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- Rapid depressurization of pressure vessels
- Computational Fluid Dynamics
- Abrasive Jet Machining
- Water Jet Machining
- Inter Prog
- BLRTSX Torque Sensor MC14 2014
- Garnet
- FG Wilson P250H 3
- Chemical Engineering Syllabus
- STEAM TRAP & PISTON VALVE QAP.pdf
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- v05n01tp02
- Numerical Study on the Flow Field of Self-propelle
- chapter6.pdf
- 1996_308

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0 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

NURUL ANATI BINTI ZULKIFLI

2013642408

The flow passages whose cross sectional area decreases in the flow direction. However,

the highest velocity to which gases can be accelerate in a converging is limited to the sonic

velocity, which occurs at the exit plane. Acceleration a fluid to supersonic velocity can be

accomplished only by attaching a diverging flow section to the subsonic at the throat. The

resulting combined flow section is a converging-diverging nozzle, which is standard equipment

in supersonic aircraft and rocket impulsion.

When mach number is less than 1 (m<1), that is subsonic velocity, then when mach

number is equal to 1 (m=1), the flow is sonic velocity and happened at the throat. When mach

number greater 1 (m>1) , it is supersonic flow.as shown above:

Figure 1 : The effect of back pressure on the flow through a converging diverging.

Chock flow is fluid flow through a restricted area whose rate reaches a maximum when

the fluid velocity reaches the sonic velocity at some point along the flow path. The

Phenomenon of choking exists only in compressible flow and can occurs in several flow

situation. Choked flow can occur through a convergent flow area or nozzle attached to a huge

reservoir. Flow exits the reservoir through the nozzle if the back pressure is less than the

reservoir pressure. When the back pressure is decreased slightly below the reservoir pressure, a

signal from beyond the nozzle exit is transmitted at sonic speed to the reservoir. The reservoir

responds by sending fluid through the nozzle. Further, the maximum velocity of the fluid exists

at

the

nozzle

throat

where

the

area

is

smallest.

When the back pressure is further decreased, fluid exits the reservoir more rapidly.

However,

the velocity at the throat reachesthe sonic velocity. Then the fluid velocity at the

throat is sonic, and the velocity of the signal is also sonic. Therefore, further decreases in back

pressure are not sensed by the reservoir, and correspondingly will not induce any greater

flow to exit the reservoir. The nozzle is thussaid to be choked, and the mass flow of fluid

is a maximum.

From the experiment, the data are calculated and the graphs are plotted. The data in the

table shown when the absolute pressure(P1) is 101.3 kPa until 101.25 kPa, the mass flow

rate() are from 0 kg/s until 0.0627 kg/s, it is in subsonic. For pressure 101.23 kPa until

101.20 kPa, the mass flow rate is in between 1.0012kg/s until 1.3116kg/s, it is in sonic velocity

that flow at throat. And for pressure 101.18 kPa until last reading of pressure, the mass flow

rate is start from 1.5774 kg/s and increases until the last reading.it is in supersonic condition.

The graph in result shown that

versus (P0 P2), P2, (P0 P3) , P3 and (P0 P2) versus

(P0 P3). The graph are plotted based on the result of experiment.

For the first graph, versus (P0 P2), when the value of mass flow rate () increase,

the value of (P0 P2) are also increase. This graph show that the relationship between mass

flow rate() and (P0 P2) are directly proportional.

For the second graph is versus P2, when the value of mass flow rate increase, P2 also

increase. At the earlier, the mass flow rate are still no change, it is zero and after increase to the

several pressure, it were increase. P2 is a pressure that measure from the manometer which is

converted from mercury to Pascal.

For the next graph is vs. (P0 P3) . P0 is the atmospheric pressure which is 101.3

kPa.. The relationship of mass flow rate with the change of pressure at tube 3 and atmospheric

are directly proportional.

The Graph of versus P3 shown when mass flow rate are increase, the pressure at point

3 also increases. So the relationship between mass flow rate with P 3 is also directly

proportional.

For the last graph is (P 0 P2) versus (P0 P3) is plotted using the data obtain from the

experiment. From the graph shown that (P0 P2) will increases until achieved maximum point

and start to decreases.

The values obtained from the experiment are different from theoretical value, which is

caused by some possible errors. Some possible errors are human error, instrument error, and

parallax error. Human error occurred as the students did not properly set up the apparatus,

which might be the apparatus were not tighten fully, such as press the pressure button not

carefully. It can affect the reading of the data. Next is instrument error is error caused by the

instrument itself. As the equipment worn through many times of usage, the data recorded might

not have been accurate therefore leading to the false result obtained from the experiment.

Lastly is parallax error, it will happened during reading the height of mercury. This problem

can be solved by ensuring that the eye must be perpendicular to the scale to get a better result.

2013293728

Compressible flow test laboratory were conducted to collect all the data required to

calculate the value of P0 P1, P0 P2, P0 P3, r and . This value is then used to plot the graphs

which enable to describe the characteristic of the compressible flow test machine used.

From graph versus (P0 P2), as the value of mass flow rate () increase, the value of

(P0 P2) are also increase. This shows clearly the relationship between mass flow rate and (P 0

P2) which they are directly proportional.

For graph versus P2, the flow of graph were similar to the graph versus (P 0 P2),

where, as the value of mass flow rate increase P 2 increase. P2 is a pressure that measure from

the manometer which is converted from mercury to Pascal.

Graph vs. (P0 P3) is also plotted. P0 is the atmospheric pressure which is 101.3 kPa.

As can be seen from the graph of mass flow rate versus (P 0 P3) is not much different from the

graph before. The relationship of mass flow rate with the change of pressure at tube 3 and

atmospheric was still directly proportional.

