, 7
0,5
1,25

1
4

1,25

0,5

Pile inclination 1 : m = 1 : 4
5

6
0,5 1,25

8
4

1,25 0,5
1

Col I

: V4 P1 P6 5,052 kN

()

V4 5,052
()

1,263 kN
m
4
V
P4 4 1 m 2 4,43 kN < 1,5 Ta
m

H4

Col II

: (no inclined piles)


V
288 kN
n

()

: P3 V5 P8 581 kN

()

V2 V7

Col III

OK

V5
H5
145 kN
n
V
P5 5 1 m 2 599 kN
n

()
< 1,5 Pa

OK

Lateral load
ht H H i

= 200 + (-1,263 145,404) = 53,333 kN

H t 53,333
ht

6,667 kN < Ha= 10 kN


n
8

Conclusion: the group pile arrangement could support the horizontal


load.

NOTE:
Seismic load may work to every direction, therefore the inclined
pile is designed symmetrical to both X and Y axes.