Relationship of mass flow rate with P3 is also identified by constructing the Graph vs.

P3 graph. As the value of mass flow rate increase slightly, while P 3 is also increase accordingly.

This proves their relationship to be directly proportional.

Lastly, graph (P0 P2) versus (P0 P3) is plotted using the data gain in the experiment.

As a result, there is a point which is the maximum value of (P 0 P2). Where before reaching

that maximum point of (P0 P2), (P0 P3) increases as (P0 P2) increase. After that critical or

maximum point (P0 P2), the value of (P0 P2) started to decrease while (P0 P3) increase

continuously.

The experiment is conducted by consequently increase the length by 5 mm. This length

effect the result. Especially the value of P2, where it increase fast compare to P3. This reflects

the value (P0 P2) and (P0 P3). It is increasing with a small different. Mass flow rate of this

Converging Diverging Duct is small. Where we can see theoretically, normally the value of

mass flow rate is not big.

2013844828

The first part of this lab was to investigate the mass flow rates that were obtained from

different pressure ratios by using the Converging-Diverging nozzle. From calculations, using

some equations we resulted with a theoretical value of = 0.1186 kg/s.

On continuation of the experiment, and completion of result table using related

equations, the maximum mass flow rate achieved is 5.7871 kg/s. This is a very undesirable

result as it completely differs by 100 % of the maximum theoretical value. The possible error

for this outrange result is miscalculation. Next, the minimum pressure ratio (P 2/P0) for

experimental value is 0. That means, it same with the theoretical minimum pressure ratio which

is also 0. However, the maximum theoretical value for pressure ratio (P 2/P0) had been

calculated is 0.528 by using below equations:

While, for our maximum experimental value of pressure ratio (P 2/P0) is 0.1079. The

percentage of error is about 20.44%, so it considered a quite accurate result. Based on the

experimental data, the graphs of versus (P 0-P2), P2, (P0-P3), and P3 were plotted. All of the

graphs showed that the relationship between and (P0-P2), P2, (P0-P3), and P3 are directly

proportional. That means the higher either the values of (P 0-P2), P2, (P0-P3), and P3, the higher

the value of mass flow rate, . However, on plotting out (P0 P2) vs (P0 P3), we found that

the corresponding relationship between both parameters is unstable. At first, the graph show a

steeply increased and then decreased gradually.

The discrepancies that bring about these differing results will be further discussed.

The second objective of this lab was to demonstrate the phenomena of choking. In the

experiment,

the

isentropic

expansion

of

the

fluid

to

supersonic

flow

is

dependent on the pressure ratios applied to the system. By measuring the linear variation of

pressure at different lengths through the nozzle it can be determined from existing literature

about what type of flow is occurring. These flow patterns can be seen over in Figure 1. During

the laboratory, these values were recorded in results table and plotted in graphs.

3

It was felt after the conclusion of the lab, that number of factors could have caused P/P0

discrepancies between the experimental and the theoretical results.

The biggest contributor to these, it was felt, was the positive displacement compressor. The

reason for this is the fluctuations that occur because of its method of operating in load and

unload cycles. Even with the pressure regulator and plenum being incorporated to the system to

smooth out the fluctuations there is still level of inherit error present. A very high level of

maintenance and calibration would be necessary to reduce these to a certain extent.

Next the fact that there was possible leaks in the back of the rig which can cause deviations

in the actual results obtained for which we could not correct. There possibly may have been

errors that went unnoticed in the lab with pressure gauges which could not count for a small

level of error.

It has to be mentioned that there could have been possible meniscus errors made by us

when reading the inclined manometer, although these are unnecessary mistakes they still need

to be mentioned.

2013603504

The term of Compressible Flow can be interpreted as the flow of fluid in which

variation in fluid properties such as density is significant due to pressure deviations. The

mechanics of compressible flow had been extensively employed in wide range of engineering

applications and technological processes such as the converging-diverging nozzles employed in

rocket engine, the steam and gas turbines In order to examine the characteristics of pressure

flow of air through a convergent-divergent duct and to visualize on how the properties of air

being affected by Mach number, the rightful comprehending on the fundamental theories

behind the physics of compressible flow are significant. The aim of this practical was to

investigate compressible flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle.

Theoretical value were done to find the maximum mass flow rate through the duct

which is ( = 0.1186 kg/s) as shown in equation below, and this was compared against actual

maximum recorded values that managed to get ( = 5.7871kg/s.) . Some of the factors that cause

different flow patterns are due to the defects or environmental factors that may be occur

during the experiment. For the minimum value for P2/Po of theoretical is ( = 0.528 kg/s) which

is differ to the experimental one that are managed to get around (=0.0627 kg/s).

From the figure 1 that was stated in result analysis of graph (kg/s) vs (P o-P2) (kPa), it

can be concluded that the value of is directly proportional towards (P o-P2). As the value of

is increase, the value of (Po-P2) also increase. Figure 2 of graph vs P 2, figure 3 of graph vs

(Po-P3), figure 4 of graph vs. P3 are also in the same pattern which is directly proportional

between each other. However, on figure 5 for graph of (P 0 P2) vs. (P0 P3), as the value of (P0

P3) increase, the value of (P0 P2) are slightly in flat manner after reach of maximum value

for about 101.30 kPa.

The error that occur also may be influenced by the random error especially during the

experiment was conducted. For example the parallax error made by the observer during the

measurement of the inclined manometer. The eye of the observer does not point directly to the

right view. To overcome this problem, placing the eye vertically above the marking on the scale

or in specific word known as meniscus to be read. There are also systematic error occur which

that affected the calibration of the manometer that does not pointed on the right scale. There are

also possibly may have been errors that went unnoticed in the lab with pressure gauges which

could account for a small level of error.

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